Copenhagen - Solutions For Sustainable Cities 2012 (Export Catalogue)
Logo / State of Green Green C 100 - M 0 - Y 70 - K 0 100% & 60 % Dark C 0 - M 0 - Y 0 - K 95Copenhagen: Solutions For Sustainable CitiesOctober 2012 Copenhagen SOLUTIONS FORCITY OF COPENHAGENCity Hall1599 København V SUSTAINABLEinfo@cphcleantech.comwww.cphcleantech.com CITIES
CMYK Logo / State of Green Green C 100 - M 0 - Y 70 - K 0 100% & 60 % Dark C 0 - M 0 - Y 0 - K 95 54/55 State of Green – Join the Future. Think Denmark Denmark has decided to lead the transition to a Green State of Green Consortium Growth Economy and aims to be independent of fossil fuels The State of Green Consortium is the organisation behind by 2050. As the official green brand for Denmark, State of the official green brand for Denmark. The consortium Green gathers all leading players in the fields of energy, is a public-private partnership founded by the Danish climate, water and environment and fosters relations with Government, the Confederation of Danish Industry, the international stakeholders interested in learning from the Danish Energy Association, the Danish Agriculture & Food Danish experience. Council and the Danish Wind Industry Association. H.R.H. Crown Prince Frederik of Denmark is patron of the State of Explore, Learn and Connect Online Green Consortium. State of Green’s commercial partners Stateofgreen.com is your online entry point for all relevant are DONG Energy and Danfoss. information on green solutions in Denmark and around the world. Here you can explore solutions, learn about products and connect with profiles. Experience Solutions Live Take advantage of the lessons learnt by leading Danish companies, municipalities and organisations on a customised State of Green Tour. Serving businesses, politicians, civil servants and journalists, State of Green creates visiting programmes tailored to your needs. For more information: firstname.lastname@example.org www.stateofgreen.comFrom runned down harbour to attractive urban area / Credit: Kontraframe +45 7210 0179
Copenhagen: Solutions For Sustainable CitiesCOPENHAGEN:SOLUTIONS FORSUSTAINABLE CITIES 02/0304 MAYOR’S INTRODUCTION Mobility06 CYCLING: THE FAST WAY FORWARD10 giving INTEGRATED TRANSPORT THE GREEN LIGHT Water14 The harbour TURNS BLUE18 MEETING THE RISING DEMAND FOR WATER energy22 THE FORCE OF PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR WIND power26 MAKING THE MOST OF WASTE30 KEEPING THE CITY WARM EFFICIENTLY34 KEEPING COOL under CO 2 pressure38 cREATing BUILDINGS for life Strategy42 Urban planning: economic and social benefits46 COPENHAGEN – Carbon-Neutral by 202550 Adapting to the future climate52 COME AND SEE US54 OUR PARTNERS This catalogue details 12 sustainable city solutions from Copenhagen. In developing these solutions we were inspired by other cities around the world. We hope that the lessons we learnt will, in return, be of inspiration to you and your city. Cover image: Biking at Sealand Bridge, Copenhagen / Credit: Kontraframe
Mayor’s IntroductionLord Mayor Frank Jensen and Mayor of the Technical and Environmental Administration Ayfer Baykal / Credit: Jasper Carlberg
Copenhagen: Solutions For Sustainable Cities« aN INTRODUCTION » A sustainable world starts with sustainable cities. 04/05 In Copenhagen, we have kept that thinking in mind as we approach our own challenges. Now, we are making our solutions available to cities everywhere. More than half of the world’s population lives in cities, and the number is only increasing. But while most of the world’s wealth is created by urban residents, they are also responsible for about 75% of CO2 emissions. Reducing CO2 emissions is just a small part of being a sustainable city. More importantly, it is also about expanding our economy and, ultimately, improving the quality of life of our residents. We have learnt that when you invest in sustainability, the returns are measured in more than just environmental terms. Building up a bicycle infrastructure, for example, leads to higher rates of ridership, which in turn leads to improved health as well as a decrease in CO2 emissions. Investing in sustainability also has financial benefits. Cleaning the water in our harbour improved the marine environment, and it also benefited business, tourism and real estate prices. And an integrated public transport system not only reduces traffic congestion, it also saves us billions of euros and keeps the city efficient and competitive. Copenhagen developed its sustainable solutions to suit the demands of the city’s residents and businesses. They, in turn, have supported the political decisions and strategies created to address those issues. Our efforts have already yielded results, and Copenhagen has been named the 2014 European Green Capital. This publication profiles some of our best sustainable solutions. While we are happy to share them, we remain on the lookout for new ideas and hope to be inspired by the lessons learnt by other cities around the world. If you are interested in learning more about Copenhagen and our sustainable solutions, please do not hesitate to contact us. FRANK JENSEN Ayfer Baykal Lord Mayor of Mayor of the Technical and Copenhagen Environmental Administration
Mayor’s Introduction THE FAST WAY FORWARD Please contact us for further information +45 3334 3871 email@example.com www.cphcleantech.com/cph-biking The fastest way of getting around in Copenhagen is by bike / Credit: Mikal Schlosser
Copenhagen: Solutions For Sustainable CitiesCYCLING: THE FAST WAY FORWARD 06/07CYCLING HAS ALWAYS BEEN A DANISH TRADITION, BUT COPENHAGENHAS GONE ONE STEP FURTHER AND MADE CYCLING INTEGRAL TOURBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN. THE MAJORITY of copenhagenersCHOOSE LOW-EXPENSE, BUT QUICK AND CONVENIENT CYCLING AS 230,000 €THEIR PREFERRED WAY OF GETTING AROUND. IN FACT, we haveA TARGET TO INCREASE the number of copenhageners and Health expenses saved by cyclingcommuters CYCLING TO WORK AND EDUCATION FROM 35% IN 2011 per year.TO 50% BY 2015.In Copenhagen, urban planners have embraced thewidespread bicycle culture with ambitious solutions thataccommodate the city’s many cyclists. This has inspired Besides providing a more livable city, reduced carbon emissions and air pollution in the city, the shift from cars to bicycles also saves time and money. Looking at the total 0.16 €urban planners all over the world to ’Copenhagenise‘ their cost of air pollution, accidents, traffic congestion, noise Net social gaincities, making them more bicycle-friendly. and wear and tear on infrastructure when travelling by for every km bicycle and car, society actually benefits by € 0.16 for every travelled by bike instead of car. extra kilometre travelled by bicycle instead of by car. 0.77 € Healthier citizens reduce health care costs at an estimated rate of € 0.77 per km cycled.solution benefits– faster, safer, more convenient• Cycling infrastructure is central to urban planning and • Reduced noise, air pollution and CO2 emissions. design. • Healthier citizens.• Investments in dedicated, uninterrupted cycle lanes. • Low-cost form of infrastructure.• Easy transfer to public transport services. • Short journey times and less congestion.• Focus on safety and sense of safety. • Improved city life.
