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Cloud Ecosystem
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Cloud Ecosystem

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Cloud Ecosystem presented by Satriyo Dharmanto at IEEE Cloud Computing One Day Course, Institut Teknologi Telkom, Bandung, 11 August 201

Cloud Ecosystem presented by Satriyo Dharmanto at IEEE Cloud Computing One Day Course, Institut Teknologi Telkom, Bandung, 11 August 201

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  • 1. Presented by: Satriyo Dharmanto at: IEEE Cloud Computing One Day Course Institut Teknologi Telkom Bandung, 11 August 2012© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 2. What Happen In The World© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 3. History of Computer© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 4. ICT Indicators© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 5. ICT Indicators Internet users by age and by development level, 2011* Younger people tend to be more online than older people, in both developed and developing countries. In developing countries, 30% of those under the age of 25 use the Internet, compared to 23% of those 25 years and older. At the same time, 70% of the under 25-yearolds a total of 1.9 billion — are not online yet: a huge potential if developing countries can connect schools and increase school enrolment rates.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 6. ICT Indicators Almost 6 billion mobile-cellular subscriptions* With 5.9 billion mobile-cellular subscriptions, global penetration reaches 87%, and 79% in the developing world. Mobile-broadband subscriptions have grown 45% annually over the last four years and today there are twice as many mobile- broadband as fixed broadband subscriptions.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 7. ICT Indicators Home ICT access, 2011* Of 1.8 billion households worldwide, one third have Internet access, compared to only one fifth five years agoIn developing countries, 25% of homes have a computer and 20% have Internet access, compared to 20% and 13%, respectively, 3 years ago.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 8. ICT Indicators Europe leads the broadband race Europe leads in broadband connectivity, with fixed- and mobile-broadband penetration reaching 26% and 54%, respectively. A number of developing countries have been able to leverage mobile-broadband technologies to overcome infrastructure barriers and provide high-speed Internet services to previously unconnected areas. In Africa, mobile-broadband penetration has reached 4%, compared with less than 1% for fixed-broadband penetration.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 9. Cloud Computing Ecosystem© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 10. Contents • Basic Definition • Opportunities • Cloud Ecosystem Actors • Possible Roles • CC Essential Characteristics • Business aspects • Cloud service categories • Inter-cloud scenario • Cloud deployment models • Cloud Services Mapping • Inter-cloud • Use Case • CC model • DaaS • SLA© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 11. Contents • Basic Definition • Opportunities • Cloud Ecosystem Actors • Possible Roles • CC Essential Characteristics • Business aspects • Cloud service categories • Inter-cloud scenario • Cloud deployment models • Cloud Services Mapping • Inter-cloud • Use Case • CC model • DaaS • SLA© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 12. ITU Definition on Cloud Computing (2012) A model for enabling service users to have ubiquitous, convenient and on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services), that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service-provider interaction. Cloud computing enables cloud services.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 13. Basic Definition: Cloud Service • Cloud service: A service that is delivered and consumed on demand at any time, through any access network, using any connected devices using cloud computing technologies. • It is considered from a telecommunication perspective that – users are not buying resources – but cloud services that are enabled by cloud computing environments.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 14. The ways to get Computing service© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 15. © Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 16. Contents • Basic Definition • Opportunities • Cloud Ecosystem Actors • Possible Roles • CC Essential Characteristics • Business aspects • Cloud service categories • Inter-cloud scenario • Cloud deployment models • Cloud Services Mapping • Inter-cloud • Use Case • CC model • DaaS • SLA© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 17. Cloud Ecosystem Actors: Cloud Service User • Cloud service user (CSU): A person or organization that consumes delivered cloud services. • A CSU can include intermediate users that will deliver cloud services provided by a cloud service provider (CSP) to actual users of the cloud service, i.e. end users. • End users can be persons, machines, or applications. Photograph: Urbanmyth/Alamy© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 18. Cloud Ecosystem Actors: Cloud Service Provider • Cloud service provider (CSP): An organization that provides and maintains delivered cloud services. Picture ; Equinix© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 19. Cloud Ecosystem Actors: Cloud Service Partner • Cloud service partner (CSN): A person or organization that provides support to the building of the service offer of a CSP (e.g. service integration).© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 20. The three actors of cloud ecosystem© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 21. Contents • Basic Definition • Opportunities • Cloud Ecosystem Actors • Possible Roles • CC Essential Characteristics • Business aspects • Cloud service categories • Inter-cloud scenario • Cloud deployment models • Cloud Services Mapping • Inter-cloud • Use Case • CC model • DaaS • SLA© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 22. CC Essential Characteristics: On-demand self-service • On-demand self-service: A CSU can – unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time, network storage and communication and – collaboration services, as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with each service’s CSP.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 23. CC Essential Characteristics: Broad network access • Broad network access: Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, laptops, and PDAs).© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 24. CC Essential Characteristics: Resource pooling • Resource: Any kinds of resources to be shared to compose cloud services, including computing power, storage, network, database, and applications. • The CSP’s computing resources are pooled to serve multiple users using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources that are dynamically assigned and reassigned according to user demand. • There is a sense of location independence in that the customer generally has no control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided resources, but may be able to specify the location at a higher level of abstraction (e.g., country, state, data centre). Examples of resources include: • Storage (typically on hard or optical disc drives), • Processing, • Memory (typically on DRAM), • Network bandwidth, • and Virtual machines (VM).© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 25. CC Essential Characteristics: Rapid elasticity • Rapid elasticity: Capabilities can be rapidly and elastically provisioned, in some cases automatically, to quickly scale out, and rapidly released to quickly scale in. • To the CSU, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be unlimited and can be purchased in any quantity at any time.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 26. CC Essential Characteristics: Measured service • Measured service: Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use (e.g., storage, processing and bandwidth) by leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.g., the number of active user accounts). • Resource usage can be monitored, controlled, and reported, providing transparency for both the CSP and CSU of the utilized service.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 27. Other related definitions: Multi-tenancy • Multi-tenancy: A characteristic of cloud in which resources are shared amongst multiple cloud tenants. • There is an expectation on the part of the cloud tenant that its use of the cloud is isolated from other tenants’ use of any shared resources; that tenants in the cloud are restricted from accessing or affecting another tenant’s assets; that the cloud tenant has the perception of exclusive use of, and access to, any provisioned resource. • The means by which such isolation is achieved vary in accordance with the nature of the shared resource, and can affect security, privacy and performance.