Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster - Waste Report 2012
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This report provides a broad overview of the Danish waste resource management sector. Ninety-seven companies working within the sector have contributed to the mapping of this sector.

This report provides a broad overview of the Danish waste resource management sector. Ninety-seven companies working within the sector have contributed to the mapping of this sector.

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Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster - Waste Report 2012 Document Transcript

  • 1. Denmark:We Know WasteAsset mapping of the Danish waste resource management sector
  • 2. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 2Table of content Foreword3 Introduction4 The status of the Danish waste resource management sector 6 A brief history of Danish waste management 9 From waste management to resource management – future challenges 10 Ambitious political aims 13 Danish waste resource management competencies 14 Mapping of the Danish waste resource management sector 19 Technology company matrix  20 Consultancy company matrix  26 Conclusion27 Research and Development projects 28 Knowledge Institutions and Organisations 31Supported by:
  • 3. ForewordThis report provides a broad overview of the Danish waste Acknowledgementsresource management sector. Ninety-seven companies This report would never have been completedworking within the sector have contributed to the mapping were it not for the many companies which have contributed by filling out the question-of this sector. naire. We would therefore like to express our sincere gratitude to these companies for The purpose of the report is to: taking their time to assist CCC in obtaining relevant and interesting information about the 1. Introduce the global waste challenges Danish waste resource management sector. and some of the many competencies in the Danish waste resource management Furthermore, a number of people have been sector which deal with these issues. especially helpful in the process of draft- ing the report. We would like to give thanks 2. Provide an overview of the different to Nana Winkler, Special Consultant, Waste actors involved in the Danish waste Denmark; René Møller Rosendal, Consultant, resource management sector, including RenoSam; Kirsten Reinholdt Bojsen, Project the number of employees and areas of Developer, RESURSIUM; and Neelabh Singh, expertise. Head of Complex Cleantech Solutions. 3. Describe the current status of the Danish Please note that the author is solely responsi- waste resource management sector and ble for the contents of the report. its future expectations. Partners: This report is intended to: A) Firstly, to -- Waste Denmark strengthen the competitiveness of Danish -- RenoSam stakeholders involved in the waste resource -- Innovation Network for Environmental management sector by providing a unique Technology overview of the companies operating in the -- Complex Cleantech Solutions sector. This could be used by Danish compa- nies when they are trying to gain access to Editor: new export markets or engage with partners Rosa Klitgaard Andersen abroad. B) Secondly, the report is intended to Jonas Mortensen (co-editor) serve as a tool for international stakeholders who are considering engaging with the Danish Contact: waste resource management sector in one Copenhagen Capacity way or another as possible partners, custom- Tel: +45 33 22 02 22 ers or suppliers. www.copcap.com The report has been prepared by Copenha- © Copenhagen Capacity gen Cleantech Cluster (CCC) in collaboration A part of Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster with Waste Denmark, RenoSam, Innovation Network for Environmental Technology, and Complex Cleantech Solutions.