Cycling: The fast way forwardsolution in detailNo missing links is a main factor in the strategy for making Heightened comfort and convenience is to be achieved 88%more Copenhageners jump on their bike whenever they are through much the same means as increased safety, but Number ofgoing to work or education. The goal is to create a network also through better maintenance of bike lanes, snow people who cycleof bicycle lanes throughout Copenhagen. This will reduce clearance, and of course shorter travel time and easy because it is the fastest or mosttraveling time and increase safety for their cyclists. Safety, transfer to train and metro. convenient wayconvenience, comfort, timesaving and livability are the to get around inkeywords in designing a city where cycling is the norm. The reduced travel time is to be made possible in a variety the city. of ways including a better structured cycling network andMore and broader bicycle lanes, improved design of ’Green waves‘ for cyclists at traffic lights.intersections and behavioral campaigns are the means 0.8 1.05 1.23of achieving a safer city for the cyclists. With those types mio. mio. mio.of initiatives, Copenhagen wishes to achieve a rise in the 1995 2000 2012proportion of inhabitants feeling safe while biking (from67% in 2010 to 80% in 2015 and further to 90% in 2025). Distance in km travelled each workday in Copenhagen by bicycle.designing a city for cyclists TIMESAVING CONVENIENTTransport network No missing-links-strategyBicycles are integrated into the wider transport network. Passengers 2 bicycle bridges have been constructed as part of the No Missing-can easily transfer between cycling and public transport. Carriages Links-Strategy, which secures a city connected by bike routes thaton trains are upgraded to accommodate bicycles. are made more direct to key destinations.PbiCycle super highways biCycle parkingA safer, faster, direct, countinous and comfortable way of Good parking facilities for bikes.commuting to work or education by bike. 43 km of ’Greenways‘Separate lanes In Copenhagen green cycle routes are made to provide routes away fromCycle lanes along roads include a curb to separate cyclists from main roads and through parks and recreational spaces.cars and pedestrians, which maximises safety and sense of safetyfor cyclists. Cargobikes Design of different cargobikes gives families a great alternative to the car.
Copenhagen: Solutions For Sustainable CitiesThe sustainable benefits 08/09 Economic Environmental SOCIAL • Cycling provides a low-cost form • Reduced noise. • 88% of cyclist do it because it is of transport. • Reduced air pollution. the fastest or most convenient • Reduced journey times and traffic • Reduced CO2 emissions. way of getting to work. congestion increase economic • Creation of jobs. productivity. • Improved city life. • Healthier citizens reduce health care costs at an estimated rate of € 0.77 per km cycled. SAFEsafer intersectionsThe design of intersections is improved ’Green waves‘to ensure safety for cyclists. ’Green waves‘ along some of the primary routes prioritise bicycles by adapting the green light to bicycles travelling at 20 km/hour so that cyclists can travel non-stop. Cycle lane messages Bike counters along the cycle lanes reinforces the message, that cyclists matter 23.667 in Copenhagen. Simultaneously the counters provide realtime data to the City of Copenhagen. Pedest Cycle la Car lanes iansr nes
integrate the transport IN YOUR CITY Please contact us for further information +45 3334 3871 firstname.lastname@example.org www.cphcleantech.com/cph-transport The Copenhagen Metro has been awarded the best in the world / Credit: Ursula Bach
Copenhagen: Solutions For Sustainable CitiesGIVING INTEGRATED PUBLIC 10/11TRANSPORT THE GREEN LIGHT 351,000 284,900LIKE MANY OTHER CITIES, ECONOMIC GROWTH IN COPENHAGEN HASBROUGHT WITH IT INCREASED TRAFFIC CONGESTION. HOWEVER, BYINVESTING IN AN EFFICIENT, RELIABLE AND HIGHLY INTEGRATED PUBLICTRANSPORT NETWORK, IT HAS BEEN POSSIBLE TO DELIVER SOME OF 1970 2010THE HIGHEST LEVELS OF MOBILITY IN THE WORLD. ALONGSIDE TRAFFIC, Number of carCONGESTION AND POLLUTION HAVE BEEN REDUCED TO LEVELS THAT ARE trips in central Copenhagen.EXTREMELY LOW BY THE STANDARDS OF MAJOR INTERNATIONAL CITIES.The CO2 emissions from road transport rose along with the integrated transport systemincreased traffic to more than 500,000 tonnes in 2005.Attempts to convince people to use public transportwere hindered by: a massive improvement in travel timefor car traffic due to investments in road infrastructure,unreliable and inconvenient public transport due to lackof investments in infrastructure and lack of integration Online journey plannerbetween transport systems and operators. Without across different transport modes.concerted action, Copenhagen could have faced the trafficcongestion and pollution problems that have blighted Easy transfer between transport modes.many other cities. One ticket for metro, train and bus.The solution was investment in an integrated transport Bicycles are allowed on Metrosystem between bus, train and metro. and trains.solution Benefits– integrated transport solution• Developing physical and online integration between bus, • A fall in private car usage reducing CO2 emissions. train and the metro services to enable passengers to • Improved quality of life from convenient public move seamlessly between different modes. transport.• Integrating bicycles in the public transport system. • Reduced congestion saves time and money.