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 28. Contents • Basic Definition • Opportunities • Cloud Ecosystem Actors • Possible Roles • CC Essential Characteristics • Business aspects • Cloud service categories • Inter-cloud scenario • Cloud deployment models • Cloud Services Mapping • Inter-cloud • Use Case • CC model • DaaS • SLA© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 29. Cloud service categories: Cloud software as a service • Cloud software as a service (SaaS): A category of cloud services where the capability provided to the CSU is to use the CSP’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure. • All applications have the common characteristic to be non-real-time and may be of different kinds, including IT and business applications, and may be accessible from different user devices. • The CSU does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure, with the possible exception of limited user-specific application configuration settings. Customer Relationship Management Business Intelligence Human Resources salesforce.com SAS Suite of On-Demand Oracle Peoplesoft myERP.com Applications NetSuite ePayroll Oracle OnDemand Vitria M3O Workday RightNow Productivity and Collaboration Gmail, Google Apps Zoho.com© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 30. Cloud service categories: Communications as a service • Communications as a service (CaaS): A category of cloud services where the capability provided to the CSU is to use real-time communication and collaboration services. • Communication and collaboration services include voice over IP, instant messaging, and video conferencing, for different user devices. Communication-as-a-Service: voice over IP (VoIP or Internet telephony), instant messaging (IM), collaboration and videoconference applications using fixed and mobile devices© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 31. Cloud service categories: Cloud platform as a service • Cloud platform as a service (PaaS): A category of cloud services where the capability provided to the CSU is to deploy user-created or acquired applications onto the cloud infrastructure using platform tools supported by the CSP. • Platform tools may include programming languages and tools for application development, interface development, database development, storage and testing. • The CSU does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure, but has control over the deployed applications and, possibly, over the application hosting environment configurations. Platform-as-a-Service: Google Applications Engine Allows Web applications to be deployed on Google’s architecture Microsoft Windows Azure Cloud computing architecture that is offered to host .NET applications© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 32. Cloud service categories: Cloud infrastructure as a service • Cloud infrastructure as a service (IaaS): A category of cloud services where the capability provided by the CSP to the CSU is to provision processing, storage, intra-cloud network connectivity services (e.g. VLAN, firewall, load balancer, and application acceleration), and other fundamental computing resources of the cloud infrastructure where the CSU is able to deploy and run arbitrary application. • The CSU does not manage or control the resources of the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over operating systems, deployed applications, and possibly limited control of select networking components (e.g., host firewalls). Amazon Web Services Provide on-demand Cloud computing services using variable cost model Amazon Virtual Private Cloud Provide fully private Cloud services model using the Amazon cloud infrastructure Mozy.com Provides backup services over the Internet© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 33. Cloud service categories: Network infrastructure as a service • Network as a service (NaaS): A category of cloud services where the capability provided to the CSU is to use transport connectivity services and/or inter-cloud network connectivity services. • NaaS services include flexible and extended VPN, bandwidth on demand, etc. Note: CaaS and NaaS are specialized service categories of a telecommunication centric cloud ecosystem: although services of these categories are assumed to be supported in different cloud deployment models, they fully empower the service offering of telecommunication service market players in a cloud ecosystem.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 34. Contents • Basic Definition • Opportunities • Cloud Ecosystem Actors • Possible Roles • CC Essential Characteristics • Business aspects • Cloud service categories • Inter-cloud scenario • Cloud deployment models • Cloud Services Mapping • Inter-cloud • Use Case • CC model • DaaS • SLA© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 35. Cloud deployment models: Private • Private cloud : The cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization. • It may be managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 36. Cloud deployment models: Community • Community cloud: The cloud infrastructure is shared by several organizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). • It may be managed by the organizations or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 37. Cloud deployment models: Public • Public cloud: The cloud infrastructure is made available to the general public or a large industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud services.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 38. Cloud deployment models: Private, Public, Community© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 39. Cloud deployment models: Hybrid • Hybrid cloud: The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more clouds using different deployment models (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability (e.g., cloud bursting for load-balancing between clouds). • It should be noted that the cloud-deployment models do not reflect where services, platforms, applications, or resources are actually hosted. For example, a private cloud can be hosted internally (on site) or externally (outsourced).© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 40. Contents • Basic Definition • Opportunities • Cloud Ecosystem Actors • Possible Roles • CC Essential Characteristics • Business aspects • Cloud service categories • Inter-cloud scenario • Cloud deployment models • Cloud Services Mapping • Inter-cloud • Use Case • CC model • DaaS • SLA© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 41. Inter-cloud • Inter-cloud computing: Inter-cloud computing allows on-demand assignment of cloud resources, including computing, storage and network, and the transfer of workload through interworking of cloud systems. • The term “inter-cloud” is used instead of “inter-cloud computing”.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 42. Inter-cloud Implementation • From the view point of a CSP, inter-cloud computing can be implemented in different manners, including – inter-cloud peering, – inter-cloud service broker and – inter-cloud federation. • These manners correspond to distinct possible roles that a CSP can play when interacting with other CSPs.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 43. Inter-cloud Implementation: Inter-cloud peering • Inter-cloud peering: direct inter-connection between two CSPs.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 44. Inter-cloud Implementation: Inter-cloud service broker • Inter-cloud service broker (ISB): indirect interconnection between two (or more) CSPs achieved through an interconnecting CSP which, in addition to providing interworking service functions between the interconnected CSPs, also provides brokering service functions for one (or more) of the interconnected CSPs. – ISB also covers the case in which one (or more) of the interconnected entities receiving the brokering service is a cloud service user (CSU). – Brokering service functions generally include, but are not limited to, the following three categories: service intermediation, service aggregation and service arbitrage.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 45. Inter-cloud Implementation: Inter-cloud federation • Inter-cloud federation: a manner to implement inter-cloud computing in which mutually trusted clouds logically join together by integrating their resources. • Inter-cloud federation allows a CSP to dynamically outsource resources to other CSPs in response to demand variations.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 46. Contents • Basic Definition • Opportunities • Cloud Ecosystem Actors • Possible Roles • CC Essential Characteristics • Business aspects • Cloud service categories • Inter-cloud scenario • Cloud deployment models • Cloud Services Mapping • Inter-cloud • Use Case • CC model • DaaS • SLA© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 47. The emergence of the CC model: 2008 • The term “cloud” was first introduced in 2008 to designate a new approach for service delivery through the network (the network schema is usually illustrated by a cloud in telecommunication architecture diagrams).© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 48. The emergence of the CC model: Last five years • Software as a service (SaaS) emerged in the last five years as a new concept for accessing a software application (computing task) which can be described as "IT service-centric": SaaS can be seen as a software distribution model in which applications are hosted by a service provider and made available to customers over a network, typically the Internet, and where a single instance (virtual application) of the software runs on the SaaS provider servers, following a multi-tenant 1-to-N architecture, and charged on a per usage basis.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 49. The emergence of the CC model: Last five years • The SaaS model has some similarity with the application service provider (ASP) model introduced in the beginning of 2000 as an evolution of the Internet service provider (ISP) model, but it is considered a more advanced model for managing (self-management and rapid provisioning), hosting (virtualization resources), software architecture modularization (multi-tenant API), and licensed applications instantiation under a usage- based transaction.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 50. The emergence of the CC model: Recent development • The recent development of high-bit-rate access and improvement of the network layer availability by major ISPs can be considered as the most important starting point for the emerging online/SaaS and cloud market. • Considering cloud computing as an evolution of ASP and some generalization of SaaS online services, with an extension to platform and infrastructure services (PaaS and IaaS), cloud computing can be also named network computing (or Internet computing).© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 51. Contents • Basic Definition • Opportunities • Cloud Ecosystem Actors • Possible Roles • CC Essential Characteristics • Business aspects • Cloud service categories • Inter-cloud scenario • Cloud deployment models • Cloud Services Mapping • Inter-cloud • Use Case • CC model • DaaS • SLA© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 52. Opportunities for market players through CC Cloud computing is changing the ICT ecosystem with emerging business roles and modification of the ICT industry value chain. – Opportunities for small and medium enterprises – Opportunities for hardware and software providers – Opportunities for large ICT enterprises – Opportunities for other market players© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 53. Opportunities for small and medium enterprises • Small and medium enterprises consider the usage of cloud computing to improve flexibility and to reduce the cost of their IT systems. • Furthermore, their needs for hardware and software ownership may be reduced.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 54. Opportunities for hardware and software providers • The hardware and software for the support of cloud services may be increased, since operators need to possess extensive hardware and software resources for economies of scale. • This may promote business growth for hardware and software providers.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 55. Opportunities for large ICT enterprises • In general, cloud computing offers opportunities of business transformation for large ICT enterprises.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 56. Opportunities for other market players • Cloud computing provides opportunities for other market players, e.g. application developers, application integrators, application providers, content providers. • Cooperation with operators of cloud services enables the creation of a broader market and win-win situations between operators and these market players.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 57. Contents • Opportunities • Basic Definition • Possible Roles • Cloud Ecosystem Actors • Business aspects • CC Essential Characteristics • Inter-cloud scenario • Cloud service categories • Cloud Services Mapping • Cloud deployment models • Use Case • Inter-cloud • DaaS • CC model • SLA© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 58. Possible roles in a cloud ecosystem: CSP The following provides a non-exhaustive list of possible roles that can be played by each of the three cloud ecosystem actors: • Cloud service provider (CSP): – Provider of SaaS and/or CaaS and/or PaaS and/or IaaS and/or NaaS. – A CSP may offer cloud services of one or more of these five cloud service categories. – Inter-cloud: • Inter-cloud peering, • Inter-cloud service broker, • Inter-cloud federation© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 59. Possible roles in a cloud ecosystem: CSU and CSN • Cloud service user (CSU): – Consumer, – Enterprise (including enterprise administrator), – Governmental/public institution • Cloud service partner (CSN): – Application developer, – Content provider, – Software provider, – Hardware provider, – Equipment provider, – System integrator, – Auditor© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 60. Actors with some of their possible roles in a cloud ecosystem© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 61. Contents • Basic Definition • Opportunities • Cloud Ecosystem Actors • Possible Roles • CC Essential Characteristics • Business aspects • Cloud service categories • Inter-cloud scenario • Cloud deployment models • Cloud Services Mapping • Inter-cloud • Use Case • CC model • DaaS • SLA© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 62. Business aspects in a cloud ecosystem • The traditional IT outsourcing services’ business-value chain is usually shared by actors playing the following roles: – the infrastructure vendors, – the application developers, – the outsourcing service integrators, – and the users. • Since each level of the cloud infrastructure can be provided as services to the cloud service users, the value chain in a cloud ecosystem includes a number of possibilities.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 63. Business-value chain in a cloud ecosystem (1/3) Currently, the business-value chain in a cloud ecosystem is shared among the following actors: • The cloud service partners playing the role of resource suppliers, supply hardware and/or basic software to the cloud service providers. • The cloud service providers provide virtual and/or physical computing capability, storage, communication facilities, API and/or application resources to cloud service users, i.e., the provision of infrastructure (IaaS and NaaS), platform (PaaS) and/or application services (SaaS and CaaS).© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 64. Business-value chain in a cloud ecosystem (2/3) • CSP and CSN purchase hardware and basic software from cloud service partners playing the role of hardware and software providers and provide resources/services to other cloud service partners (e.g. playing the role of application developer) and/or the cloud service users. – They also integrate applications from cloud service partners so as to provide application resources/services to the other cloud service providers (playing one or more of the possible CSP roles, including the role of inter-cloud) and/or the cloud service users. – They are in the core position in the business-value chain.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 65. Business-value chain in a cloud ecosystem (3/3) • The cloud service partners playing the role of hardware and software providers supply hardware and/or basic software to the cloud service providers and those playing the role of application developers utilize the virtual and/or physical computing capability, storage, communication facilities and/or API resources provided by the cloud service providers to develop applications. • The cloud service users do not utilize their purchased cloud services to generate additional value. The cloud service users purchase cloud services from cloud service providers. • The large enterprises and institutions usually buy either private or public cloud services, while the small and medium enterprises as well as individual persons usually buy public cloud services.