  • 4. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 4IntroductionThe Danish and international waste industry is currently fac- agricultural soil. Furthermore, the raw materi-ing the challenges of increasing political demands for sus- als of the technological waste stream will betainable waste management, the development of new waste recovered and reused in new production.treatment technologies and the large-scale reorganization of For over 100 years, Denmark has been devel-the waste sector. opinged comprehensive knowledge and skills regarding waste prevention, collection, sorting This increased focus on waste is being caused and treatment. The country is therefore in not only by the potential threat to human a unique position to deal with the transition health and the environment posed by the from waste to resource. world’s growing waste streams, but also by a global lack of resources. Waste is no longer a Although this transition begins at the design leftover by-product of the global production stage of products, which should be designed and consumption chain, but has now become with the entire life-cycle in mind, this report a valuable resource. focuses on Danish technologies and services relating to the end-of-life treatment phase. It This transition from waste to resource, which therefore presents a number of state-of-the- Denmark like many other countries are cur- art technologies and services for waste man- rently undergoing, means that the future agement with the aim of reusing, recycling resource management industry must be and recovering the resources and the energy based on new and innovative waste treat- in waste. ment methods. These methods will be able   to harvest the energy of the biological waste stream while at the same time re-introducing the valuable nutrients it contains into the
  • 5. Waste can help relievethe worldwide global con- cerns about fossil fuel dependencyand resource scarcity
  • 6. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 6The status of the Danish waste resource management sectorThe ninety-seven companies presented in this report employ number is biased by the fact that the compa-more than 10,000 people of which around 50 percent work nies not participating in the survey might notdirectly with waste resource management. Furthermore, in correspond directly to the companies which provided the necessary information.2011 they had a combined turnover of approximately 834million EUR. Besides turnover and numbers of employ- ees, the companies were asked to provide Around 77 percent of this turnover – the information about their performance during equivalent of 645 million EUR1 – was generat- the last five years (2006-2011), and their ed by the companies’ waste related activities. expectations for the coming five-year period (2012-2017). The survey shows that 66 % of the companies have experienced an increase in turnover during the last five years in spite ofFigure 1. Companies’ expectations for the coming 5 years in regards to the number of the financial crisis.This is a good indicator of employees working within wasteSource: Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster survey (n=93, excluding 3 companies answering “do the ongoing transition from waste to resource not know”) management; waste is increasingly becoming a source of income rather than just a residual product. When looking at the expectations for the next five years, the survey shows that the companies working in the waste resource management sector in general have very posi- Fewer employees No change More employees tive expectations about the future. More than 3% 45% 52% half of the companies say that they expect to employ more people within the coming 5-year period (see Figure 1). Additionally, 71 % of the companies expect to expand their activities A projection of these numbers onto the rest relating to waste resource management of the sector suggests that the whole of the within the same period (see Figure 2). These Danish waste resource management sector numbers testify that the sector is developing employs more than 8,000 people. Not includ- rapidly and is likely to grow considerably in the ed in this number are the employees working next five years. abroad and the haulage contractors, which means that the total number of employees Increased focus on collaboration related to the sector might be far greater. The companies were asked to comment on which forms of collaboration they currently In terms of revenues, it is difficult to provide engage in. The majority of the companies a precise answer to the question of the total collaborate with suppliers, customers, and turnover of the sector. However, a simple subcontractors. Furthermore, 40 % of the projection of the numbers provided by the companies join forces with one or more survey suggests a conservative estimate of knowledge institutions, which indicates a approximately 1.3 billion EUR. Of course, this widespread integration of academic research in the sector. 1  This number does not include the haulage contrac- tors which are solely engaged in waste transport.