Giving integrated public transport the green lightSolution in detailGreen transport optimises urban space and moves a 190,000 hours are lost per day due to traffic congestion,larger number of people in a more effective way. In a number that would be considerably higher without thethe same amount of space and time, 1 person can be integrated transport solution.transported in a car, 6 persons can be transported bybicycle and 4.5 persons by bus. In the Capital Region Building a convenient and time-saving transport system makes it possible for passengers to move seamlessly between cycle, bus, train and metro services.A convenient and time-saving transport system 1:00 Real Time Information tick Digital signs at bus-stops tells you in et A to B? real time when the bus will arrive and text messages notify you when there are One ticket delays in the train systems. One ticket is valid on bus, train and metro across all 3 public transport A to B operators. Development of an online Journey Transfer between each mode is free. Planner. An easy way to plan your Legislation was introduced to stop journey from A to B across all the competitive public transport operators different transport modes. charging different prices. P tick et biCycle Facilities Significant bicycle parking facilities have been text ticketing introduced in each metro Novel use of information technology station and train station. enables passengers to simply text where they are going and receive a text reply which serves as a ticket. This speeds up journey times, reduces Buses fast forward querieing and cuts operational costs. Using radio and GPS technology enables 60% of tickets for one journey are now traffic controllers to keep lights green if purchassed by text messaging and it is buses are approaching. This has brought expected that paper based tickets will improved accessibility and speed for be entirely replaced within a few years. buses.
Copenhagen: Solutions For Sustainable CitiesThe sustainable benefits 12/13Economic Environmental SOCIAL• Reduced traffic congestion and • Improved integration of the • Faster, safer, healthier and less fast and reliable journey times for transport system has resulted stressful journeys. both passengers and freight make in an increase in trips made by • People use public transport and Copenhagen a good place to work public transport and a fall in cycling because it is the fastest, and do business. private car usage. cheapest and most convenient• A reduction in congestion and way to travel. lost hours. The hours lost due • A reputation for Copenhagen as to traffic congestion currently one of the most livable cities in constitute € 0,76 billion per year the world. for the Capital Region. Green transport optimises urban space and moves a larger number of people in a more effective way. The relationship between number of people moved from A to B by different modes of transport in the same amount of space and time.
Turning the tide in your harbourPlease contact us for further information+45 3334 email@example.com/cph-harbour Summer life at one of Copenhagen’s three Harbour Baths / Credit: Ursula Bach
Copenhagen: Solutions For Sustainable CitiesThe harbour TURNS BLUE 14/15The idea of swimming in COPENHAGEN’S harbour wouldhave been out of the question fifteen years ago. Close to100 overflow channels fed wastewater into the harbourmaking the water heavily polluted.We addressed the problem by investing in the complete Effect on real estate pricesmodernisation of the sewage system. The water qualityimprove, and the City of Copenhagen was able to openthe public harbour baths. Today the harbour is one of thetrendiest spots in the city. In the summer and spring, thearea is bustling with BBQ parties, couples strolling alongthe pier and students, families and businessmen having a increaseswim in the heart of the Danish capital. from 50% to 100% 10% increase Flats in harbour Flats adjacent to area. the harbour. Effect on real estate prices in transforming harbour areas from industry to residential.solution benefits– a blue transformationThe harbour was transformed into a blue public space by: • Increased value of real estate.• Modernising the sewage system. • Increased quality of life and tourism.• Adopting a cleaning programme. • Revitalisation of local business life.• Diverting local rainwater. • Improved water quality in the harbour.• Commissioning a strong urban design to create a recreational space.
The harbour turns blueSOLUTION IN DETAILIntegration of urban design and wastewater management Planners Environmental Municipality INNOVATION SOLUTION Private sector PROCESS Engineers Researchers ArchitectsCollaboration between partners, including researchers, academics, architects, planners, engineers, municipal and privatesector organisations led to the innovative solution of a harbour bath. A combination of innovative solutions created a clean harbourMechanical, biological and chemical reservoirs Rainwater Stormwaterwastewater treatmentWastewater treatment removesnutrients, salts and minimisesdischarge of heavy metals. Combined sewer reservoirs Decoupling of rainwater Reservoirs with connecting To ensure future function of the sewage system, decoupling conduits store wastewater until of rainwater is a necessity. The utility provider operates a there is capacity in the sewage reimbursement scheme, in which a landowner connected system. to the sewage system is reimbursed a connection fee if the rainwater is decoupled and derived locally.
Copenhagen: Solutions For Sustainable Cities The sustainable BENEFITS 16/17 Economic Environmental SOCIAL • The revitalisation of the harbour • Reduced risk of urban flooding • Residents and others can swim, areas has led to business and polluting the harbour. sail and fish in the harbour market regeneration. • More and diverse flora and fauna waters at the heart of their city. • Local increase in property prices. are returning to the area. • Almost every resident now lives • Improved potential for • Residents used to drive 10 km to less than 10 minutes by foot to a investment: there are now a beach, now they can walk or green or blue recreational space plans for much improved local cycle to the harbour baths. or park. transport to the Harbour Bath. • The harbour baths has given • Job creation. residents a sense of pride, loyalty • Increased livability means and ownership in the local area. that more families stay in the city contributing to a positive economic growth. Automatic warning system By calculating and monitoring the bacteria level, the system identiﬁes whether it is safe to swim. An online forecast is available on the city’s website and as an app on smartphones.Roof Road Black waste oVERFLOW CHANNELSwater water water 55 xA three-tiered sewage system 55 overﬂow channels closedThis new sewage system is established in Wastewater is only discharged to thenew urban districts. The system has already harbour during particularly heavyp roved very effective against ﬂooding. rainfall.
