Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster - Water Report 2012


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The Water report 2012 is the first of its kind. With the ambition of mapping the entire water sector in Denmark, we hope that it will serve it purpose and add even more dynamism to a sector already growing and create new jobs to the benefit of not just the individual companies, but also Danish society.

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Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster - Water Report 2012

  1. 1. DENMARK:WHERE WATER MATTERS Asset mapping of the Danish water sector
  2. 2. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 2Table of content Foreword3 Acknowledgements4 Introduction5 What is so special about Denmark and water? 6 Trends in regulation affecting the water sector 8 Public investment in research and development 10 The value chain of the Danish water sector 12 Mapping the value chain of the water sector 15 Conclusion17 Case study: Is swimming advisable in a capital city? In Copenhagen ‘yes’ 18 Case study: From Denmark to India through partnerships 19 Case study: Carlsberg uses the least water per beer 20 Case study: The ballast-water convention will foster innovation in Denmark 21 Case study: Copenhagen’s new North Harbour – a living water lab 22 Company list - the water sector in Denmark 23 Utilities and knowledge institutions 27
  3. 3. ForewordThis report on the Danish water sector has been prepared by considered to be part of the water sector,Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster (CCC). CCC’s mission is to cre- and desk research added more companies toate continuous growth for existing cleantech companies, to the list. These efforts resulted in interviews with 131 companies and of those 93 agreedsupport and assist new cleantech companies and to attract to appear in the report and are now part ofmore foreign cleantech companies to the regions of Copen- a comprehensive list showing the size andhagen and Zealand. field of operation in relation to water for each company. Reflecting this, the report has a dual purpose. Firstly, it could be used by actors in the Danish The report should be seen as part of the water sector when they are targeting new efforts of the CCC to capitalize on Danish export markets or collaboration partners to competencies in new ways, creating new jobs, show the extent and competencies of the and growing exports and wealth. Therefore, sector. And it can be used by Danish actors the report focuses on the commercial aspects wishing to start new ventures or the like with and potentials of the Danish water sector – other Danish actors. Secondly, the report can not the political and social challenges related be used for attracting foreign companies to to water supply and the use of water in Den- Denmark. It can help them identify if there are mark itself. We hope the report will serve its gaps in the Danish water sector where foreign purposes well and add even more dynamism companies could find new opportunities to a sector already growing and creating new and also strengthen the existing sector. The jobs to the benefit of not just the individual report can also be used by foreign companies companies, but also Danish society and to identify Danish partners for new research clients with a huge variety of challenges and and development within the water sector. The needs both here and in the rest of the world. report will be presented at the Open Smart City 2012 conference that is taking place on March 20-21, 2012. One of the four main Editor: conference themes is ‘water systems and Klaus Rovsing Kristiansen waste water’. Contact: The report is the first of its kind with the ambi- Copenhagen Capacity tion of mapping the entire water sector in Tel: +45 33 22 02 22 Denmark. This, however, is not an easy task as the system for industry classification does not contain the proper definitions. Consequently, © Copenhagen Capacity a framework model of the value chain – or to A part of Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster be more correct, value chains – of the water systems in Denmark has been developed in order to give the best possible overview of the many actors involved in the water sector. Experts with insight into the water sector were asked to identify companies that they