  • 7. Figure 2. Companies’ expectations for the coming 5 years in regards to activities relating to wasteSource: Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster survey (n=94) Do not know 7% Do not expect to expand activities 22% Expect to expand activities 71% The companies were also asked to comment ances with other companies if the opportunity on the forms of collaboration they find most presents itself. This is almost three times the important in order to tackle future challenges. number of companies currently engaged in The three most important future forms of international strategic alliances. Furthermore, collaboration seem to be collaboration with the number of companies willing to increase suppliers, customers, and subcontractors, their expertise in the future, either through partnerships with knowledge institutions and direct knowledge-sharing with other compa- direct knowledge-sharing with other com- nies or through collaboration with knowledge panies. More than 60 % of the companies institutions, has doubled in comparison to the “strongly agree” or “agree” that these forms of current number. This suggests that the entire collaboration will strengthen the company in sector will become more knowledge intensive the future. In general, more companies seem as collaboration between the private sector willing to engage in new forms of collabora- and knowledge institutions grows (see Figure tion in the future as compared to at the time 3 on page 8). of the survey. The answers point to another interesting trend as more than half of the companies indicate that they would be willing to engage in future international strategic alli-
  • 8. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 8Figure 3. Waste companies’ current forms of collaboration (inner circles) and the forms of collaboration which are expected to strengthen the company in the future (outer circles)Source: Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster survey (n=94) Collaboration with suppliers, customers, and sub contractors 89% Strategic alliance with 73% Organisations international partners 58% 52% 20% 54% collaboration Strategic alliance 22% Consortium with Danish partners 53% 16% 44% 40% 38% 63% 64% Collaboration with Direct knowledge knowledge institutions sharing with other companies
  • 9. A brief history of Danish waste managementOver many years of policy-making about waste, Denmark has and composting became the primary wastedeveloped a unique expertise regarding waste management treatment solutions, diverting the waste awayprocesses. The history of waste management in Denmark from landfills, while at the same time contrib- uting to the production of heat and electric-can best be described as a long and collective learning ity. Danish waste management through theprocess, which has slowly developed into the current Danish 1980s and the 90s was characterized bywaste resource management system. two developments: increased international involvement, especially from the European Union, and the gradual development of a To start with, waste was perceived of primar- comprehensive Danish regulatory framework ily as a health problem, and was therefore for waste handling. These two developments deposited in landfills outside the big cities. As made Denmark one of the first countries in environmental concerns started to grow in the world to achieve high recycling rates and the 1960s and 70s, waste increasingly came minimize the amount of landfilled waste. to be seen as an environmental problem that had to be dealt with not only because of its threat to human health, but also in order to protect the environment. In 1973, this increased focus on the environment led Den- mark to become the first country in the world to pass an environmental protection law. From the beginning of the 1980s, when there was little room left for landfills, waste incinerationFigure 4. The history of Danish waste managementSource: CCC, inspired by DAKOFA’s timeline For a more detailed description of the history of Danish waste management, see www.dakofa.dk 1960s - 70s: 2000 - Waste as an environmental problem Waste as a resource Up untill 1960s: 1980s - 90s: Waste as a health problem Regulation period and international involvement
  • 10. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 10From waste management to resource management – future challengesToday waste is no longer just a health problem, nor does it before a truly sustainable Danish resourceonly pose a serious environmental problem; it is above all a management can be achieved. First of all, itpotential resource with the capability to provide raw materi- will be a major challenge to reduce the overall amount of waste generation - not only rela-als for production, nutrients for agriculture, and a source of tive to economic growth but also in absoluteenergy. terms. This process - which must also be fa- cilitated at European level - should encourage This calls for a transformation on a global companies and manufacturers to design their scale of the way waste is managed in which products with end-of-life treatment in mind. the focus is placed on resources rather than At present a number of Danish R&D projects waste. In other words, there is an urgent need are aiming to develop new and smarter prod- to move up the waste hierarchy (see Figure 5) ucts, which will decrease the overall amount away from landfills and towards the reuse and of waste generation. Please see “Research recycling of products. This is also the case in and Development projects” on page 28 for Denmark, where focusing on resources and more information on some of them. Secondly, Denmark should move further upFigure 5. The waste hierarchy the waste hierarchy towards greater recyclingSource: Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster and reuse. To give an example, each year around 1 million tons of organic household Prevention waste is incinerated. Instead, this particular if you can’t prevent, then... waste stream could be used as a valuable Prepare for reuse input in biogasification and composting if you can’t prepare for reuse, then... processes, thus helping to close the loop in Recycle the organic waste stream1. Efforts to move if you can’t recycle, then... up the waste hierarchy are a general concern Recover other value among the companies participating in this if you can’t recover value, then... survey. When asked what challenges will Disposal be characteristic of future waste resource Landfill if no alternative available management in Denmark, there were many comments along the lines of “achieve higher rates of reuse and recycling” or “improve the the reduction of the environmental impact recycling percentage”. of waste will be key issues in the coming decades. New and innovative technologies for waste collection, sorting and treatment will play an important part of this transformation process. The transition from waste to resource, how- 1  COWI 2010: Miljøteknologi på affaldsområdet. Dan- ever, is not going to be an easy process, and ske styrkepositioner og potentialer. Danish Environmen- there are a number of challenges to overcome tal Agency Project nr. 1327 2010
