1.Describe the purpose of editingThe purpose of editing is to show four different aspects of a film/clip that canemphasize the characters, the information the audience receives engagingthem into the film in several different ways that include how much theaudience should know about the narrative, characters and events at any giventime.For example in relation to genre specifically horror the camera may rolemuch longer and there will most likely be very low tempo sound where as inan action film there will be a lot of quick clips of explosions and loud musicplaying in the background as the suspense builds.Also another example that falls under propaganda film is football highlights,by that I mean that if Arsenal played against West Ham and Arsenaldominated the game and had a lot more possession and shots, the footballhighlights may show the game and make it look like it was an even match byputting even chances for both teams, however really it was no where near aneven match. S
How is this a propaganda film? (editing transitions, how are they put together to create propaganda). Triumph of the will – 1930 directed by LeniRiefensenstahl1. Music sets the mood of happiness while it shows the opening title1. Text is shown first with how Germans were treated harshly and their suffering. This is an attempt to further extend the harsh punishments of the Germans to the viewers to the audience.1. Up lifting music played, sometimes the type of patriotism, showing peoples cheerful faces through close-ups.1. They show high angle shots of the crowd to emphasize how they are ants beneath Hitlers feat, also they use low angle shots to accentuate Hitler’s dominance above them.1. Parallel editing switches between Hitler and the crowd which symbolizes Hitler as the superior leader as he is shown the majority of the time.
City Of God opening shots and what they show the audienceIn the opening clip of City Of God you can see the different use of shots andediting techniques that provide the audience with different information aboutspecific characters and what they may like later on in the film. For example aspecific shot shows the antagonist at a canted angle while he is laughing with a gunin his hand, this shows the audience that he may be crazy and people around himshould be careful. Different shots and editing techniques can show the audience different things about a character for example in this shot you can tell that the protagonist is in a bad situation. From this shot I can tell that the focus was on him, but also of the group of gangsters In the background and by the positioning of the character you can tell this as you can see a lot.
David Llewelyn Wark "D. W." Griffith (January 22, 1875 – July 23, 1948) was apremier pioneering American film director, best known as the director of the epic 1915 film “The Birth Of A Nation” and the subsequent film “Intolerance” (1916) But Griffiths films were extremely controversial for the positive depiction of racism & segregation. In Griffiths films he used advanced camera and narrative techniques, and its immense popularity set the stage for the dominance of the feature-length film in the United States.
Lev KuleshovS Kuleshov may well be the very first film “theorist” as he was a leader in Soviet montage theory — developing his theories of editing.S He created what has come to be known as the Kuleshov Experiment. In this now-famous editing exercise, shots of an actor were intercut with various meaningful images a casket, a bowl of soup, and so on…S He also demonstrated the technical, aesthetic, and ideological potentials of montage. Here in kuleshov experiment he showed that the manipulation of a clip through editing could allow the audience to believe that editing changes viewers interpretations of images. http://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=-s7aJHnS7gE
Eisenstein is possibly noted as the “father of montage” Eisenstein was a pioneer in the use of montage, a specific use of film editing. Eisenstein believed that editing could be used for more than just expounding a scene or moment, through a "linkage" of related images. Believing that an idea should be derived from the juxtaposition of two independent shots, bringing an element of collage into film. He developed what he called "methods of montage“. Eisenstein felt the "collision" of shots could be used to manipulate the emotions of the audience and create film metaphors
Early Filmmakers Use Of Editing Jump-Cutting•Arthur Marvin a famous filmmaker for leading many technical and narrative developmentsin the earliest days of cinema. It occurs when an object is filmed, then while the camera isoff, the object is moved out of sight of the camera, then the camera is turned back on. Thefilm is watched, it seems to the viewer that the object disappears.•nephew Daniel Marvin, perished in the sinking of the Titanic 1912 .•the earliest known film to feature Arthur Conan Doyles detective character SherlockHolmes An adaption ofhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-eO3EbFG0ak an all time thrilling survival game series called ResidentThrough this technique he manipulates Evil orand transforms reality Biohazard better known in Japan.through cinematography. (Shawn Roberts)RESIDENT EVIL AFTERLIFEhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ycXgJ2lDT7s
Early Filmmakers Use Of Editing Parallel EditingAlso known as cross cutting, parallel editing gained prominence with Edwin S. Porter in hisacclaimed movie The Great Train Robbery (1903). In this early picture, cross cutting is used toshow what occurs in two different places but not much else. Though Porter didnt use thetechnique to its full potential, he was responsible for introducing the concept to the Americanfilm industry, allowing others to build upon it. ( commence clip at 1.42)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bc7wWOmEGGY INCEPTION D:Christopher Nolan produced by Emma Thomas & edited by Lee Smith http://www.youtube.com/w atch?v=i6XkEEzjVFAWhy Use It? Think of visual interest. TheTo add interest and excitement to first version is only exciting atan otherwise boring scene. its conclusion. This secondParallel editing is often applied to version is suspensefulcreate suspense. throughout, especially with the music.