  4. 4. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 4AcknowledgementsA number of people from industry, academia, public authori- tor of Water, Grontmij; Jakob Møller Nielsen,ties and associations have kindly assisted CCC in the process Head of Division, The Danish Nature Agency;of producing the report. Jørn Rasmussen, The Innovation Network for Environmental Technology, Director at DHI; We would like to give special thanks to Jesper Søren Bukh Svenningsen, Chief of Division, Goodley Dannisøe, Senior Project Manager, Environmental Protection Agency and Dorte Danish Water Forum; Benny Hagelskjær, Part- Vigsø, Team Leader, Ministry of Economic and ner and Senior Consultant, WTC ApS; Jørn Jes- Business Affairs. persen, Director of the Association of Danish Environmental Technology; Karin Larsen, Pro- In addition we would like to thank the Innova- ject Manager, DANVA; Kasper Lindgaard, Chief tion Network for Environmental Technology of Division, Ministry of Business and Growth; who also supported the work. Finally, we like Morten Løber, Senior Advisor, Confederation to acknowledge the companies that have of Danish Industry; Elisabeth Manford, Global been willing to participate in the questionnaire Team Leader, Energy and Environment at the conducted. Danish Trade Council; Niels Henrik Mortensen, Functional Manager, Environmental Protec- Please note that the author is solely responsi- tion Agency; Hans-Martin Friis Møller, Direc- ble for the contents of the report. water is the foundation for all life AND A GLOBAL GROWTH MARKET
  5. 5. IntroductionBasically, water is the foundation for all life. But water is also the field of water. For instance, countries withthe foundation for civilization and a prosperous life, even advanced economies have problems withthough this may get forgotten in the privileged world. polluted water and brownfield land. Also, ad- vanced farming practices have often caused According to the UN some 900 million people difficulties, for instance with pesticides in the do not have access to clean water1. At the groundwater. For people, farmers, workers and same time, the world population is growing business owners being affected in a negative and so is the need for food and energy. Both way, these challenges can often spell disas- the production of food and the supply of en- ter. The only positive aspect – from a strictly ergy depend heavily on water. Parallel to this, commercial point of view – is that supplying climate change is also affecting the water and handling water is a global growth market. situation in many countries. Some experience drought and some flooding. In between these These developments have fostered a huge extremes, it is predicted that Denmark will global market for water-related equipment experience an increase in torrential rain and a and services estimated to have an annual rise in temperature. turnover of more than USD 480 billion2. This makes it a market with a bigger turnover than, In some areas water supply is not the only for example, the total value creation (GDP) of or the biggest challenge: it is handling water Sweden. in a suitable manner and disposing of water – whether used or not – in the proper way. Virtually every country faces challenges in 1  United Nations (July 2010): “General Assem- bly declares access to clean water and sanitation 2  SAM (2010): “Water: a market of the future”. is a human right”. asp?NewsID=35456Cr=SANITATION tcm794-263789.pdf
  6. 6. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 6What is so special about Denmark and water?Denmark has a long history of creating smart solutions in the The competencies involved in making ad-field of supplying the population, industry and farming with vanced solutions, not only in a Danish contextclean and safe groundwater. The lack of lakes and rivers big but also for customers in other parts of the world, have been developed through very ac-enough to supply the growing cities with clean surface water tive development aid programmes. Denmarkhas probably played a role in this. is one out of only a handful of countries in the world to live up to the United Nations target For more than 60 years, Denmark has had a for contributions to development aid. This tradition of ambitious physical planning. From ambitious Danish development aid policy has an early stage, the planning has been taking played an important role in making the Dan- into account how to secure the preservation ish water sector internationally competitive. of groundwater. This includes allocating land A wide range of Danish actors in the water where potentially polluting manufacturing sector have been able to take the technolo- industries were allowed to establish them- gies to developing and other countries and selves, and also setting rules for where farm- successfully implement the solutions under ers could use fertilisers and pesticides etc. different climate and regulatory conditions. In addition to this, Denmark also has a long Denmark can now be regarded as a European tradition of handling waste water in the water hub: a centre for knowledge, technolo- proper way. Since the eighties Denmark has gy, services and solutions in the field of water. had very strict and ambitious regulation of Due to good general framework conditions water management and discharge permits. and special competencies in relation to water, This has forced Danish knowledge institu- Denmark can be used as a base for develop- tions and expert consultants to be at the ment and for exploring the Scandinavian and forefront in developing solutions to deal with European markets. the ambitious regulation targets set. Conse- quently, Danish companies are able to supply customers around the globe with very refined methods for handling water and with front- end technology in general.