Make your water drinkablePlease contact us for further information+45 3334 firstname.lastname@example.org/cph-water Drinkning water directly from the tap / Credit: Ursula Bach
Copenhagen: Solutions For Sustainable CitiesMeeting the RISING demand 18/19for water 10%COPENHAGEN IS ONE OF THE FEW CAPITALS in which YOUcAN DRINK HIGH QUALITY WATER DIRECTLY FROM THE TAP. AS Target reduction of water usedCOPENHAGEN IS GROWING, THE CITY FACES THE VERY REAL RISK per day, perOF DEMAND FOR WATER OUTSTRIPPING GROUNDWATER SUPPLY. Copenhagen citizen.The main challenge is to maintain a high drinking water distances. By adopting innovative technologies andquality in the future based on groundwater supply. Due policies, it has been possible to protect groundwaterto lack of water sources within Copenhagen and local resources, limit the losses in the drinking water supply 100 litres 90 litrescontamination of water sources immediately around system and reduce drinking water consumption.the city, water has to be conducted in pipes over long 2012 2025 A planned reduction in each Copenhagen citizen’s con- sumption from 100 litres per day to 90 litres per day in 2025.solution benefits–INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES ANDPOLICIES• Management of water resources by the use of new • Citizens can drink water of high quality directly technologies to monitor and prevent leaks. from the tap.• Water purification and groundwater modelling and • A reduction in water consumption of 26%. protection. • Water losses reduced to 8%.• Behaviour changes measured by water meters and pricing mechanisms to reduce wasteful consumption.• Engineering solutions to reduce overall water demand to manageable levels.
Meeting the rising demand for watersolution in detailA combination of the 3 elements: management of water Water cooperationresources, groundwater protection and behaviour change, Copenhagen has a close cooperation with the nearbymakes it possible to maintain high drinking water quality municipalities and water supply companies. As a result,in the future based on ground water supply. over-exploration and waste of the water resources can be limited. Water samples are analysed every day, and the results are shared within the water cooperation.Better management of water ressources Management of water ground water protection Simple water cleaning Remediation facilities A ’simple cleaning‘ of groundwater is undertaken involving In areas with polluted and pesticide contaminated groundwater oxygenation and filtration through natural filters such as the polluted water is pumped out and cleaned before it sand. infiltrates and damages the large primary ground water resource. Management of water resources Detailed mapping of sediments below the city, construction of models of a hydrological cycle around the city, and a detailed groundwater model and 3D mapping down to depths of 300 m. SMART system management A new SMART system management allows better regulation of water pressure. Minimization of water loss Leak detection technology and regulation of water pressure decreases the water losses in pipelines in Copenhagen to nearly 8%. In ground water some cities the figure is 40 – 50%. reservoir
Copenhagen: Solutions For Sustainable Cities The sustainable BENEFITS 20/21 Economic Environmental SOCIAL Reduced long term costs through: • Energy consumption from water • The cooperation between • Lower energy use. services reduced. municipalities and supply • Less frequent need to fully • Energy intensive solutions like companies encourages mutual replace existing pipe network. desalination avoided. interest in groundwater • Better monitoring and repair. • No chemical treatment of protection. • Local businesses achieve reduced drinking water. production costs through greater • Low demand for bottled water. water efficiency. behaviour change clean tap waterInstallation of individual Financial incentiveswater meters Consumer charges of € 5 per cubicPreviously, residents in buildings metre of water, hereof € 0.16 perpaid a fixed share of the collective cubic metre towards groundwaterwater bill for the entire building. mapping and groundwaterWith the individual water meters protection.the consumption fell remarkably byan average of 26%. 100% Amount of the tap water coming from groundwater supplies in Copenhagen.
The right climate for wind Please contact us for further information +45 3334 3871 email@example.com www.cphcleantech.com/cph-wind Wind turbines are an integrated part of the Copenhagen skyline / Credit: Rishi, Happy Living
Copenhagen: Solutions For Sustainable CitiesTHE FORCE OF PUBLIC 22/23SUPPORT FOR WIND POWERDespite unexceptional wind resources, 22% ofDenmark’s total electricity consumption is producedby wind turbines, the highest rate in the world. InCopenhagen a renewable energy infrastructure hasbeen introduced through a unique partnership basedon local ownership.Like every city, Copenhagen faces challenges to wind perceived visual and noise impact of wind turbines in thepower: limited space to implement wind energy on a large landscape. The solution was to encourage public supportscale within an urban environment, wind turbines are for windpower by creating a community-owned facilitiesexpensive to build, and there is public resistance to the and using local skills.Denmark copenhagen 2012 2020 2025 22% 50% +100 new wind turbines in copenhagenelectricity production from wind powersolution benefits– local ownership• High-class technology. • Significant contribution to achieving• Community ownership. carbon-reduction goals.• Overcome the ’not in my backyard‘ attitude. • Creation of new jobs. • Boost to the Green Economy.
The force of public support for wind powerSolution in detailHigh-class technology company, with the remaining half of the shares sold to 8,650At the first wind farm at Middelgrunden in Copenhagen members of the local community. Each share representsharbour specially designed foundations were developed to production of 1000 kWh/year and was sold for € 570.cope with the ice during severe winters. Accommodationof factors such as tidal movements, wave loading, ice Based on the Copenhagen Climate Plan, the city-ownedloads, fatigue and the aggressive marine environment on utility company plans to build more than 100 new windsubmarine cables were incorporated. turbines by 2025. Locally based cooperatives will be able to invest in the turbines.Lessons learnt from the successful wind farm have beenused to inform subsequent schemes, highlighting how Overcome the ’not in my backyard‘ attitudereplicable the model is. A Public Awareness Campaign offered demonstration tours of wind turbines to help convince locals that thereA key issue was improving the ability of the power grid to would be no noise impact from the project. A recentaccept and balance increased levels of intermittent energy survey among the citizens of Copenhagen indicatesfrom wind turbines. widespread popular support for wind turbines in the city.Community OwnershipThe first wind farm at Middelgrunden created a WindTurbine Cooperative half-owned by the city-owned utilityThe sustainable BENEFITS Economic Environmental SOCIAL • The profit the City of Copenhagen • Significant contribution to • Community commitment to the made from the sale of its first achieving carbon reduction goals. achivement of climate change successful wind farm has been • Energy production at Middel- objectives. recycled back into other city grunden wind farm is estimated • Creation of new jobs. projects. at 89 million kWh of electricity • Green Economy – through per annum. creating strong local demand, the • Middelgrunden wind farm Danish wind turbine industry has annually eliminates: grown into a multibillion euro - 32 tonnes of sulphur dioxide 2 industry with over 350 companies emissions producing turbine towers, blades, - 08 tonnes of nitrogen oxide 2 generators, gear boxes and emissions control systems. - 8,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide 6 • Wind turbines have low running emissions and 4,400 tonnes of costs following initial investment. dust and clinker.