4.The Different Types of Edit Techniquesand Principles Used Today
SeamlessDefinition:Smooth and without seams or obvious joins. Having no awkward transitions, interruptions,or indications of disparitySeamless Flower Pattern Seamless Video Sequence S
MontageDefinition :A method of film editing involving the juxtaposition or partial superimposition ofseveralshotsto form a single imageThe first montage occurs during the Independence Day show, as Bing Crosby sings "Song ofFreedom".The 50 second montage combines several single screen sequences of workers in an aircraftfactory and various military units in motion (troops marching, planes flying, tanks driving)with multiple split screens, with up to six images in one shot. SOURCE : www.youtube.com/watch?v=og7OGLyafhc
180° Rule:Definition :An invisible semi circle which if you cross on set, will cause a jump shot and ruincontinuity. The only way you can break this rule is if you are doing a 360 degree pan.Continuity is a big part of filmmaking. If youre shooting a short film orinterview, its important to set the scene and establish your characters in spaceand time in order for the viewer to follow the action. One of the most basiccontinuity rulesis the 180 Degree Rule. When you shoot a scene with actors imagine a line extending out between them. You can move your camera anywhere along that line, as long as you dont cross over the line to the other side. SOURCE: www.youtube.com/watch?v=y4wX_dmh8_g
CONTINUITY1. people jumping from a car2. the car on fire3. an explosion1-2-3 - In the 1-2-3 sequence shown the shots suggest that people are jumping from a carseconds before it catches fire and explodes.3-2-1 - A 3-2-1 order suggests that there is an explosion and then the car bursts intoflames; and, as a result, the people have to jump out.2-3-1 - In a 2-3-1 sequence people jump from the car after a fire causes an explosion.2-1-3 - If the sequence is changed to 2-1-3, it appears that as a result of a fire passengersjump out of the car just in time to escape a devastating explosion. SOURCE : www.youtube.com/watch?v=8xauSCz1m
FILM SPLICINGTraditionally, film is edited by cutting sections of the film andrearranging or discarding them. The process is very straightforwardand mechanical.In theory a film could be edited with a pair of scissors and somesplicing tape, although in reality a splicing machine is the onlypractical solution. A splicing machine allows film footage to be linedup and held in place while it is cut or spliced together.
Eye-line MatchAs the name suggests, Eye-line Match matches objects to the eye-lineof the character. In Figure 2 we see 4 shots, in which Anna is lookingat a painting. In frame 1 we see her looking towards the screen right(her left), and the next frame, frame 2, we see the painting.These 2 shots construct the space so the audience interprets thepainting to be sitting at her left. In frame 3 we see a close-up of thegirls face as she notices something in the painting in frame 4. Noticehow in frame 3 she is still looking at the screen right (her left), and thisis what maintains the continuity within the space.
TransitionsFade from and to BlackDescription:Fade from black: image gradually appears from a black screen. Fade to black: image graduallydisappears to a black screen.Purposes: Begin and end a video, transition between segments or scenes, signify major change in time orlocation. Dip to BlackDescription: Quick fade to black and then back to video.Purposes: Go to or from a commercial break, quick transition between segments or scenes, transition betweenfootage and full screen graphics. DissolveDescription:A transition between shots where one image is gradually mixed with another until the secondimage is full screen.Purposes: Enhance emotions, soften changes between shots, accentuate rhythm of pacing, enhance artistry ofaction, smooth jump cuts. WipeDescription: A transition between shots that uses movement across the screen. Traditional wipes includechanging the image with a move from right or left, up or down, or diagonally. Effects wipes include spins, flips,and animated moves.Purposes: Obvious transition between scenes, segments or graphics; add energy and action, increase pacing. SuperDescription: Mixing two images together.Purposes: Show two views of subject at the same time, suggest that main subject is thinking about the other. Freeze
5. The development ofdigital editing technology and techniques. S
SoftwareWhat is a ‘software’?Software means computer instructions or data.It is also described as operating informationused by computers. Many digital videos usespecific softwares to maintain the quality.What are ‘video editing softwares?They are applications softwares that handlesthe post-production editing of digital videosequences in a non-linear computer.
LinearS Advancement Digital TechnologyS LinearS The process of selecting, arranging, and modifying the images and sound recorded is called linear video editing.S The moviola for instance is a device that allows a film editor to view a film while editing. It was the first machine for motion picture editing when it was invented by Iwan Serrurier in 1924.S This equipment is used in linear editing and requires the cutting and splicing the film tape.S 2-inch quadruplex videotape – This is a heavy videotape that many editors carried around. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Fd_T4lS Source: 2qaQ
Non-linear – The Advancement of editingNon-linear technologyIn digital video editing, non-linear editing is a method that allows you to access any frame in a digital video clips regardless of sequence in the clipThe introduction of non-linear editing with computers in the early 1990s was nothing short of revolutionary.Digital Video editing is non linear with non-Linear equipment you can:• You can reorder the footage and make changes at any time without any major problem• You can go back and change an edit easily• You can make fine adjustments• You can create digital transitions and effects easily and quickly S