  • 11. Thirdly, even though Denmark sends very littleFigure 6. Danish waste incineration capacity in 2008 (kg/inh.) waste to landfill, there is still a need to moveSource: Eurostat 2012 away from landfilling towards greater reuse, recycling or energy recovery. A small part of the residual products such as fly ash or shred- 400 der waste still ends up in landfills. 350 Lastly, several companies mention technologi- cal developments as a challenge for future 300 waste resource management. The introduc- tion of new and complex products onto the 250 Danish market demand constant develop- ment within the waste management sector. 200 Besides this, existing waste streams such as soft PVC, WEEE and plastic still constitute 150 technological challenges which need to be overcome 1 . These challenges provide a gold- 100 en opportunity for cooperation with knowl- edge institutions and foreign companies. 50 0 EU 27 Denmark Sweden Netherlands Germany 1  CRI 2011: Potential for Intelligent Demand in the Waste Sector. Copenhagen Resource Institute
  • 12. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 12 In 1997 Denmark be-came the first country in the world to ban the landfilling of waste suitable for incineration
  • 13. Ambitious political aimsThe transition from waste management to resource man- should be either prepared for reuse, recycledagement is not only reliant on a flexible and innovative waste or converted into energy1 .management industry, but must also rely on strong political Furthermore, in March 2012 a new politicalleadership. The current political climate surrounding Danish Energy Agreement for the period betweenwaste issues is setting the agenda for a more sustainable 2012 and 2020 was reached with broad sup-future. port from most of the political spectrum. The Energy Agreement, which is an important step In order to move Denmark up the waste in the achievement of Denmark’s goal to be hierarchy and further encourage the transi- 100 % fossil free in 2050, ensures significantly tion from waste management to resource increased funding for biogas and bioenergy management, a Danish waste management production2. strategy was presented in 2010. This new strategy has two main focuses: waste pre- Lastly, a new national Resource Strategy is vention and the development of new waste expected to be approved in 2012 which will management technologies. According to the increase the focus on reuse and recycling waste strategy, “the challenge now is to make even more. sure that we landfill less waste while at the same time conduct a targeted development of new technologies for making usable the materials in the waste”. The long-term aim of 1  Miljøstyrelsen 2010: Affaldsstrategi ’10, www.mst.dk the Danish waste strategy is that all waste 2  Energistyrelsen 2012: Energiaftale, www.ens.dk
  • 14. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 14Danish waste resource management competenciesThe waste resource management sector in Denmark is home the facilities allotted by the municipalities. Theto a number of market leading companies, technologies, and many years of mutual dependence betweentest facilities. The following is a short introduction to some of public and private actors in the sector has not only ensured efficient collaboration, it has alsothe key competencies within the sector. allowed leading experts, universities, com- panies and policy makers to work together Waste is the shared responsibility of both to develop a constant stream of new and public and private actors innovative waste management solutions. Danish waste competencies are characterized by the special relationship between public and Industrial Symbiosis – When the waste of private actors in the waste sector which has one company becomes a valuable resource developed in Denmark over the last four dec- for another ades. “The Danish Waste Model”, which was Another benefit of the close collaboration be- developed in the 1980s, places the respon- tween public and private actors is the possibil- sibility for the treatment of all waste on the ity of creating industrial symbiosis between municipalities (since 2010 recyclable business industries within the different municipalities. waste is excepted). The model has ensured An industrial symbiosis is a local collaboration that Danish municipalities have gained an between public and private companies which in-depth knowledge of the quantities and buy and sell residual fractions for mutual different types of waste streams. The model economic and environmental benefit. In an in- is based on “allotment rights” for the munici- dustrial symbiosis the waste of one company palities, which indicate one or more waste is a valuable resource for another company. facilities where the waste should be treated. In turn, private companies are obliged to use CASE Kalundborg SymbiosisThe industrial symbiosis created