  8. 8. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 8Trends in regulation affecting the water sectorRegulation plays an important role for the development of Revision of regulationthe Danish water sector. There are at least three concerns at When the upcoming revision of the regulationplay in the regulation. is negotiated, the bar is expected to be raised again. New efforts could be made to stimu- There is the general concern with the protec- late the continuous transformation to green tion of the environment, including present and growth. Hopefully, new initiatives will be able future sources of water. Next is regulation to meet both the obligations laid down in the that deals with how essential parts of the EU Water Framework Directive as well as the sector should be organized. Finally, there is interests of businesses. the concern with ensuring a dynamic sector where the necessary investment is taking Some of the themes for future policy could place and that businesses can contribute to be: growth and job creation. The ‘organization -- Sustainable solutions to nitrogen and of the water sector and economic condi- phosphorus outflow, for instance through tions law’ from 2009 demands segregation biogasification or other new technolo- between those activities by the municipalities gies. which are financed by tax and those financed -- Optimisation of waste water manage- by customers in the field of water abstraction, ment to achieve even greater reductions distribution and waste water management. in discharges into the water environment This law established a clear distinction be- and in the use of chemicals and recycling tween the public authorities acting as buyer of nutrients, especially phosphorus. and as supplier. -- Optimisation of groundwater resources to both the general water supply as well A fund for technological development has as irrigation. been established to support innovation and development in those companies delivering Some of the tools that could be expected to technology and solutions to the utility compa- advance the transition to green growth are: nies. This reflects a growing interest in making the Danish water sector more dynamic and is -- Introduction of economic incentives to a good point of departure for participation in choose sustainable solutions, e.g. tariffs, the increasingly global competition within the subsidies etc. water sector. -- Support for demonstration project -- Adjustment of existing regulation to Regulation of water resources exists which increase the incentive to be “green”. sets targets for the improvement of the water environment. Measures have been taken to In addition, a Nature and Agricultural Com- reduce the outflow of nutrients from agricul- mission is being launched. This commission tural activities into lakes, the water in coastal might point to both new targets as well as areas, create better water quality in streams, measures. A lot of the themes and incentives and improve waste water treatment. mentioned above might be discussed. The recommendations will be presented to the government in the first part of 2013.
  9. 9. EU regulation is important to all countries technological, organizational and sociological barriers to innovation in the area of waterEU regulation and policy is also important resource management, the internalization ofto the development of the Danish water costs from water use and water pollution andsector. Water policy is high on the agenda water the EU. The Commission is working on aBlueprint to Safeguard Europe’s Water. The The challenge for regulation in the years toreport will aim to ensure good quality water come – at both EU and national level – is toin sufficient quantities for all legitimate uses. support both a sustainable environment asIt is closely related to the EU 2020 Strategy well as competitive framework conditions forand is supposed to be the water milestone the industry. No matter what the outcome willon a new Roadmap to a Resource Efficient be, new challenges and greater dynamism willEurope. The time horizon of the Blueprint is also be on the agenda for the Danish water2020. The Blueprint, together with a number sector in the future.of studies, will provide the knowledge baseto develop the policy options that can deliverbetter implementation, better integration andcompletion of EU water policy. The Blueprintwill be published at the end of 2012. It is likelyto have great influence on future policy in theEU – and consequently in Denmark. The Blue-print will focus, for example, on the financial,
  10. 10. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 10Public investment in research and developmentThe Danish government’s water strategy is ambitious on production processes, more efficient energybehalf of the players involved in research and development and resource management as well as tech-in the field of water. The Danish agenda has been set for nological systems that reduce environmental impact.making the water sector an even more sustainable system inorder to make Denmark prepared for future challenges. The The Foundation for Development of Tech-major political task is to find the most cost-effective meth- nology in the Danish Water Sector2ods to transform water solutions. The foundation is dedicated to supporting the development of new technology in the Dan- It is vital to make prompt long-term invest- ish water sector. The Foundation focuses on ments in developing new water solutions. It giving financial support to projects which will may take decades for a new water technolo- lead to improvements for the water distribu- gy to evolve from when the first ideas arise in tion and waste water companies and their the laboratory to the point where a competi- consumers such as households, industrial tive product is launched on the commercial companies, institutions etc. The improve- market. Very often there is no guarantee of ments must relate to quality, uninterrupted success in RD. But the positive effects of supply, and environmental and efficiency success might be substantial for a country. improvements, including energy efficiency. An Therefore, it makes sense to offer public important task for the Foundation is