Changing attitudes to waste and recycling / Credit: Rishi, Happy Living Copenhagen: Solutions For Sustainable Cities 24/25
Mayor’s IntroductionRecycling waste in your cityPlease contact us for further information+45 3334 firstname.lastname@example.org/cph-waste One bag of garbage provides 3.5 hours of electricity and 4 hours of heating for a household / Credit: Amagerforbrændingen
Copenhagen: Solutions For Sustainable CitiesMAKING THE MOST OF WASTE 26/27By putting in place an integrated programme over manyyears, Copenhagen now sends less than 2% of waste tolandfill. almost 60% of the waste is recycled and maximumuse is made of the residual waste to generate heat for thecity’s district heating network.Our waste management problems used to be similar tothose of most other major cities: in 1988, over 40% of thecity’s waste was sent to landfill and there was concernthat incinerating waste within the city boundaries wouldcreate dangerous air pollution.National legislation has now provided an integratedsolution – a suite of strategies, policies and investments– that ensure a high rate of recycling and waste to energy. 1988 waste to landfillWaste management is an important element insustainability as it can help optimise resourceconsumption through recycling/reuse. Furthermore, waste 2010 waste to landfillconstitutes a renewable energy source. In this contextintelligent, long-term and holistic Waste Managementis vital for attaining our overall objectives of creating a In 2010 Copenhagen sent only 1.9% of 820,000 tonnes of wasteSustainable Community and Green Economy. to landfill — 20 times less than in 1988.solution benefits– treating waste as a resource• Improved recycling through source separation. • Reduced CO2 emissions.• Diversion of waste from landfill to recycling the waste • Waste is seen as a resource. to energy. • Millions of euros in landfill taxes are avoided.• Residual waste used for production of heat and power • Heat and power generated from residual waste. by incineration.
Making the most of wastesolution in detailThe vision for long-term and sustainable waste an easy choice for the public. The recyclable materials aremanagement is to consider waste as a resource for new treated at dedicated facilities turning the materials intocycles of energy and production. recyclable resources.The end of life products (waste) can be used as new Legislationresources in the form of feedstock for: National legislation means that waste sent to landfill• ’Biological products‘ that can be easily returned to the incurs a tax of 62,56 €/tonne while waste sent to ’organic cycle‘. incineration incurs a tax of 6,69 €/tonne.• ’Technical products‘ that continuously circulate as materials in the industrial cycle. It is now illegal in Denmark to send waste to landfill if it can be incinerated.RecyclingA focus on changing public attitudes by supplying Waste to energyinformation on recycling, linking waste and climate Generation of heat and power from residual waste is achange, and improving the possibility for reuse and core feature of incineration. Although incineration alsorecycling including easy and logical source separation. will play a central role in the waste management system in the future, Copenhagen is looking towards alternativeAt household level, paper, glass, batteries, plastic, metal, treatment methods to increase material recycling.electronics, gardening waste, bulky waste and residualwaste are collected separately, making source separationTreating waste as a resourceRecycling waste as legislation a resource Waste to energy
Copenhagen: Solutions For Sustainable CitiesThe sustainable benefits 28/29 Economic Environmental SOCIAL • Waste sent to recycling instead of Reduced CO2 emissions through: • The public perceives waste as a landfill avoids millions of euros in • Improved reuse and recycling. resource and 97% of the public landfill taxes which can instead • Combined heat and power agree that the bulky waste they be used to develop the Green generation feeding the district throw away could be used by Economy. heating network. others. • Municipal sale of recyclables • Centrally located waste facilities. • They comply with the waste supresses increases in residential • Increased material recycling management system to process waste tax. through: their waste in the most efficient – Good and accessible solutions and practical manner. for source separation • Reuse of waste creates more jobs – Clear and concise information than landfill and incineration. about environmental benefits of recycling.CO2 emissions from energy production 35.0 Waste incineration tonnes 56.7 Natural gas tonnes 77.4 Fuel oil tonnes 94.6 Coal tonnesCO2 emmisions tonnes CO2/GJ.
switch on district heatingPlease contact us for further information+45 3334 email@example.com/cph-heating District heating is the most sustainable way to keep the city warm / Credit: Kontraframe
Copenhagen: Solutions For Sustainable CitiesKEEPING THE CITY WARM 30/31EFFICIENTLYDistrict heating is one of the most carbon efficient andflexible ways to produce and supply energy locally, cutting 98%out much of the waste associated with centralised power 98% of heatinggeneration. By integrating renewable energy such as provided inbiomass, surplus wind energy, geothermal energy and Copenhagen comes from thebiomass to replace fossil fuels in the system, further district heatingreductions of emissions have been achieved. grid.The district heating system was first established in the mid Composition of the different types of fuel sources1920s and was more intensively developed in the 1970s used for district heating system.as a way to protect citizens and the economy from thedramatic rise in fossil fuel prices. This was a time when BIOMASSthe city faced overdependency on increasingly scarce 30%and expensive fossil fuels, air quality concerns caused by Coalcoal and oil burning within a city environment, and low 22%efficiency in energy distribution in the existing districtheating network. The solution was to reduce the citys Natural gasreliance on fossil fuels by maximising energy generated 21% Wastefrom waste, biomass and other fuel sources. (CO2 neutral component) 12% fossil BASED Waste 10% Oil 5%solution benefits– decarbonising the district heating• Technologies such as Combined Heat and Power (CHP) to • Creation of new jobs. capture and re-use heat energy that is otherwise lost in • Reduced CO2 emissions. the electricity generation process. • District heating costs around 45% less than oil• The district heating network distributes heat energy by individual oil boiler. efficiently around the city. The integration of renewable • The most cost-effective way to heat buildings, taking into fuels such as biomass further reduces the carbon account environmental costs. intensity of the network. • Almost no negative impact on air quality.
