Rural and Urban Differences• US changes from RURAL to Urban• By 1920 51% of Americans lived in Towns or Cities• New challenges between secular urban societies and traditional rural societies.
New Urban Scene• New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia all have populations greater than 1 million.
Prohibition• Clash between the secular and the moral traditional.• 18th Amendment – Manufacture, Sale, and Transportation of Alcohol was illegal.• Advocates believed drinking led to abuse, crime, accidents, and other social conditions.• Volstead Act (1919) established the Prohibition Bureau in the Treasury Department.• Only 1500 officers responsible for entire country.
Opposition to Prohibition• Alcohol ingrained in American culture• Immigrants don’t believe that it is a sin to drink.• Many hidden saloons – Speakeasies• Bootleggers bring in large quantities of alcohol.
Organized Crime• Every major city had organized crime to “regulate” the production and distribution of alcohol.• Gangs would often go to war over the territory that they could sell alcohol.
End of Prohibition• By the mid 1920s, prohibition had minimal support in the US.• Prohibition ends with the passage of the 21st Amendment in 1933.
Science and Religion Clash• The traditional and modern clashed over the validity of scientific discovery.• Fundamentalism – a protestant movement grounded in the literal interpretation of the bible.
Scopes Trial• Biology Teacher John Scopes is arrested for teaching evolution.• ACLU hires Clarence Darrow to defend Scopes.• Nick named “The Monkey Trial”• Found guilty and fined $100• Overturned
The 1920s….• With clashes over evolution, the Prohibition experiment, and the emerging urban scene all were evidence of the changes and conflict occurring during the 1920s.• During that period, women also experienced conflict as they redefined their roles and persued new lifestyles.