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Change From Republic To Empire
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Change From Republic To Empire



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  • 1. Change from Republic to Empire
  • 2. Attempted Reforms
    • Significant disparity between rich and poor.
    • Latifundia – huge land holding of rich
    • Poor moved off land and into city – No work – Rich used slaves.
    • Tiberius and Gaius Graccus (Pleb Tribunes) attempt reforms
      • Tiberius – demands land reforms – killed
      • Gaius institute grain doles -- Killed
  • 3. Civil War!!
    • General Marius and subordinate Sulla
    • Marius – reforms – very popular – Consul 7x in a row
    • Sulla – Status quo – becomes consul – sent to Asia Minor to put down revolt
    • Marius supporters attempt coup
    • Sulla returns to quell revolt – Civil War
    • Sulla wins, becomes Dictator for life
  • 4. First Triumvirate
    • Illegal division of power among three political rivals in Rome.
    • Pompey – popular general who put down revolt in Spain
    • Crassus – Puts down slave revolt in Italy
      • Sparticus – Leads army of 60,000
        • When defeated, 6000 crucified along Appian way
    • Julius Caesar – Popular general
  • 5. Rise of Caesar
    • Caesar returns to Gaul as Governor
    • Pompey becomes sole consul of Rome
    • Pompey fears Caesar, demands return to Rome
    • Caesar returns…with Army
  • 6. Caesar Continued
    • Caesar battle tested army defeats Pompey’s rookie army in Greece
    • Pompey flees to Egypt and it executed.
    • Caesar presented P’s pickled head
  • 7. Dictator and Death
    • Becomes “Dictator for 10 years” and later for life.
    • Permanently controls army, Sacro-sanct, “Paterpatriae”
    • Reduces doles, intense colonization, changes calendar
  • 8. Beware of the Ides of March
    • Senate fears Caesar as a dictator or tyrant.
    • Senators assassinate him on March 15 th , 44 BC
    • Stabbed 23 times
    • “ Et tu, Brute?”
    • Sends Rome into disarray.
  • 9. Civil Part Deux
    • Civil war erupts between supporters of the republic and supporters of Caesar.
    • Three supporters of Caesar prevail: Octavian (C’s Nephew), Lepidus (politician), & Marc Antony (General)
  • 10. Second Triumvirate
    • Legal division of power of Roman Empire
    • Lasts 10 Years
    • Octavian forces Lepidus to retire
    • Oct and Antony Rivals
    • Antony falls in love Cleopatra
    • Octavian defeats Antony at naval battle of Actium
  • 11. First Emperor
    • Octavian unchallenged ruler of Rome
    • Changes name to “Augustus” or exalted one.
    • Takes on “Sacro Sanct, Paterpatire, and Imperator (Emperor).
    • The start of the Pax Romana – Peace of Rome