Keeping the city warm efficientlySolution in detailDevelopment of a district heating system that uses heat Decarbonising the heating systemgenerated from waste-to-energy plants; along with CHP Strategytechnology, initially fuelled by coal, natural gas and oil. The short-term goal of the city is to convert all remaining coal-fired CHP to biomass.Step by step expansion of the networkDistrict heating does not necessarily require an overhaul As a long-term strategy the City of Copenhagen is nowof existing energy systems. It can be implemented over a using geothermal energy in the district heating network.suitable period of time. A steam network was originallyestablished to supply hospitals and industry, and once a Renewable energy supplysteam pipe was established, offices, daycare centres and The use of CHP units allows highly efficient use of theprivate homes nearby were also connected. energy in the fuels (up to 94%), and results in lower carbon dioxide emissions.This network is now replaced by water-based districtheating which is more energy efficient and can be stored Biogas is being made an operational part of the town gasin thermal storages. grid by extracting gas from sludge produced in wastewater treatment processes.Regional co-operation in Greater Copenhagen:The entire integrated district heating system spanning Biomass is planned to replace coal and provide 100%more than 20 municipalities in the region is developed and renewable energy from the CHP plant-one plant hasoperated through regional co-operation and partnerships. already been converted to 100% biomass.Fuel sources for the district heating networkStep-by-Step expansion of the network. A district approach allows for FLEXIBLE, SCALED AND PHASEDINTRODUCTION of fuel sources and technologies.BiomassFossil fuels Production of heat andelectricity from traditional electricity and renewable fuels. heat
Copenhagen: Solutions For Sustainable CitiesThe sustainable benefits 32/33Economic Environmental SOCIAL• With high fuel efficiencies of up to • The District Heating system • Jobs were created in developing 94% by simultaneously generating achieves lower carbon dioxide the grid infrastructure required heat and power, the power emissions than the individual for the district heating system. plants need much less fuel per gas boilers (40% lower) and oil • Municipal and consumer kWh generated. In comparison, boilers (50% lower) it replaces. ownership of the district heating conventional power plants have • District heating can utilise and grid infrastructure and the an efficiency of around 40%. store the available heat from Danish Heat Supply Act ensure• District heating is considered CHP plants and thereby reduce that all economic benefits of price competitive for household the primary energy consumption district heating is returned to the consumers. It costs around 45 % by 70% compared to individual consumers. less than oil heating and approx boilers. • Joining the district heating 56% less than natural gas. • Conversion to biomass-fuelled system and sharing the fixed• For society in general, district district heating is further infrastrucure costs reduces the heating is the most cost-effective decarbonising the energy supply. heat price to the benefit of all heat supply taking into account consumers. environmental costs of CO2 and other emissions.
KeEp your city COOLPlease contact us for further information +45 3334 3871 firstname.lastname@example.org www.cphcleantech.com/cph-cooling The district cooling system distributes chilled water to cool the indoor air of buildings / Credit: Kontraframe
Copenhagen: Solutions For Sustainable CitiesKEEPING COOL under 34/35CO 2 pressureThe increased demand for air conditioning and cooling hasled to higher electricity consumption in many cities. In oureffort to provide low carbon cooling, we have built thefirst two district cooling networks. They are based on freecooling from seawater abstraction, along with runningsurplus heat from the district heating network throughabsorption cooling and traditional compression chillers.The project is expected to save 14,000 tonnes of carbondioxide per year.Peak summer temperatures in Copenhagen can reach 35°C fuels. Traditional air conditioning systems are expensive, District coolingand are expected to rise by 2 – 3% by 2050 – with average noisy and utilise a lot of space. Additionally there is does notdaily temperatures also rising. Consequently, the demand currently excess surplus heat within the district heating influence the architecturalfor traditional air conditioning is increasing. Dependency system during summer months when demand is low. impression ofon electricity-based cooling appliances can create The solution was to develop a ’District Cooling‘ system to the city.unsustainable electricity demand and overreliance on fossil complement the highly successful District Heating system.solution benefits– District cooling network• District Cooling is the centralised production and • Reduced CO2 emission. distribution of chilled water – partly cooled with cold • Urban heat island effect is reduced. seawater. It is distributed via underground insulated • Zero noise, unlike conventional cooling methods. pipelines to commercial and industrial buildings to cool • Reduced expenditure on energy imports. the indoor air.
Keeping cool under COMayor’s Introduction 2 pressuresolution in detailDistrict Cooling is the centralised production anddistribution of chilled water, partly cooled with cold integration of different principles of cooling Free cooling 70%seawater. It is distributed via underground insulated Seawater temperature is below 5.5°C and cooling demand Up to 70%pipelines to commercial and industrial buildings to low (less than 2400 kW). All cooling demands are covered reduction of CO2cool the indoor air. The plant is designed around three by free cooling heat exchangers. emissionsdifferent methods of cooling making it very flexible and when using district coolinghighly energy-efficient, depending on the temperature Combined operation compared toof the seawater. Seawater temperature is between 5.5°C and 11.5°C. Heat traditional exchangers are used for pre-cooling of the water, before it cooling methods.Utilise existing resources is fully cooled by chillers to the desired temperature.Seawater from Copenhagen Harbour is one resourceduring periods when the seawater is sufficiently cold. Chiller coolingSurplus heat from the district heating network during Seawater temperature is above 11.5°C. The seawater isperiods of low heat demand is another resource. too warm to be used for free cooling so absorption and compression chillers provide all cooling. Free cooling heatCreation of multiple connections to a network exchanges are bypassed completely.District Cooling works on the same principles as districtheating. Chilled water is produced centrally and carried 80%to the end users through a system of pipes. Network can Up to 80%be built adjoining district heating pipework, or can be laid reduction ofwhere no existing network is in place. electricity consumption when using district cooling compared to traditionalthe sustainable BENEFITS cooling. Economic Environmental SOCIAL • Reduction in expenditure on • Carbon dioxide reduction of 70%, • Zero noise to the customer, as energy imports. compared to traditional cooling. opposed to conventional cooling • Cooling contracts with different The annual sulphur dioxide and methods. organisations and institutions nitrogen oxide savings are 62% • Removes many of the health risks can be replicated, allowing easy and 69% respectively. associated with cooling towers, transferability. • Potential to negate or, at least e.g. Legionnaire’s disease. • Frees up commercial, retail and reduce, the urban heat island • Increased energy security from a parking spaces as conventional effect. centralised supply with improved cooling systems and fan • Demand for electricity is reduced resilience built in. coils on roofs are replaced by because electrically operated • Rooftop terraces instead of underground infrastructure. chillers are replaced by free traditional cooling systems. cooling and heat-operated chillers • Does not damage the via district cooling. architectural impression of a • Excessive heat, noise and beautiful city. chemicals from compressor chillers are avoided in individual buildings.
