SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED TO:
Mr. Anupinder Singh REENA LAKHA
SECTION : B2701
Q1 Java Script is a client side Scripting language or Server side Scripting Language. Give
reasons in Support of Your answer?
sent to the browser and it's up to the browser to do something with it.
Client sides: Client-slides scripting offers an easy way to provide
additional fuctionality & flexibility to your project. HTML is very limited,
it’s main purpose is to display & format content. It allows little or no
interaction with the visitors of your site .
on many sites to add extra functionality to a website.
Server sides: The use of server-side scripting is often less visible to
users . it is mostly used for content management , where the site’s
content is stored in a database , & presented to the user on request .
server-side technologies like PHP, ASP, JSP,PERL& many others have
nearly become a requirement for successful websites today.
Q2 Cascading Style Sheets has a crucial role to play in maintaining uniform appearance of a
Sol. Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) are used to control the appearance
(font, colours, layout, etc) of web pages. Your pages already link to
central style sheets that are part of the template. You cannot change
these, but you can add local style sheets to control the presentation of
the content area of your pages. For example if you use a lot of data
tables in your site, you may want to style them consistently.
Cascading style sheets (CSS) are a collection of formating rules that
control the apperence of the content in the webpage. They are very
useful for maintaing a website since its apperance can be managed from
just one file. . CSS Styles also enhance your site's look, accessibility and
reduces file size. Another main advantage is reusability - instead of
defining the properties of fonts, backgrounds, borders, bullets, uniform
tags, etc. each time you use them you can just assign the corresponding
css style in the class property.
Adding cascading style sheets (CSS) to web pages is a relatively simple
process, although the topic as a whole is fairly sizeable. Therefore
cascading style sheets has a crucial rule to play in maintaining uniform
appearance of a website.
Q3 Java Script follows Object Oriented paradigm or not? Support your answer with suitable
Sol. Java Script follows Object Oriented paradigm because Object-
oriented programming is a programming paradigm that uses abstraction
to create models based on the real world. It uses several techniques
from previously established paradigms, including modularity,
polymorphism, and encapsulation. Today, many popular programming
Objective-C) support object-oriented programming (OOP).
Object-oriented programming may be seen as the design of software us-
ing a collection of cooperating objects, as opposed to a traditional view
in which a program may be seen as a collection of functions, or simply as
a list of instructions to the computer. In OOP, each object is capable of
receiving messages, processing data, and sending messages to other
objects. Each object can be viewed as an independent little machine with
a distinct role or responsibility.
Object-oriented programming is intended to promote greater flexibility
and maintainability in programming, and is widely popular in large-scale
software engineering. By virtue of its strong emphasis on modularity, ob-
ject oriented code is intended to be simpler to develop and easier to un-
derstand later on, lending itself to more direct analysis, coding, and un-
derstanding of complex situations and procedures than less modular
programming methods. Therefore java script follows object oriented
Sol. A document object model (DOM) is an application programming interface
(API) for representing a document (such as an HTML document) and
accessing and manipulating the various elements (such as HTML tags
web browsers have always defined a document object model; a web-
browser DOM may specify.
DOM, which stands for Document Object Model is the foundation of
an object is. It's a thing. Your computer is an object. Your desk is an
object. Let's look into the computer screen, and you will see other
objects. A browser window is an object. A web page is a document, and
a document is an object. A graphic on a web page is an object.
The majority of DOM based scripting is the same--most of the time you'll
be using getElementById or getElementsByTagName, which work in
every browser on the planet (basically). The major differences for
application development, in my opinion, are in event handling and Ajax
calls, but of course those can be wrapped in another object. Prototype
does this automatically for you if you're feeling lazy.
Q5 There are three different ways of associating Style Sheets with a HTML Document. Discuss
the role played by each of them by Quoting there Pros and Cons alongwith.
Sol. Style sheets offer a new and powerful mechanism for supplying
presentational information to a user agent displaying structured
There are three different ways of associating Style Sheets with a HTML
1.Using Embedded Style Sheet: This means you include the style sheet at the
beginning of a specific web page. This will define the look of a single
page.Embedded style sheets are most effective when you have a single
HTML Document to format. In such cases, if you want to update your
document, you just need to adjust the style block. But if you working with
multiple documents that you will update frequently,however you will use
some another method. If you embed the style sheet in every document,
you will have to adjust it in every document.
Advantages of using Embedded Style Sheets:
1. Can control style for a document in one place.
2. No additional download time for style information.
1. Need to reapply style information for other documents.
2.Using External Style Sheets: Suppose you are working with multiple docu-
ments and they share similar formatting. In this case, if you use embed-
ded style sheets in each of the document, when in order to upload the
documents you need to adjust each and every style sheet. The best way
is to have a separate style sheet file, which includes all the style defini-
tions and associate it with the HTML document.
Advantage of using External Style Sheets:
1.It can set style for many documents with one style sheet.
1. Require extra download time for the style sheet, which may delay page rendering.
3.Using Inline Style Sheets: This allows you to apply styles to a section or
group of tags on a page. Inline style definitions can be applied to any of
the tags within and including <BODY> tag .Although you would n’t use
this method to apply styles throughout an HTML document, its time con-
suming, you might use it to make exceptions to an existing style sheet.
Advantages of using Inline style :
1. It can control style to a single character instance.
2. Overrides any external or document styles.
1. Need to reapply style information throughout the document and outside document.
2. Bound too closely to HTML difficult to update.
Q6 List and Discuss the Various types of Script Tags used in Java Script.
Sol. There are the Various types of Script Tags used in Java Script.
1. The <SCRIPT>tag: the area between the <SCRIPT>and the
</SCRIPT>tags defines the script program.
• SRC-Defines an external file containing the source code of the
may reside at another website. An example is:
2.The <NOSCRIPT>tag: The area between the < NOSCRIPT> and the
</NOSCRIPT> tag is run by browsers that can’t run JAVA script or have
the feature turned off
3.The <HTML> tag: This tag comes after <!DOCTYPE> tag and identifies
the document as an Java script with HTML document. This tag is
optional and even if it is not explicitly included, most browsers assume its
4.The <HEAD>tag: This tag contains information about the document,
including its title, scripts used, style definitions and document
descriptions. this portion enclosed between the <HEAD> and </HEAD>
tag is called the header. In Java Script, the elements allowed within the
<HEAD> tag includes:
<BASE> This elements specifies an absolute URL address that is
used to provide server and directory information for partially
specified URL addresses, called relative URL’s used within the
<ISINDEX> This element indicates that a special relationship
between the current document and another document.
<LINK> This element specifies a special relationship between the
current document and another document.
<META> This element uses name/values pairs to provide meta-
information about a document.
<OBJECT> This element allows programs and other binary object to
be directly embedded in a web page.
<STYLE>This element encloses style specifications covering fonts,
color positioning and other aspects of content presentation.
5.The <TITLE>tag: This tag gives an JAVA SCRIPT MODULE a title by
which it is known to browsers and indexing robots. The title does not
appear within the browser window, since it is visible in the browser’s
title bar. The title is given between the tags <TITLE> and </TITLE>.
6.The <BODY>tag: This tag encloses all tags ,attributes and information
that one wants the browser to display. To use the <BODY> tag ,enter it
below the closing </HEAD> tag and above the closing </HTML> tag.