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 66. Example of business-value chain between actors of a cloud ecosystem© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 67. Contents • Basic Definition • Opportunities • Cloud Ecosystem Actors • Possible Roles • CC Essential Characteristics • Business aspects • Cloud service categories • Inter-cloud scenario • Cloud deployment models • Cloud Services Mapping • Inter-cloud • Use Case • CC model • DaaS • SLA© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 68. Scenarios of cloud interaction involving the inter-cloud role • Inter-cloud scenario with QoS Control • Inter-cloud scenario with Cloud Service Composition© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 69. Inter-cloud scenario with QoS Control (1/2) In this scenario CSPs are enabled to play the role of Inter-Cloud with QoS control for cloud services. An example of inter-cloud scenario with QoS control is the following. • The CSP playing the Inter-Cloud role supports the capability to monitor the QoS of Cloud services offered by different Cloud Service Providers, and chooses the most suitable CSP to provide the requested service. • When the CSP playing the role of Inter-Cloud receives a service request from the originating CSP, it processes the request. – This process takes into account the originating CSP’s QoS requirements (the request information may include service type information, the required QoS parameters information, etc.) and the candidate terminating CSP(s)’ resource status (eventually monitored or got from other Inter-Clouds). Then, the CSP returns the result to the originating CSP.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 70. Inter-cloud scenario with QoS Control (2/2) • For example, in case of strict bandwidth requirements, resource reservation of the candidate terminating Cloud Service Provider(s) can be applied in addition to monitoring their resource status. This process includes resource reservation for the multiple candidates, acknowledgement for the selected one, and release for the un-selected ones. • QoS control needs further study (e.g. performance monitoring not only at network-level but also at storage- and process-level).© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 71. Inter-cloud scenario with Cloud Service Composition • Cloud service composition enables the CSP to play the role of Inter-Cloud in order to provide a service to the originating CSP via mechanisms by which multiple services offered by different CSPs are invoked under the control of a service logic (the service logic describes the order of the invoking of services and the related parameters). • There are two different kinds of cloud service composition: static and dynamic cloud service compositions.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 72. Static cloud service compositions. • For static cloud service composition, the CSP playing the role of Inter- Cloud uses a concrete service logic specifying concrete services, interface invoking information, data flow (services input/output parameters) and control flow (services invoking order) of the services. • The concrete service logic is given by the originating CSP (Arrow (1)). • The CSP playing the role of Inter-Cloud invokes these concrete services according to the data flow and control flow and gets the results of these services. The service may comprise resources and capabilities of multiple CSPs (Arrows (2), (3), (4), and (5)). • The CSP playing the role of Inter-Cloud then composes the entire service as the final result and returns it to the originating Cloud Service Provider (Arrow (6)).© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 73. Dynamic cloud service compositions. • For dynamic cloud service composition, the CSP playing the role fo Inter- Cloud uses an abstract service logic specifying service classes (different services which provide the same service function belong to the same service class), data flow and control flow of these services. • The abstract service logic is given by the originating CSP (Arrow (1)). • The CSP playing the role of Inter-Cloud translates the abstract service logic into the concrete service logic before searching the concrete services that can fulfill the requirements. • Specifically, the translation is to replace the service classes with concrete services and create interface invoking information for the services. • Then the CSP playing the role of Inter-Cloud executes the concrete service logic and gets the results of the services. Finally, it composes the entire service as the final result and returns it to the originating CSP.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 74. Inter-cloud scenario with Cloud Service Composition© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 75. Scenarios of inter-cloud This clause provides scenarios of inter-cloud involving the different inter- cloud roles identified before. • Scenario with inter-cloud peering • Scenario with inter-cloud federation • Scenario with inter-cloud service broker© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 76. Scenario with inter-cloud peering • Two CSPs interwork directly with each other. Each CSP exposes its own API for cloud interworking, and the CSPs interwork with each other directly by using the other CSP’s API. • In this figure , CSP A interworks with CSP B using API provided by CSP B and vice versa. Cloud Service Cloud Service provider A API(B) provider B API(A) API(X): API provided by Cloud Service provider X© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 77. Scenario with inter-cloud federation • Mutually trusted CSPs logically join an alliance together. • The common API for cloud interworking is defined in the alliance, and each CSP interworks with other CSPs in the alliance through the common API. Cloud Service Cloud Service provider A Common API provider B Common API Cloud Service provider C Common API© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 78. Scenario with inter-cloud service broker • The scenario of Inter-cloud with Inter-Cloud Service Broker is shown in next figure. • In this scenario, the CSP playing the inter-cloud service broker role receives a cloud service request from a cloud service provider or a cloud service user through its own API. • The CSP playing the role of inter-cloud service broker interworks with one or more other CSPs and provides brokering service functions by integrating services provided by these CSPs. • Interworking between the CSP playing the inter-cloud service broker role and the other CSPs is established by either inter-cloud peering or inter- cloud federation.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 79. Scenario with inter-cloud service broker© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 80. Contents • Basic Definition • Opportunities • Cloud Ecosystem Actors • Possible Roles • CC Essential Characteristics • Business aspects • Cloud service categories • Inter-cloud scenario • Cloud deployment models • Cloud Services Mapping • Inter-cloud • Use Case • CC model • DaaS • SLA© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 81. Cloud Services mapping Mapping of some relevant Cloud Services to the identified Cloud Service categories SaaS PaaS IaaS NaaS CaaS Desktop as a Service X Service Delivery Platform as a Service X X X Cloud Communication center X X (Flexible and extended) VPN X Bandwidth on demand X© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 82. Other related definitions: Desktop as a service • Desktop as a service (DaaS): The capability provided to the cloud service user to use virtualized desktops from a cloud service provider in the form of outsourcing. • A central server located in the cloud retains the virtualized desktops instead of maintaining and running desktop operating system and applications on the local storage of remote clients, and all of the used applications and data are kept and run centrally. Based on application streaming and virtualization technologies, cloud service users can access desktop operating system and applications through a completely hosted system.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 83. Other related definitions: Service delivery platform as a service • Service delivery platform: A system architecture or environment that enables the efficient creation, deployment, execution, orchestration and management of one or more classes of services. • Service delivery platform as a service (SDPaaS): The capability provided to the cloud service user to use service delivery platform (SDP) functionalities and services provided by a cloud service provider, and the capability provided to a cloud service provider to deploy, control and manage SDP functionalities. • SDPaaS may be implemented via utilization and intermediation of different SaaS/CaaS and PaaS cloud services.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 84. Other related definitions: Cloud communication centre • Cloud communication centre: A cloud communication centre (service) enables advanced features for the customer-enterprise interaction using the communication and management capabilities provided by a cloud- based telecommunication infrastructure (managed by the cloud service provider). • Such capabilities include for example: management in the cloud of communication centre relevant resources, such as customer resources, enterprise agent resources, media storage resources, content resources, transport resources and communication resources; access of fixed and mobile customers and enterprise agents via a unified client, such as a Web browser; sharing of enterprise applications which are common among different enterprises; and application charging to enterprises on a per- resource usage basis.