in the Danish municipality of Kalundborg is one of the world’sfirst functioning industrial symbioses. Here, waste from one company has become a valuableresource for another, and both public and private actors within the municipality collaborate toclose the loops of the different waste streams. The symbiosis not only helps the companiesgenerate profit, it also helps make sure that almost all waste is recirculated either as energy,nutrients or raw materials in new production. Agricultural waste products provide one exampleof how a certain waste stream is being brought into use. The company Inbicon receives wasteproducts from the agricultural sector in Kalundborg which it then converts into energy andbioethanol. The ethanol is sold to Statoil. Another example of a waste stream comes from heatand power generation. Dong Energy produces heat and power through incineration of coal. Theresidual products, such as fly ash, are used by nearby Gyproc in the production of gypsum.www.symbiosis.dk
  • 15. Specialized waste stream treatment tech- as glass bottles, gypsum, pvc, stone wool, car nologies tyres, bitumen sheets for roof waterproofing According to the waste hierarchy, where the and wind turbines. Even though these waste generation of waste is unavoidable, reuse management processes differ greatly from and recycling are the next best options. one another, they all have in common the fact Danish companies have developed a number that they prepare the materials for reuse and of special waste management techniques recycling in new production. aiming to either directly reuse or recycle specific technological waste streams, such CASE GenanGenan is a good example of one of the many Danish companies which have specialized in thetreatment of a specific waste stream. Genan is the world’s largest tyre recycling company. Thecompany currently possess four large tyre recycling plants in Europe, while a fifth plant – the big-gest of its kind in the world – is under construction in Texas in the USA. Genan’s recycling tech-nology has undergone continuous advancements since it was originally developed in 1990. Theend products resulting from the recycling of scrap tyres are used as high-quality substitutionapplications, such as asphalt and bitumen modification which is used to make roads strongerand longer lasting. www.genan.eu CASE Gamle MurstenGamle Mursten is another example of a Danish company which has specialized in the reuse ofa specific waste fraction – old bricks. Even though Gamle Mursten is a relatively small company,it is the only company on the market with a patented solution for preparing old bricks for reuse.The bricks are cleaned using only vibration; no chemicals or water is used for the cleaning, whichmeans there is no discharge of dangerous substances connected to the process. The old bricksare used in new buildings and renovations where the developer wants to protect the environ-ment from unnecessary carbon emissions, or where there is a desire to create particular stylesfull of personality and history. www.gamlemursten.dk CASE Gypsum Recycling InternationalGypsum Recycling International is the first company in the world to have implemented a com-plete system for recycling plasterboard and gypsum wallboard waste. The company’s patentedtechnology is designed to successfully deal with all kinds of “old” gypsum waste from demolitionand reconstruction activities. Currently around 60 % of all Danish gypsum is being recycled,which is a very good result in comparison to most other European countries. Gypsum RecyclingInternational started in Denmark in 2001, and is now active in many countries both within andoutside of Europe, including Sweden, Great Britain, and the US. www.gypsumrecycling.biz
  • 16. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 16 BiogasFigure 7. Primary biogas energy production per inhabitant in 2009 (toe/1000 inhab.) There are several technologies availableSource: Eurobserver, Biogas barometer 2010 for the reuse and recycling of the biological waste stream, one of them being biogasifica- tion. Denmark plays an important role within Germany the European biogas technology sector (seeUnited Kingdom Figure 7). Even though the Danish biogas mar- Luxembourg ket is relatively small in comparison to other Austria European biogas markets, the long history of Denmark Danish agriculture has had a positive influence Netherlands on the development of biogas technology Czech Republic in Denmark and led the country’s per capita Sweden production of biogas to be the fifth highest Belgium in Europe. Furthermore, Denmark is a strong Slovenia test market for biogasification processes with France the world’s biggest test facility located at the Ireland University of Aarhus. Denmark is also home to Finland the world’s biggest biogas production facility, Italy Maabjerg Biogas, which opened in 2011. Spain Poland Biogas has the potential to close the loop of Romania the biodegradable waste stream, reintroduc- 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 ing nutrients into agricultural soil, while at the same time replacing fossil fuels. Although the biggest potential source of biogas in Denmark is livestock manure, there is also CASE Maabjerg Energy Concept great potential for using food waste, source separated municipal solid waste or sewage in the production process.Maabjerg Energy Concept is an example of an energy consortium, which involves several publicand private actors. The project integrates the production of biogas, heat and electricity, andbiofuels in a single holistic treatment system in which several treatment methods work togetherin synergy, and all residual products are reintroduced into the local soil as valuable nutrients.Maabjerg Energy Concept is home to the world’s biggest biogasification facility, Maabjerg Bio-energy. This converts an annual amount of around 650,000 tons of biomass into clean energy,heating, and electricity. www.maabjerg-bioenergy.dk CASE Solum GroupThe Solum Group turns waste streams into value streams. It is Denmark’s largest supplier ofcompost, growing media and turf care products. The Solum Group’s patented Aikan Technologyuses anaerobic digestion and in-vessel composting to turn organic waste into valuable biogasand fertilizer. The Solum Group is currently engaged in joint ventures with local companies inNorth America and Indonesia with the goal of setting up new Aikan facilities. Besides this, theGroup is engaged in a number of R&D projects related to the use of enzymes in biogas produc-tion. www.solum.com
