Change From Republic To Empire

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Change From Republic To Empire

  1. 1. Change from Republic to Empire
  2. 2. Attempted Reforms <ul><li>Significant disparity between rich and poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Latifundia – huge land holding of rich </li></ul><ul><li>Poor moved off land and into city – No work – Rich used slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Tiberius and Gaius Graccus (Pleb Tribunes) attempt reforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiberius – demands land reforms – killed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaius institute grain doles -- Killed </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Civil War!! <ul><li>General Marius and subordinate Sulla </li></ul><ul><li>Marius – reforms – very popular – Consul 7x in a row </li></ul><ul><li>Sulla – Status quo – becomes consul – sent to Asia Minor to put down revolt </li></ul><ul><li>Marius supporters attempt coup </li></ul><ul><li>Sulla returns to quell revolt – Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Sulla wins, becomes Dictator for life </li></ul>
  4. 4. First Triumvirate <ul><li>Illegal division of power among three political rivals in Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Pompey – popular general who put down revolt in Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Crassus – Puts down slave revolt in Italy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sparticus – Leads army of 60,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When defeated, 6000 crucified along Appian way </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Julius Caesar – Popular general </li></ul>
  5. 5. Rise of Caesar <ul><li>Caesar returns to Gaul as Governor </li></ul><ul><li>Pompey becomes sole consul of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Pompey fears Caesar, demands return to Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Caesar returns…with Army </li></ul>
  6. 6. Caesar Continued <ul><li>Caesar battle tested army defeats Pompey’s rookie army in Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Pompey flees to Egypt and it executed. </li></ul><ul><li>Caesar presented P’s pickled head </li></ul>
  7. 7. Dictator and Death <ul><li>Becomes “Dictator for 10 years” and later for life. </li></ul><ul><li>Permanently controls army, Sacro-sanct, “Paterpatriae” </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces doles, intense colonization, changes calendar </li></ul>
  8. 8. Beware of the Ides of March <ul><li>Senate fears Caesar as a dictator or tyrant. </li></ul><ul><li>Senators assassinate him on March 15 th , 44 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Stabbed 23 times </li></ul><ul><li>“ Et tu, Brute?” </li></ul><ul><li>Sends Rome into disarray. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Civil Part Deux <ul><li>Civil war erupts between supporters of the republic and supporters of Caesar. </li></ul><ul><li>Three supporters of Caesar prevail: Octavian (C’s Nephew), Lepidus (politician), & Marc Antony (General) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Second Triumvirate <ul><li>Legal division of power of Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Lasts 10 Years </li></ul><ul><li>Octavian forces Lepidus to retire </li></ul><ul><li>Oct and Antony Rivals </li></ul><ul><li>Antony falls in love Cleopatra </li></ul><ul><li>Octavian defeats Antony at naval battle of Actium </li></ul>
  11. 11. First Emperor <ul><li>Octavian unchallenged ruler of Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Changes name to “Augustus” or exalted one. </li></ul><ul><li>Takes on “Sacro Sanct, Paterpatire, and Imperator (Emperor). </li></ul><ul><li>The start of the Pax Romana – Peace of Rome </li></ul>

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