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 85. Contents • Basic Definition • Opportunities • Cloud Ecosystem Actors • Possible Roles • CC Essential Characteristics • Business aspects • Cloud service categories • Inter-cloud scenario • Cloud deployment models • Cloud Services Mapping • Inter-cloud • Use Case • CC model • DaaS • SLA© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 86. Use Case: From the perspective of CSU and CSPs DaaS: • General use case of desktop as a service (DaaS) • Specific use case of DaaS - Office automation of development-oriented enterprise • Specific use case of DaaS - Customer service call centre • Service delivery platform as a service (SDPaaS) Mobile Cloud© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 87. Use Case: From the perspective of CSU and CSPs Cloud migration and portability • Cloud migration and portability: Move three-tier application from on- premises to cloud • Cloud migration and portability: Move three-tier cloud application to another cloud • Cloud migration and portability: Move part of on-premises application to cloud to create “hybrid” application • Cloud migration and portability: Hybrid cloud application that uses platform services • Cloud migration and portability: Port the cloud application that uses platform services to another cloud User data inquiry and analysis based on massive data processing© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 88. Use Case: From the inter cloud perspective • SLA mapping between CSP (inter-cloud service broker) and CSP • Guaranteeing performance against an abrupt increase of the load • Use case of guaranteeing performance regarding delay • Guaranteed availability • Service continuity • Market transactions via brokers© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 89. Contents • Basic Definition • Opportunities • Cloud Ecosystem Actors • Possible Roles • CC Essential Characteristics • Business aspects • Cloud service categories • Inter-cloud scenario • Cloud deployment models • Cloud Services Mapping • Inter-cloud • Use Case • CC model • DaaS • SLA© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 90. DaaS • DaaS is defined as the capability provided to the CSUs to use virtualized desktops from a CSP in the form of outsourcing.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 91. DaaS • Instead of maintaining and running desktop operating system and applications on the local storage of remote clients, a central server located in the cloud retains the virtualized desktops and all of the used applications and data are kept and run centrally. • Based on application streaming and virtualization technologies, CSUs can access desktop operating system and applications through a completely hosted system.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 92. Key characteristics of DaaS: Enhanced management and security • Since all applications actually run in a central server, they are much more secure than if they were installed on each user’s PC because the cloud service provider can focus more on patches and virus protection. • In addition, the user’s IT department no longer needs to worry about support and maintenance of a high number of individual desktops.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 93. Key characteristics of DaaS: Lower TCO (Total cost of ownership) • By placing emphasis on the data centre rather than individual devices, DaaS promotes longer hardware life. • Organizations or enterprises seeking to avoid additional costs can switch part of their IT infrastructure from capital expenditure (CAPEX) to operating expenditure (OPEX), as they now pay for virtualized desktops. • Also, by decoupling the desktop operating system from the hardware, smaller and cheaper PCs or even thin clients can be employed, leading to substantial savings.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 94. Key characteristics of DaaS: Preservation of the rich client experience • DaaS can provide an uncompromised client experience. • This is due to the fact that it leverages a hypervisor layer which enables the hosting of authentic client OSs (i.e. Windows XP, Vista, etc.). • Conversely, shared service environments offer a client experience that may compromise between application compatibility and user personalization.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 95. Key characteristics of DaaS: Separation of service-provider and service-user responsibilities • DaaS allows clean separation between the responsibilities of the cloud service provider and the cloud service user. • The cloud service provider is responsible for everything up to the virtualized desktops (i.e. servers, storage, virtualization software, etc.), and the cloud service user is responsible for everything inside the virtualized desktops (i.e. OS image/licensing, application packaging/licensing, user profiles, etc.)© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 96. Key technical solutions of DaaS: Server-based computing (SBC) • A technical solution whereby applications are deployed, managed, supported and executed on the server, not on the client. • Instead, only the screen information is transmitted between server and client. • This technology solves various fundamental problems that occur when executing the applications on the client itself.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 97. Key technical solutions of DaaS: Presentation virtualization • A technical solution whereby an applications user interface is separated from its logic, and the user interface is presented in a different location than where the application logic is processed. • This separation allows the application to be presented in one location whilst the application’s deployment, configuration and maintenance are done in another location.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 98. Key technical solutions of DaaS: Desktop virtualization • A technical solution separation of a PC desktop environment from a physical machine using a client–server model of computing. • It involves encapsulating and delivering either access to an entire information system environment or the environment itself to a remote client device. • The client device may use an entirely different hardware architecture than that used by the projected desktop environment, and may also be based upon an entirely different operating system.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 99. Key technical solutions of DaaS: Virtual Desktop Infrastructure (VDI) • The server-based computing technical solution that enables desktop virtualization and encompasses the hardware and software systems required to support the virtualized environment. It takes the users’ operating environments (operating systems, applications, files and data) and recreates them in an environment hosted on a remote system, typically a virtualized desktop. • The users then access this environment remotely from their computers, with all the processing associated with the environment taking place on the remote virtualized desktop.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 100. General use case of DaaS Legend Use case Use case title DaaS Relevant actors (played roles) CSP (IaaS provider), CSU (consumer, enterprise) Relevant cloud services categories IaaS Relevant cloud deployment models Private Cloud, Public Cloud© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 101. General use case of DaaS Use case description Between a consumer and a CSP: • In this scenario, a consumer accesses and uses data or applications in a CSP which offers virtual desktop service. • A consumer can enjoy the environment with all programs and applications which are identical with those of traditional PCs. • Of course, the consumer can choose the virtual hardware specification of its virtual desktops. • If necessary, the environment (i.e. operating system) can be changed to another one immediately. • All the consumer has to do is keeping up with a password since all data are totally stored and managed in the CSP.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 102. General use case of DaaS Use case description Between an enterprise and a CSP: • An enterprise using virtual desktop service from a CSP for its internal processes is included in this use case. • In this scenario, the enterprise can select applications or OS in the DaaS service for certain enterprise functions. • Unlike the use case between a consumer and a CSP, the enterprise normally uses storage for backups. • Also, the enterprise can overcome peak loads and save energy by requesting the CSP online to increase or decrease the number of virtual desktops, respectively.