to con- support for the development of technology tribute to the cooperation between distribu- and solutions in areas of great importance to tion companies, universities and industry with society. a view to supporting the creation of synergy and innovation in the water sector. Over the past few years, the strategic water research and development programme’s The Business Innovation Fund3 Grant Scheme for Environmental Technologies The fund’s aim is to promote growth, employ- within Water, The Foundation for the Develop- ment and export by supporting business op- ment of Technology, The Business Innovation portunities within green growth and welfare, Fund and The Danish National Advanced Tech- as well as providing support for change-over nology Foundation have enhanced innovation to exploit new business and growth opportu- within water solutions. More supplementary nities in less favoured areas of the country. sources of funding within other programmes Private enterprises operating within green and smaller programmes in the cities can also business or the field of welfare can apply for support water projects in certain circum- grants within three focus areas: innovation, stances. market maturation and change-over. Public players can enter into consortia with private Grant Scheme for Environmental Efficient enterprises and thereby apply for grants from Technologies1 the Fund. Green innovative solutions cover all The scheme focuses on any technology types of products and services that reduce that either directly or indirectly improves the pressure on the environment and are prof- the environment. It includes technologies itable. Thus, it must be economically viable to for limiting pollution by clean-up processes, develop and use them. more environmentally-friendly products and 1  Own translation. Tilskudsordning til miljøeffektiv 2  Vandsektorens Teknologiudviklingsfond. See teknologi. See: IsaerForVirksomheder/Finansiering_tilskud/Tilskudsord- 3  Fornyelsesfonden. See ning_miljoeteknologi_mst.htm
  11. 11. The Danish National Advanced Technology quality and relevance of the applications and Foundation4 has not earmarked in advance relative propor- The foundation is funding projects and plat- tions for the different focus areas. forms which primarily have an energy focus, including more efficient energy production Within the individual technology areas, the and use. This also comprises appropriations programmes are collaborating with research- within the foundation’s focus areas for en- ers and enterprises to define strategic ergy/the environment, IT and telecommunica- development goals and milestones. This tions, production and building. The Foundation collaboration has helped to optimize the prioritises its funds solely according to the results achieved from public funding for water technology research, development and demonstration, funded through annual publicTable 1. Four largest water research programmes – investments within water in 2010 and investment. 2011 (in mill. EUR)Source: Programme websites Programmes/ Year 2010 2011 Grant Scheme for Environmental Technologies 2.0 n.a. within Water The Foundation for the Development of Technol- 2.7 2.7 ogy in the Danish Water Sector The Business Innovation Fund 3.9 5.5 The Danish National Advanced Technology 0 1.3 Foundation 4  Højteknologifonden. See en/
  12. 12. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 12The value chain of the Danish water sectorA value chain framework has been developed to create an principle. They can invest by lending money oroverview of the Danish water sector. In fact, the framework raising prices, but are not allowed to make a profit. Consequently, the sector is dominatedcovers more than one value chain, so it would probably be by public ownership. But this chain link alsomore correct to call it a network of value chains. The model is consists of companies that deliver knowledgeshown in Figure 1. or solutions to the actors actually dealing with abstracting the water. The market for The first chain link in the model shows com- these private companies is growing due to the panies and actors involved in the collection or need for investment in the water utilities. See extraction of water from a variety of resourc- Figure 2 es – groundwater, surface water, seawater etc. – to be used for different purposes. The utility companies abstracting the water all have to be non-profit-making due to Danish regulation. This part of the sector oper- ates according to the so-called break-evenFigure 1. A model for the system of value chains in the Danish water sector Consumers - energy nexus food nexus Water Waste water distribution treatment Industry - Water re-use of water Sludge and resource decentralised biosolids water Urban drainage Water and waste water quality collection Agriculture - phosphorus recovery
  13. 13. Figure 2. Investments in water abstraction and distribution 2006-2012 (2010 prices – DKK/m3 of water sold)Source: DANVA (2011): “Water in figures 2011” 2.86 3.24 3.21 4.10 3.95 5.74 4.89 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Reinvestments and new investments (28 companies - earlier BM medthod) Implemented investments (54 companies - Investments and lifetime - extending investements) Planned investments (54 companies - Investments and lifetime - extending investements) The next chain link relating to drinking water Figure 3 shows the extremely low losses in is water distribution. When it comes to the Danish water distribution. direct actors, this area is also dominated by publically-owned companies. But once again, The third chain link consists of companies it is private companies who deliver the solu- specialized in working with securing and tions needed to the water distributors. And improving water quality. Denmark is charac- Denmark has a very high standard in this area. terized by a very high quality of drinking water and uses very little or no chemicals to achieve that high quality.Figure 3. Water loss per km of pipes per daySource: DANVA (2010): “Water in figures 2010” based on OFWAT 2008 own figures from The next three chain links (in red) consist 2009 for Denmark.Unit is m3/km/day of the different main categories of users of water: private households, companies and agriculture users. For all three target groups, the companies involved have developed knowledge, technology or services related to handling the different requirements of the 7.0 target groups’ users – minimizing loss and keeping the water clean. This has different aspects reflecting the different groups of Portugal clients. For instance, for the agricultural sector 21.3 10.1 phosphorous recovery is an important theme. For industry it is about process technologies making the handling of the water as efficient 1.7 1.6 England as possible. Denmark’s success in minimizing Scotland Denmark Wales Netherlands the use of water is now very obvious: it ranks