Copenhagen: Solutions For Sustainable Citiesdistrict cooling 36/37Building a new cooling station with a capacity of 15MW. Surplus HEAT from district heating electricityseawaterCooling Chilled water is carried to the end users
build and retrofit the sustainable way Please contact us for further information +45 3334 3871 email@example.com www.cphcleantech.com/cph-building Copenhagen Co2-neutral by 2025 / Credit: Kontraframe xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxs / Credit: Kxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Copenhagen: Solutions For Sustainable CitiescREATING BUILDINGS for life 38/39BEING CONSCIOUS ABOUT ENERGY CONSUMPTION WHEN WE BUILDAND RENOVATE IS A GOOD INVESTMENT – FOR our WELL-BEING, forTHE CLIMATE AND for THE economy. no less IMPORTANT than THEENERGY SAVED IS THE IMPROVED QUALITy OF LIFE that RESULTs FROMSUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS. 40%Collaboration between knowledge institutions, architects, The technical solutions for sustainable buildings and 40% of Denmark’sengineers and private and public partners has led to retrofitting are available and well proven. There are huge CO2 emissionscreative solutions. Solutions that improve the quality of savings to be made from energy optimisation in buildings, come from buildings.life for the people who live and work in the buildings as recovering the investments relatively quickly.well as the overall impression of the city with innovativerenovation projects and new world class architecture.Solution benefits– sustainable life cycle• Integrated design process from the very beginning of • Reduced CO2 emission and energy consumption in both the project. refurbished buildings and new sustainable buildings.• Efficient use of energy, water and other resources. • Urban areas become more attractive and the value of• Reduce waste, pollution and environmental real estate increases. degradation. • Improved health and quality of life; the ability to learn• Creating an indoor climate of high quality to protect and the level of concentration and well-being are occupant health and improve employee productivity. directly related to the quality of the indoor climate.• New thinking on the economic feasibility of buildings. • Economic benefits from energy optimisation.• Focus on life cycle costs and material costs. • Reduced risk and vulnerability to future increases in energy and water costs. • Reduced life cycle costs.
Creating buildings for lifeSolution in detailEnergy efficiency over the entire life cycle of a building is Making old buildings sustainablethe single most important goal of both new sustainable Retrofitting is the modernisation of old buildings witharchitecture and retrofitting of old buildings. Although new the aim of increasing energy-efficiency with respect fortechnologies are constantly being developed to complement the aesthetics of the old buildings. Retrofitting has acurrent practices in creating greener structures, the significant and measurable impact on energy consumptioncommon objective is that green buildings are designed and the indoor climate in buildings. In Copenhagen,to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on retrofitting alone is expected to account for a decreasehuman health and the natural environment. of 10% in electricity and 20% in heat consumption when comparing 2025 with 2010.New sustainable BuildingsSustainable buildings are environmentally responsible certificationand resource-efficient throughout the building’s life- DGNB Denmark is a Danish certification scheme withincycle: from siting to design, construction, operation and sustainability. A sustainable certification schememaintenance. This requires close cooperation between provides the necessary framework and criteria for thethe design team, the architects, the engineers, the users, planning, design, construction and property industries.the authorities, and the client at all project stages. The By working with DGNB we want to improve quality andGreen Building practice expands and complements the support the ambition that new buildings should be asclassical building design concerns of economy, durability, sustainable as possible.architecture and comfort.The sustainable BENEFITS Economic Environmental SOCIAL • Investments in energy savings have • Reduced CO2 emission and • The existing buildings, which relatively short pay back periods. energy consumption in both are part of the city history, are • Retrofitting old buildings makes refurbished buildings and new preserved. areas more attractive and sustainable buildings. • Refurbishment improves the increases the value of real estate. • Living and working in sustainable quality of life and encourages • Investments in retrofitting have a buildings inspires children and families to stay in the city. positive affect on the economy of adults to take climate-friendly • Improved indoor climate in the city. initiatives themselves. buildings has a positive impact • The construction sector has • The resources used have a on human health. experienced a much-welcomed reduced environmental impact. • Future-proof buildings. boost in demand for their services. • Public investments in buildings draws even greater private investment in a ratio 5:1.