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 103. General use case of DaaS Use case description Among an enterprise, a consumer, and a CSP: • In this scenario, the enterprise makes the consumer do works with its internal processes at the outside of the enterprise by transferring virtual desktops and related data through the CSP. • Contrary to above two scenarios, the consumer cannot select applications freely and more limitations to access data in the enterprise may exist than at inside of the enterprise. • Whenever the consumer connects with the CSP, the CSP sends feedback data to the consumer by accessing the enterprise to handle or bypass corresponding data.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 104. General use case of DaaS Information flow Between a consumer and a CSP: • The consumer should send information about authentication (i.e. password). • The CSP offers virtual desktop environment of corresponding data such as OS, applications, and user data by virtual desktop delivery protocol (VDDP). • In case of the consumer’s change in the virtual desktop environment including virtual hardware specification, the consumer can transfer additional information related with selection.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 105. General use case of DaaS Information flow Between an enterprise and a CSP: • This case is similar to that between a consumer and a CSP except controlling the number of the virtual desktops. • The enterprise can send warning information when abnormal situation (i.e. peak load) occurs.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 106. General use case of DaaS Information flow Among an enterprise, a consumer, and a CSP: • Information for authentication flows from the consumer to the enterprise through the CSP. • Once the consumer is identified, information regarding internal processes is transferred to the CSP and it is dispatched to the end-user by VDDP. • The consumer’s output data is stored to the CSP or the enterprise but there is no path for selection information as in the first case since the consumer cannot have an authority to alter the virtual desktop environment.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 107. General use case of DaaS High level figure describing the use case Cloud Service Provider Virtualized Desktops Virtualized Desktops Cloud Infrastructure Consumer Enterprise© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 108. General use case of DaaS Derived requirements for the cloud ecosystem • Consumers require accessing their desktop environments independently of locations, indeed, with their various devices. • Desktop environment needs to guarantee the business continuity and a recovery solution about a system failure. • Consumers desire to use their personal tasks separating business computing. • Consumers eager to run various applications as in traditional PCs.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 109. Contents • Basic Definition • Opportunities • Cloud Ecosystem Actors • Possible Roles • CC Essential Characteristics • Business aspects • Cloud service categories • Inter-cloud scenario • Cloud deployment models • Cloud Services Mapping • Inter-cloud • Use Case • CC model • DaaS • SLA© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 110. Other related definitions: Service Level Agreement (SLA) • SLA : An abbreviated service agreement stating the technical performance promises made by a provider, including remedies for performance failures. • An SLA is composed of three parts. – The first part is a collection of promises made to subscribers, – (2) a collection of promises explicitly not made to subscribers, i.e., limitations, and – (3) a set of obligations that subscribers must accept. • In practice, an SLA may contain non-quantitative parameters, such as specific regulations, citizenship requirements, business process standards (e.g. ISO 20000). Cloud services may have different types of SLAs.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 111. SLA for Cloud Computing: Availability SLA Item Description Service Probability at which the service is usable ((planned service time - availability, service suspension time) ÷ planned service time) Availability Average Average time from a fault occurrence to completion of its repair recovery time (total repair times ÷ number of fault occurrences) Service Recovery time in cases where business continuity measures suspension against expected faults are available time Objective of the time needed for recovery from a disaster Time of data Point in time from which data is recovered recovery point© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 112. SLA for Cloud Computing: Performance SLA Item Description Online response time Response time for online processing Online response time Percentage of online transactions that have been compliance ratio completed within the target time Batch processing time Response time for batch processing Batch processing time Percentage of batch processing tasks that have compliance ratio been completed within the target time Maximum number of Maximum number of processing tasks per unit time processing tasks per unit time Compliance ratio of maximum Percentage of cases where the maximum number processing tasks per unit time of processing tasks per unit time is equal to or has exceeded the target number© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 113. SLA for Cloud Computing: Security (1/2) SLA Item Description Status of the cloud service Whether or not the cloud service provider has acquired provider’s acquisition of the certification for the information security management system relevant security standard standard: “ ISMS Certification Standards (Ver.2.0) ISO27001” Status of certification of the party Whether or not measures have been implemented against threat possessing management authority of information leakage that may be caused by an attacker who has gained management authority Status of operational restrictions Whether or not there are access restrictions to prevent installation included in security measures of malicious software that may cause information leakage, and to taken on the management system prevent the setting of unnecessary access paths Keeping data transmitted between Whether or not data transmitted between clouds are kept cloud systems confidential confidential Data location Storing data at domestic sites© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 114. SLA for Cloud Computing: Security (1/2) SLA Item Description Data location Storing data at domestic sites Status of acquisition of a log for Whether or not a log can be acquired to detect malicious access detection of malicious acts attempts and to enable the taking of necessary measures if such attempts have been detected Period during which a log is kept Period during which evidence is kept to confirm any malicious acts for detection of malicious acts conducted or correct processing Status of communication control Whether or not communication control is available to block threat to block malicious communication of attacks that use stepping stones and to block information from being taken outside Status of measures against Whether or not measures to circumvent denial of service attacks network congestion to circumvent are available DoD/DDoS attacks Implementation of measures Whether or not measures to prevent infection by malware are against malware available© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 115. SLA Measurement (1/3) • Cloud service users need a way to compare services from competing cloud service providers, as well as with their own internal capabilities to offer appropriate basis for cloud services operations. • "SLA (Service Level Agreement) Management Handbook" provides an approach that can analyze through periodically sampling the performance data in order to form a QoS report for the quality evaluation statistically. • However, this approach doesn’t provide a quantitative evaluation of the QoS, thus it is not able to reflect the quality of service operation in real time.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 116. SLA Measurement (2/3) • In the service quality evaluation process, quantitative assessment which directly reflects the service is essential. • It can be quantified from both the service parameters and customer perception point of view. • Quantitative Units can be described and/or calibrated in terms of linear capability, throughput, or consumption-based© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 117. SLA Measurement (3/3) • For computing, there must be a consistent benchmark that is useful for comparison across a wide range of Cloud Subscriber needs. • For storage, measurement units must allow comparison of capacity, performance and quality. – Quality would be rated by level. • For networks, measurement units must allow comparison of bandwidth, performance and quality. – Bandwidth can be represented in gigabits/second. Performance can be quantified in latency/jitter/throughput per minute.