  14. 14. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 14Figure 4. Waste water investments 2006-2012 (2010 prices – DKK/m3 of water sold)Source: DANVA (2011): “Water in figures 2011” 12.39 13.01 14.52 14.53 12.66 14.50 17.99 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Reinvestments and new investments (16-22 companies - earlier BM medthod) Implemented investments (57 companies - Investments and lifetime - extending investements) Planned investments (57 companies - Investments and lifetime - extending investements) number two in the OECD when it comes to Finally, urban drainage and waste water col- the low use of water per capita. Furthermore, lection are growth areas as a result of climate since 1990 the abstraction of water per capi- change. Due to good sewerage systems, ta has been reduced by 50%1. Households in Denmark has had a tradition of letting a great particular have been able to cut down the use deal of rainwater into the system. However, of water for a long period of time.2 this is a costly solution and new decentralized solutions for getting rid of rainwater or for us- Waste water treatment is the next chain link ing it have been developed. in the model. Like abstraction and distribution, this part of the sector is dominated by public Parallel to the water sector, the waste man- actors in its core activities. Nevertheless, a agement and the agricultural sectors have a wide range of private companies deliver solu- growing interest in how to use biosolids and tions to the waste water treatment utilities. sludge for energy production. This is a field of The waste water utilities have been experi- expertise central to other value chains, even encing increased investment over the past though it is related to water. A huge part of few years, making it an attractive market for Danish energy production stems from waste private companies. See Figure 4. incineration, but this is another story of Danish specialties within greentech. 1  OECD (2011): “OECD Factbook 2011-2012. Environment – Water and natural resources – Water consumption” factbook-2011-2012/water-consumption_factbook- 2011-76-en 2  Source: DANVA (2011): “Water in figures 2011”
  15. 15. Mapping the value chain of the water sectorIn order to map the water sector, CCC conducted a telephone by name and are part of a list showing the sizesurvey. Experts with insight into the water sector identified a and field of operation in relation to water forlist of companies that they considered to be part of the wa- each company.ter sector. Desk research added more companies to the list. According to the survey there are 7,000 full-time equivalent employees working with water in Denmark – excluding the utilities. 34 The list only contains private companies, not companies have 50 employees or more work- public or not-for-profit utilities. This resulted ing with water. But many companies engage in a gross list of 260 companies with phone in other activities in addition to those relating numbers available. An analysis bureau called to water and therefore represent a greater each company up to 18 times before the pool of resources. These companies represent company was removed from the list. Only a total of more than 50,000 employees in 26 companies declined to take part in the Denmark. A number of the companies have survey. An additional 53 companies informed foreign ownership. Consequently, a more us that they were not operating in the field precise term than “the Danish water sec- of water to an extent that could justify their tor” would be the water sector in Denmark participation in the survey. 10 companies because 25 per cent of the companies are said they would answer via a weblink, and foreign-owned. See Figure 5. two did so. Altogether, successful interviews Therefore, the competencies of the compa- were conducted with 131 companies. The nies which relate to water also go beyond response rate was just above 50 per cent, Denmark’s borders. The companies in the which is considered quite high. Of those 131 survey represent over 36,000 people working companies, 93 agreed to appear in the report with water outside Denmark. Summing up, the total number of people in the “Danish” water sector actually working with water isFigure 5. Nationality of ownership of companies in the Water sector 43,000. To get the full picture, one should addSource: CCC survey / Jysk Analyse A/S (n=128 companies, excluding 3 answering “Don’t the utilities working with water abstraction know”) Ownership 50 % defines nationality and distribution as well as waste water. They represent another 5,000 employees1. In total, 48,000 people are involved in the water sec- tor in Denmark. The turnover of the companies in Denmark which are involved in the water sector is dif- Foreign ownership ficult to estimate. Going on the turnover of 25% the 52 companies that supplied us with the necessary information, it is around 600 million euros. If we assume that the companies who 1  According to Statistics Denmark there were 3,187 full-time equivalent employees in the water supply Danish ownership and waste water industries in 2009. However, it is 75% unlikely that this gives the full picture in this area due to structural and regulatory changes in exactly that period of time. According to DANVA 123 of their (biggest) members in this area who answered a survey represent 3,446 employees. They estimate there are another 1,500 employees within their field of operation, making a total of around 5,000 employees.