Copenhagen: Solutions For Sustainable CitiesCopenhagen BUILDs AND RETROFITs THE SUSTAINABLE WAY 40/41THe technical solutions are used in both newsustainable buildings and retrofitting. technical solutions for technical solutions technical solutions for new sustainable buildings for new sustainable RETROFITTING buildings and retrofitting Efficient building envelope Replace or renovate old windows LED lighting and demand control Solar cells (PV) Insulation of walls, doors, roof, floors and waterpipes Green roofs and small gardens Changing the circulators to climate- Equipment to measure, manage and friendly ventilation system circulators visualise water and energy Ventilation and demand control Collection and reuse of rainwater Containers for waste recycling Establishing green outdoor areas energy heat
get the sustainable planning toolSPlease contact us for further information+45 3334 firstname.lastname@example.org/cph-urban-planning Copenhageners have large amounts of green space within a short walk or cycle ride, and good access to public transport / Credit: Kontraframe
Copenhagen: Solutions For Sustainable CitiesUrban planning: 42/43Economic and social benefitsCopenhagen is well known for its green aspirations and bikes.What is not as well known about the green city are the socialand economic benefits of the city’s approach to urban planning.How does a city improve quality of life, expand, and atthe same time reduce car usage and CO2 emissions?Intelligent urban planning is part of the answer. Throughstrategic urban planning and a history of environmentalambition, Copenhagen has created swarms of cyclists,large recreational areas, pedestrian streets, clean water inthe harbour and world-class integrated public transport.Population growth of copenhagen 535,000 640,000 2010 2025Solution benefits– Strategic urban planning• Municipal action plans and planning legislation for • Increase in land values. focused urban development. • A green and blue city improves the quality of life for the• Partnerships and stakeholder commitment for citizens. innovative and sustainable solutions. • Reduced CO2 emissions.• Strategic site preparation to finance development.
Urban planning: Economic and social benefitsSolution in detailPlanning tools, stakeholder commitment and collaboration of our city regarding social, environmental and economicbetween different sectors – that is our approach to challenges. The approach is useful for the development ofsustainable urban solutions and how we meet the needs new areas as well as for existing neighbourhoods.strategic urban planning Planning tools Financing urban development dialogue Fingerplan Strategic site preparation Citizens’ dialogue The growth of Copenhagen has been Investment in attractive urban Dialogue with citizens and qualitative set along five designated ’fingers‘ qualities, as infrastructure and blue analysis of their needs is important to following train and major road routes, and green spots increase the land get the strategy right and ensure a high with open space between. value. This is a way to finance urban quality of life and user friendly solutions. development in a sustainable way. Transit Oriented Development Regulations allow for higher densities Partnerships close to stations and ensure that large Partnerships between The City of offices can only be located within 500 Copenhagen and stakeholders in different meters of a station. sectors, ensure innovative solutions, sustainability and urban qualities. City planning City planning ensures sustainable development such as optimal facilities for bicycles, green areas and connection of the city to the water environment.
Copenhagen: Solutions For Sustainable CitiesCaseØrestad: planning sustainable developmentPlanning economic growth Planning an attractive city area 44/45The development of a new master-planned city area Ørestad is constructed around natural surroundingscalled Ørestad was decided upon in the early 1990s. and water, only 10 minutes from the city centre. ThePoliticians realised that Copenhagen lacked the dynamic neighbourhood consists of a great mix of culturalattraction to be the driving force for Denmark and to be and educational institutions, office blocks and denseable to compete with other metropolitan cities in Europe. pockets of housing. The masterplan securesThe masterplan had two main goals: getting companies high-quality architecture, public transport close toto set up in the city instead of on the outskirts of major destinations, and focus on sustainability.Copenhagen — or abroad — and encouraging youngfamilies to stay in Copenhagen rather than buying a Several buildings in Ørestad reflect the cream ofhome in the distant suburbs. contemporary architectural standards of form and function. Many buildings have received awards, and someFinancing: Strategic Site Preparation of them may already now be considered modern classics.Financing the development of the new neighbourhood Interesting examples of modern architecture in Ørestadwas made possible by strategic site preparation. are: the IT University, the Bikuben Hall of Residence, DR“Ørestadsselskabet”, a development company, invested Concert hall, Ramboll Head Office, VM Bjerget, Bella Skyin attractive landscape qualities such as lakes and canals Hotel and 8TALLET.as well as pocket parks and the preservation of a largearea of meadowland nearby. The construction of theMetro was part of the investment and has made Ørestadeasy to reach by public transport. The first phases of thenew Copenhagen Metro were financed by selling sites inØrestad and taking out-loans.The sustainable BENEFITS Economic Environmental SOCIAL • The increase in land values • Reduced CO2 emissions through • Vibrant urban areas not generated by the construction high-class public transport and dominated by cars promote of new high-class transport optimum facilities for bicycles. social interaction. systems, landscaping and land-use • Compact mixed use • Easy access to regional green regulations, is capitalised in the developments reduce land-use areas by metro improves the joint area development company. and the need for transport. quality of life. • Urban areas of high quality • Integrating new green landscapes • Local parks, and ’pocketparks‘, increase the attractiveness in urban development creates reduce distances to recreative of Copenhagen for residents, a more livable city with cleaner areas and provide space for businesses and tourists. air and areas for discharge of sports and social activities. • Businesses are located in central rainwater. • Canals and clean water create parts of Copenhagen without quality and a new identity in congestion. the city.
Mayor’s Introduction Get your city carbon neutral Please contact us for further information +45 3334 3871 email@example.com www.cphcleantech.com/cph-2050 Adapting to future climate / Credit: Kontraframe
Copenhagen: Solutions For Sustainable CitiesCopenhagen 46/47– carbon neutral by 2025Copenhagen assumes its share of the responsibility for climatechange with the CPH 2025 Climate Plan. We want to show thatit is possible to combine growth, development and increased 20%quality of life with the reduction of CO 2 emissions.It is all aboutfinding solutions that are smarter, greener, healthier and more CO2 emissionsprofitable. AND by 2025 we will be able to call ourselves the were reduced by more thanworld’s first carbon neutral capital. 20% from 2005 to 2011.The CPH 2025 Climate Plan is a holistic plan as well as a The CPH 2025 Climate Plan describes how our ambitionscollection of specific goals and initiatives within four areas for carbon neutrality should be used as leverage for– energy consumption, energy production, green mobility a better quality of life, innovation, job creation andand the City Administration. Work in the four areas must investment, and how the goal of carbon neutrality canbe set in motion immediately for Copenhagen to become be achieved by 2025 through close cooperation betweenthe world’s first carbon neutral capital. government businesses, knowledge institutions and Copenhageners. GovernmentsEnergy Consumption Energy Production Businesses CPH 2025 Knowledge Institutions Climate Plan City Administration Green Mobility CopenhagenersFocus areas and stakeholders contributing to the CPH 2025 Climate Plan.