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 118. SLA life cycle management • SLAs are the contractual basis between the cloud service users and cloud service providers. • They contain details of shared information and service level guarantees that are offered by cloud service providers. • They will play an important role in future cloud development steps. • Cloud service management can be achieved by the effective SLA lifecycle management.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 119. SLA life cycle: 6 Steps SLA lifecycle can be normally divided into 6 steps: 1. Product/service Development 2. Negotiation and sales 3. Implementation 4. Execution 5. Assessment 6. Decommission SLA lifecycle should be considered in SLA development. Different methods are combined to support each step in SLA lifecycle, and different parameters are used for relevant steps.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 120. Requirements of end-to-end QoS • In a cloud computing environment, requirements of end-to-end QoS are different. • The use of SLA guarantees in a product can make the network more customer-focused. • The traditional technical components of SLA are made up of a number of negotiated Service Level Objectives (SLO) which are based on Key Performance Indicators (KPI). • In a cloud environment, KPI is measured by Standard Unit of Measure (SUoM). • SLA-based services are becoming a key requirement for the provisioning of IP-based cloud services in order to ensure QoS.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 121. Cloud Service SLA Lifecycle Management© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 122. SLA mapping between CSP-ISB and CSP • This use case deals with the SLA mapping between the CSP playing the Inter-Cloud Service Broker role (CSP-ISB) and other CSPs. • Multiple CSPs will contribute to, or impact concurrently, the SLA between the CSP-ISB and the CSU when an orchestrated service is provided.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 123. SLA mapping between CSP-ISB and CSP Legend Use case Use case title SLA mapping between CSP (Inter-Cloud Service Broker) and CSP Relevant actors (played roles) Cloud Service User (consumer, enterprise, governmental institution), Cloud Service Provider (IaaS provider, PaaS provider, SaaS provider, Inter- cloud Service Broker) Relevant cloud services IaaS, PaaS, SaaS categories Relevant cloud deployment Public Cloud models© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 124. SLA mapping between CSP-ISB and CSP: Use case description • CSP-ISB is the contact point for CSU, and there is SLA (SLA0) between them. • CSP-ISB integrates services from multiple CSPs, for instance, storage service from CSP-1 and computing service from CSP-2. • There are B2B level SLA between CSP-ISB and CSP-1, CSP-2 respectively (SLA1, SLA2). • For CSP-ISB, in order to guarantee SLA0 for CSU, it needs to map SLA0 to SLA1 and SLA2, because SLA0 is actually implemented by SLA1 and SLA2.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 125. SLA mapping between CSP-ISB and CSP: Derived requirements for the cloud ecosystem • It should be possible for CSP-ISB and CSPs to negotiate SLAs. • It should be possible for CSP-ISB to coordinate the SLAs from multiple CSPs (which is related with business decision).© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 126. Cloud Computing Courses Fundamental Specialization • Cloud Ecosystem • Saas and Web Applications • Cloud Architecture • Virtualization • Cloud Infrastructure • Platform and Storage Management • Cloud Resource Management • Cloud Profiles • Cloud Security • Inter-cloud© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 127. © Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 128. IEEE Activities in Cloud Computing© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 129. IEEE Activities in Cloud Computing • IEEE Cloud Computing Initiative (http://cloudcomputing.ieee.org/): – to stimulate the innovation and dissemination of Cloud Computing technologies and applications. • Standards: IEEE Cloud Computing Initiative has originated two working drafts: – IEEE P2301™, Draft Guide for Cloud Portability and Interoperability Profiles. – IEEE P2302™, Draft Standard for Intercloud Interoperability and Federation. Activities (2012) • IEEE CLOUD 2012 (5th International • APCloudCC (IEEE Asia Pacific Cloud Conference on Cloud Computing) 24-29 June Computing Congress 2012) 14-17 2012, Hawaii, USA November 2012, Shenzhen, CHINA http://www.thecloudcomputing.org/2012/in http://www.apcloudcc.org/ dex.html • IEEE Cloud Computing for Emerging Markets • IEEE CloudCom 2012 (4th IEEE Conference, 11-12 October 2012, Bangalore, International Conference on Cloud INDIA Computing Technology and Science) 3-6 http://ewh.ieee.org/ieee/ccem/index.html December 2012, Taipei, TAIWAN http://2012.cloudcom.org© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 130. IEEE Activities in Cloud Computing Guide for Cloud Portability and Interoperability Profiles • IEEE P2301 - Guide for Cloud Portability and Interoperability Profiles (CPIP). • Working Group: CPWG/2301_WG - Cloud Profiles WG (CPWG) Working Group • Sponsor: C/CCSC - Cloud Computing Standards Committee • Society: C - IEEE Computer Society IEEE P2301 Working Group (Cloud Profiles) Scope Purpose • The working group will develop the Guide for • The purpose of the guide is to assist cloud Cloud Portability and Interoperability Profiles computing vendors and users in developing, (CPIP). building, and using standards-based cloud • The guide advises cloud computing ecosystem computing products and services, which should participants (cloud vendors, service providers, and users) of standards-based choices in areas lead to increased portability, commonality, and such as application interfaces, portability interoperability. interfaces, management interfaces, • Cloud Computing systems contain many interoperability interfaces, file formats, and operation conventions. disparate elements. • The guide groups these choices into multiple • For each element there are often multiple logical profiles, which are organized to address options, each with different externally visible different cloud personalities. interfaces, file formats, and operational conventions.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 131. IEEE Activities in Cloud Computing Standard for Intercloud Interoperability and Federation • IEEE P2302 - Standard for Intercloud Interoperability and Federation (SIIF) • Working Group: ICWG/2302_WG - Intercloud WG (ICWG) Working Group • Sponsor: C/CCSC - Cloud Computing Standards Committee • Society: C - IEEE Computer Society IEEE P2302 Working Group (Intercloud) Scope Purpose • The working group will develop the • This standard creates an economy Standard for Intercloud Interoperability amongst cloud providers that is and Federation (SIIF). transparent to users and applications, • This standard defines topology, functions, which provides for a dynamic and governance for cloud-to-cloud interoperability and federation. infrastructure that can support evolving business models. • Topological elements include clouds, roots, exchanges (which mediate • In addition to the technical issues, governance between clouds), and appropriate infrastructure for economic gateways (which mediate data exchange audit and settlement must exist. between clouds).© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 132. IEEE Activities in Cloud Computing Cloud Profile and Intercloud Implementation The Cloud Profile is being designed to provide An intuitive road map for application portability, Management, and interoperability interfaces, File formats and operating conventions. When completed—probably in 2014—the standard will help Vendors, Service providers, Consumers involved with every aspect of procuring, developing, building, and using cloud computing.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 133. IEEE Activities in Cloud Computing Cloud Profile and Intercloud Implementation The intercloud is defining: The topology, protocols, functionality, and governance required for cloud-to-cloud interoperability. • In its title, “intercloud” refers to an interconnected mesh of clouds that depend on open standards for their operation. • “Federation” allows users to move their data across internal and external clouds and access services running on other clouds according to the business and application requirements. • The standard is expected to roll out 2013.