  16. 16. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 16 realistic after all. For the average company inFigure 6. The primary products of companies in the Danish Water sectorSource: CCC survey / Jysk Analyse A/S (n=122 companies, excluding 9 answering the water sector, exports account for 35 per “Don’t know”) cent of the turnover. The survey mapped which activities the individual companies are undertaking. Again, it should be remembered that the survey does not include public utilities. The largest group Service/software of companies are engaged in the production or development of technology. This accounts 22% Both for 46 per cent of the companies who re- 32% sponded. 22 per cent are engaged in supply- ing services or software, while a large group of 32 per cent of the companies have substan- tial activities in both areas. See figure 6. The survey mapped these activities in further Production/technology detail. Figure 7 shows the mapping of the 46% value chain. The numbers show how many of the companies in the survey engage in the activities in each specific chain link in the model. Helping industry with water solutions is the most widespread activity in the sector. 72 per cent of the companies are represented did not answer these questions are like the here. Next comes solutions, technology and ones who did, the total turnover is around services related to waste water treatment, 1.5 billion euros. This assumption is a bit closely followed by the 58 per cent of the optimistic because the non-informants are companies working with water quality. The generally smaller than the participants. But least widespread area is services and solu- on the other hand, not all relevant companies tions for the common consumer, i.e. private answered the survey, so the number may be households.Figure 7. Mapping the private companies in the Danish water sectorSource: CCC survey / Jysk Analyse A/S (n=131 companies) Consumers 27% Water distribution Waste watertreatmentWater resources 33% Industry 62% Sludge and biosolids 38% Water quality 72% Urban drainage and waste water collection 58% Agriculture 41% 58%
  17. 17. ConclusionDenmark has unique qualities in the field of water. It all stems that Denmark was suffering from ‘waterfrom the fact that Denmark is a country where water mat- stress’. This is definitely not the case – we justters – water is regarded as a valuable asset and is prized care about water.accordingly. Denmark is a small country. And maybe this Compared to most other countries Denmark could be one reason why Denmark special- is very good at handling water, having one of izes in tailor-made solutions. We are good at the lowest levels of loss within the distribution understanding the needs of customers and system. There is a very high level of security in meeting those needs with exactly the right the Danish water supply system. Denmark has solution. been so skilled at saving water that the use of water per capita is very low. So low that at Still, there is room for improvement. And new one point this was misinterpreted by sources knowledge and actors could play a role, es- outside Denmark and led to the conclusion pecially in waste water techniques and urban drainage.Figure 8. The companies’ expectations of the number of employees working with water in five All together, the Danish water sector seems years. Percentage of the companies that expect… to be looking at a bright future. When the pri-Source: CCC survey / Jysk Analyse A/S (n=129 companies, excluding 2 answering vate companies in the sector are asked about “Don’t know”) their expectations, the answer is very clear. Of the 129 companies answering the question: within the next 5 years does the company expect to have more employees, fewer em- ployees or the same number of employees? 72 per cent of companies expect to grow and employ more people. In a time of economic Fewer employees No change More employees crisis, the Danish water sector is an attractive 2% 26% 72% prospect for those looking for new opportuni- ties in innovation and growth.
  18. 18. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 18Case study: Is swimming advisable in a capital city? In Copenhagen ‘yes’Pollution from Copenhagen’s old sewage system, along with Along with appraisal from the citizens ofgeneral neglect, previously made the thought of swimming Copenhagen, the Harbour Baths have alsoin Copenhagen’s harbour unlikely. However, through the gained iconic landmark status, raising themodernization of the sewage system, the water quality has international standing of the city and making it a tourist attraction worth visiting.improved so much that the municipality of Copenhagen of-ficially opened the public harbour baths in 2002. The solution The problem of pollution was managed More than just swimming through a number of implementations: The clean water in Copenhagen Harbour has proved to have many more effects than just -- Modernizing the sewage system making it possible to swim in the city. With the -- Rainwater reservoirs were con- opening of the harbour baths, the city centre structed to help store waste water area has experienced a substantial revitaliza- until there is space again in the sew- tion. With the new urban design and status age system as a blue recreation park, there are now plans -- Physical, biological and chemical to improve local transport to the harbour treatment, gasification of sludge baths and beach park, contributing to future and incineration processes remove economic growth. nutrient salts and minimize dis- charge of heavy metals This revitalization has also seen local increas- -- 55 overflow channels were closed es in property prices, as well as improved po- and waste water is only discharged tential for investment in the area. As a result, into the harbour during particularly a general business and market regeneration heavy rainfall. has taken place leading to the creation of -- Pro-active systems deal with rainwater jobs. locally, diverting it during heavy rain. -- Automatic warning systems are monitor- Along with economic benefits the local area is ing the bacteria level in the harbour. also experiencing a social revolution. Citizens are now able to swim, sail and fish in the city Source: Copenhagen Capacity and City of centre, making it a cool and trendy place to Copenhagen (2011) “Copenhagen: “solutions meet in the summer. for sustainable cities”
  19. 19. Case study: From Denmark to India through partnershipsThe partnership for environmental technology in the water Strategic co-creationsector in India is a collaboration between the Danish Ministry The partnership acts as an overall frameworkof the Environment, the Danish Water Forum, the Danish em- for strategic collaboration on establishingbassy in Delhi and 6 companies: COWI, Danfoss, DHI, Grund- several demonstration projects within waste water handling. In the short term, the focusfos, Siemens Turbo Machinery and VCS (VandCenter Syd). will be on helping the Indian water sector to become energy efficient as well as providing Mission of the partnership an improved treatment process. In the long The background for this partnership was an term, the project will improve efficiency in export event in India in February 2009 (Danish- waste water handling, and also ease the entry Indian Water Days). At the event 6 companies, of Danish water technology companies into the Danish Water Forum and the Minister for the Indian market. the Environment were present. At the event there was a substantial interest in water tech- Source: nology and knowledge from Denmark. sigt/Partnerskaber_milj%C3%B8teknologi/ Partnerskab_miljoeteknologi_vandsektoren_ By visiting various Indian water treatment Indien/ plants, the visitors from Denmark realized the great potential for energy saving and overall process improvement. In November 2009 the partnership was of- ficially formed as part of the Danish govern- ment’s environmental technology plan. In par- ticular, the partnership had synergy effects, with the initiative of export promotion and partnership with India agreed upon in Sep- tember 2009. This specific agreement with India focuses on commercial collaboration on cost-effective and sustainable environmental technology solutions in the area of water, air, waste handling and chemicals.
  20. 20. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 20Case study: Carlsberg uses the least water per beerCarlsberg is now using only 3.3 litres of water to produce 1 Understanding and managing water risks is anlitre of beer. No other global brewer has reported using an important aspect of Carlsbergs’s strategy. Theequally small amount of water. Historically, Carlsberg has a company has committed itself to address-strong culture of using resources more efficiently. ing water risks throughout the entire supply chain and in the local communities where its breweries are situated. In 2011, the company undertook a global water risk assessment for Just during last year (2011), the Carlsberg each of its breweries. Carlsberg will develop Group reduced water consumption within local community initiatives at brewery sites their breweries by 5.6%. The reduction has that have been identified as high-risk and will been driven by the company’s ‘lean utilities’ address critical water challenges at water- programme. The programme sets targets shed level at sites exposed to risk. for local breweries and concrete measures have been implemented such as introducing Source: Carlsberg Group processes of re-use, the optimisation of water consumption in the filling line, and the installa- Progress/Environment/Pages/Water.aspx tion of new pumps. Some sites have significantly reduced their water use – for instance the Celarevo brewery in Serbia reduced water consumption by 11%. In the Slavutich brewery in Ukraine, they achieved an 18 % decrease in water use through a process of reusing water in the beer filtration lines, vacuum pumps and buffer tanks. In other sites improvements have been achieved through the improved control of water temperatures and pump pressures. Especially in areas where water resources are scarce the use of new technologies has been important. For example, Carlsberg India imple- mented a Waste Water Recovery Plant for its Hyderabad Brewery.