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 134. Why Cloud Computing© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 135. Cloud computing Characteristics Application Hosting Use reliable, on-demand infrastructure to power your applications, from hosted internal applications to SaaS offerings. Backup and Storage Store data and build dependable backup solutions using inexpensive data storage services. Content Delivery Quickly and easily distribute content to end users worldwide, with low costs and high data transfer speeds. Web Hosting Satisfy dynamic web hosting needs with scalable infrastructure platform. Enterprise IT Host internal- or external-facing IT applications in secure environment. Databases Take advantage of a variety of scalable database solutions, from hosted enterprise database software or non-relational database solutions. Source: AWS© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 136. Cloud Computing Characteristics Agility, improves with users ability to re-provision technological infrastructure resources. Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. Cost is to be reduced Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using (e.g., PC, mobile phone). Virtualization technology allows servers and storage devices to be shared and utilization be increased. Applications can be easily migrated from one physical server to another. Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used, which makes well- designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery. Scalability and Elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained, self-service basis near real-time, without users having to engineer for peak loads. Security, increased security-focused resources Performance is monitored, and consistent and loosely coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface. Maintenance of cloud computing applications is easier, because they do not need to be installed on each users computer and can be accessed from different places.© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 Source: Wikipedia IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 137. Cloud Development Models • Private cloud: The cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization. It may be managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise. • Community cloud : The cloud infrastructure is shared by several organizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be managed by the organizations or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise. • Public cloud : The cloud infrastructure is made available to the general public or a large industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud services. • Hybrid cloud: The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more clouds using different deployment models (private, community, public) that remain unique entities but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability (e.g., cloud bursting for load-balancing between clouds). Source: AWS© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 138. Technical Benefits Automation – “Scriptable infrastructure”: You can create repeatable build and deployment systems by leveraging programmable (API-driven) infrastructure. Auto-scaling: You can scale your applications up and down to match your unexpected demand without any human intervention. Proactive Scaling: Scale your application up and down to meet your anticipated demand with proper planning understanding of your traffic patterns so that you keep your costs low while scaling. More Efficient Development lifecycle: Production systems may be easily cloned for use as development and test environments. Staging environments may be easily promoted to production. Improved Testability: Never run out of hardware for testing. Inject and automate testing at every stage during the development process. Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity: Take advantage of geo- distribution and replicate the environment in other location within minutes. “Overflow” the traffic to the cloud: With a few clicks and effective load balancing tactics, you can create a complete overflow-proof application by routing excess traffic to the cloud. Source: AWS© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 139. Business Benefits Almost zero upfront infrastructure investment with utility-style cloud computing, there is no fixed cost or startup cost Just-in-time Infrastructure do not have to worry about pre-procuring capacity for large-scale systems. This increases agility, lowers risk and lowers operational cost because you scale only as you grow and only pay for what you use More efficient resource utilization can manage resources more effectively and efficiently by having the applications request and relinquish resources on-demand. Usage-based costing can pass on the same flexible, variable usage-based cost structure to your own customers Reduced time to market Source: AWS© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 140. Standards & Certification PCI DSS PCI Data Security Standard as a shared host service provider. ISO 27001. Certification of the Information Security Management System (ISMS) covering infrastructure, data centers, and services. FISMA. Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA). AWS has been awarded an approval to operate at the FISMA-Low level. It has also completed the control implementation and successfully passed the independent security testing and evaluation required to operate at the FISMA-Moderate level. Source: AWS© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 141. Cloud Computing Players© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 142. Cloud Computing Global Players Microsoft released its Office 365 that put the cloud computing market in the mainstream sector. Office 365 is aimed for SMEs and small firms with a plan to optimize its services for firms with a small employee base – ones with less than 25 users. The product includes: Office Web Apps Exchange Online SharePoint Online Lync Online for a reasonable cost – about $6 per user a month – that may increase the cloud’s popularity to users with fewer funds. According to Bedford Report, this method will take the cloud mainstream. Source: Bedfordreport.com© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 143. Cloud Computing Global Players Apple’s iCloud is the other key driving force in the market. Last month Apple also released its cloud service, a complete suite “that automatically allows Apple product users to store and retrieve applications in the cloud.” This service is primarily aimed for its music store business where users can transfer their playlists to the cloud; if they didn’t download it from iTunes, then they would be charged approximately $24.99 a year to use the service. iCloud and the cloud technology will replace the use of personal computers and become the center of the users’ digital lives. Since every person has a number of devices such as computers, laptops, tablets, phones, etc it would be difficult to rely on the personal computer – the iCloud would be needed to sync everything. Source: AWS© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 144. Broad Overview of Alatum’s Cloud Service Offerings© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 145. Cloud Computing Global Players Source:© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 146. Cloud Computing Global Players© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 147. Cloud Computing Global Players • CHT hiCloud strength – No.1 IDC in Taiwan – Public IP address – Public cloud service – The most stable Internet environment – Extensive submarine cables – Private cloud can be constructed by case – hiCloud situated in Equinix Singapore: 20 Ayer Rajah Crescent© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 148. Cloud Computing Global Players IBM’s Smart Cloud Enterprise is an enterprise grade infrastructure that allows our clients to deploy secure workloads anywhere in the world Raleigh Boulder Japan Internet Canada Private Local VPN tunnel (option) VLAN Servers Singapore Germany Source:© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 149. Cloud Computing Global Players Source:© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 150. Cloud Computing Global Players Source:© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 151. Cloud Computing Global Players Source:© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 152. ICT Indicators Cloud Spending to Creating 14m Jobs Gartner’s latest quarterly IT spending report: cloud computing would create 14 million worldwide jobs The worldwide market for public cloud services hit $91 billion in 2011. Expected to increase by 19% to $109 billion in 2012. Ed Anderson, Gartner cloud forecaster further predicts cloud computing to grow by over 100% to be a $207 billion industry by 2016. In comparison the overall global IT market is forecast to grow at just 3%© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 153. So, Are We Ready, In today’s era of Tera ?© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom
  • 154. Thank you satriyo.dharmanto@conax.com satriyo.dharmanto@gmail.com© Bandung -Indonesia 2012 IEEE – Cloud Computing IT Telkom

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