  21. 21. Case study: The ballast-water convention will foster innovation in DenmarkThe ballast-water convention is to be implemented in Den- A Danish solutionmark. Water from ballast-tanks in ships has been a problem On March 22, 2010, DESMI Ocean Guard offi-for the aquatic environment for many years. The tanks used cially received the IMO Basic Approval of theirto be emptied without any treatment taking place. Without Ballast Water Treatment Plant. DESMI Ocean Guard is a relatively new company establishedtreatment of the water, different living organisms in the by A.P Moller – Maersk A/S, DESMI A/S andballast water can spread into the ecosystem with negative Skjølstrup Grønborg ApS, with a main focusconsequences. In the worst cases this can develop into a on developing systems for the removal of liv-substantial environmental problem. ing organisms from ballast-water. Because of this the IMO (the International Unique Concept Maritime Organization) created the Ballast A concept developed by DESMI Ocean Guard Water Convention in order to limit the distribu- has a primary UV treatment stage and ozone tion of these invasive organisms affecting wa- injection as a secondary treatment. This com- ter, humans, fish and the ecosystem. In order bination of UV and ozone is considered unique for this convention to be approved it needs to in connection with ballast-water treatment be ratified by 30 countries. and the technology is regarded as one of the most efficient treatment methods when The convention states that all ships, de- dealing with the removal of organic material pendent on their manufacturing data and from water. ballast-water capacity, should either change the water or treat it onboard with approved After the basic approval from the IMO, DESMI technology. From 2016 all ships will be obliged went on to test their system with the required to change the ballast-water. Because of this land-based and shipboard test programme. there is a need for technology and adminis- These tests were carried out by DHI, Hør- trative tools for the certification, control and sholm, which is accredited as the official test handling of ballast-water. institute for Ballast Water Treatment Systems. DHI offers an advanced test facility located at In order to secure the ratification and imple- Hundested Harbour. mentation of the convention in Denmark, a partnership between the Danish Maritime Au- Source: DESMI Ocean Guard A/S – Press thority, the Danish Nature Agency and Danish Release ship-owners was established in January 2010. The main purpose is not just to implement nerskaber_miljøteknologi/Partnerskab_bal- the convention in Danish waters, but also to lastvand secure its dissemination in the EU and the rest of the world. Furthermore, the aim is for the partnership to promote knowledge, network- ing and development within the area covered by the convention.
  22. 22. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 22Case study: Copenhagen’s new North Harbour – a living water labThe North Harbour area will be an expansion of Copenhagen -- Waste water systems: feasibility studywith homes for 40,000 citizens and workplaces for 40,000 on strategy for using secondary waterworkers. in cities The goal of this work package is to carry The mission of the North Harbour is not only out a feasibility study on a possible to create new homes and workspaces. Copen- strategy for supplying a city area with hagen will also be creating a smart city area secondary water. The North Harbour open to innovative water solutions from lead- will be used as a case study as the first ing water companies and research institutions differentiated water supply system in a from around the world. new coastal city area in Denmark. The innovation project will conclude with a The mission of creating a smart city area statement on the commercial, social and within water solutions is being managed by environmental consequences. The basic the Water in Urban Areas organization, a part- idea is to exploit the resources that are nership for climate adaptation and innovation. not used in the traditional groundwater- The organization is based on a national triple- based drinking water supply due to their helix structure, where knowledge institutions, inferior quality. public authorities and private companies work closely together. By working with a triple-helix -- Waste water systems: development of structure it is possible to combine different cleaning technology for the recovery types of knowledge and overcome barriers of road runoff that the individual actor would be unable to, The goal of the innovation project is to providing an advanced overall solution with use the North Harbour as a test area great export potential. to meet the demands for drainage and improve the use of road runoff. An impor- Three projects are running at the North Har- tant element in the project is to identify bour at the moment: and test the cleaning techniques that will be implemented later on a larger scale. -- Online monitoring of water quality/ real-time monitoring of the water dis- Source: City of Copenhagen and Water in tribution network Urban Areas. The goal of this innovation project is to investigate the connection between water consumption, water exploitation and water quality in the pipeline net- work for the new city area of the North Harbour. The project will allow practical information about online monitoring in the pipeline network to be gathered. This will be achieved by establishing several online meters within the pipeline network providing visible readings of quality and quantity.
  23. 23. Company list - the water sector in DenmarkBelow is a comprehensive list of companies within the water total number of people employed in Den-sector in Denmark (excluding the utilities). 93 companies mark. Companies that stated water was nothave supplied us with information on which areas they oper- a field of operation or that they did not want to participate in the survey are of course notate in. included on the list. In addition, a few com- panies that are well-known for water related Also, there is information on how many people activities have been added to the list, but there are working with water in Denmark. This without the information mentioned above. number is marked with blue water drops. If there are more people employed in a company working in other areas, a grey dot marks theTable 2. Company list - the water sector in Denmark Urban drainage and waste water Solutions for consumers Solutions for agriculture Waste water treatment Solutions for industry Water distribution Water resources Water quality collection Water-related employees 10-49 50-99 Total number of employees +100 1-9 Company No. of employees in DK Business areas Website 7 Technologies ABB A/S ABS Scanpump A/S Adept Water Technologies A/S AEM Engineering Alectia A/S Alfa Laval A/S Aqua System A/S Aquagain - Folding Smed A/S Aqua-Hort ApS Aquaporin A/S Aquatex ApS Axflow A/S B.V. Electronics A/S Balslev A/S Besma International Chem A/S BIO-AQUA A/S Biofuel Technology A/S BioKube A/S