  • 17. Bioethanol/Biodiesel Thermal gasification Another way of closing the loop of the bio- Technology for the thermal gasification of bio- logical waste stream, while at the same time mass is one of the central tools in the quest recovering energy from waste, is through the to replace fossil fuels with biofuels made from production of biofuels. The technology for the biodegradable waste stream. Thermal producing ethanol and diesel from biomass gasification is a process whereby the heating such as organic waste has existed for a long of organic material under anoxic conditions time. The big problem has been to make it releases gas which can subsequently be used competitive. So far it has been difficult to to produce electricity and heat. The technol- use the biological fraction of the household ogy is very flexible, and the gasification facili- waste stream in the production of biofuels as ties can easily intensify or lower the electricity cost-efficient separation technologies have output according to demand. If there is no not been developed. However, a new and very demand for the electricity, the gas can be promising Danish technology, REnescience, is converted into liquid fuels or synthetic natural able to separate the biological waste fraction gas. Therefore, the technology fits well into a of household waste using enzymes. future smart grid energy system1 . CASE REnescience 1  For more information about smart grid, see theOne major challenge in future waste management will be to separate the biodegradable waste Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster report “Denmark – astream from the rest. Biodegradable kitchen and garden waste is currently the biggest fraction European smart grid hub”of municipal solid waste in most European countries. What happens to this fraction of municipalsolid waste will influence the overall impact of waste management on the climate2. 2 EEA 2011: Waste Opportunities. Past and futureREnescience technology uses enzymes to separate municipal solid waste into valuable frac- climate benefits from better municipal waste manage-tions. It can turn more than 95% of the biodegradable material contained in mixed municipal ment in Europe.solid waste into a “bio-liquid” which can then be used in the production of biogas and bioethanol.The technology handles municipal solid waste without prior pretreatment such as shredding orsorting. www.dongenergy.com/renescience CASE Babcock & Wilcox VolundBabcock & Wilcox Volund is one of the world’s leading suppliers of equipment and technologiesdesigned to convert household waste and biomass into thermal energy. With over 70 years ofexperience, the company has supplied more than 300 waste-to-energy solutions worldwide.In 2013 the company will present the next generation of Best Available Technology standards,which have been developed in collaboration with Swedish Götaverken Miljö. These new stand-ards will ensure even higher efficiency and lower emissions from waste-to-energy plants.www.volund.dk
  • 18. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 18 Incineration plants connected to the energy grid providing district Another way of recovering energy from waste heating and electricity to the Danish market, is through waste incineration. With more than while at the same time decreasing the volume 100 years of experience in energy recovery of the waste by up to 70 percent. Thanks to from waste, Denmark is the world leader many years of research, Danish incineration when it comes to this waste management plants are the cleanest and most efficient in method. Danish waste incineration plants are the world, generating approximately 2 MWh heat and 2/3 MWh electricity from every ton of waste incinerated1. CASE Vestforbrænding 1  Rambøll & RenoSam 2005: Affaldsforbrænding iVestforbrænding serves more than 850,000 citizens and 60,000 companies. The company’s Danmark. Europas mest effektive affaldsbehandlingwaste incineration facility is the country’s biggest, converting an annual quantity of around520,000 tons of waste into valuable heat and electricity. The production of heat and electricityfrom waste incineration replaces production from coal and oil. Vestforbrænding is owned by 19municipalities around Copenhagen and Northern Zealand. The company’s work is based on anon-profit cost-coverage principle, which means that the company should make neither a profitnor a loss in the long run. Besides waste incineration, Vestforbrænding engages in a whole rangeof other activities, such as recycling stations and research and development. Furthermore, thecompany plays an important role in educating schoolkids and students from all over Zealand inthe importance of valuing waste as a resource. www.vestfor.dkFigure 8. Output from waste incinerationSource: Ramboll & RenoSam 2005 1 ton of waste 2/3 Mwh electricity 2 MWh heat equivalent to the use of power for equivalent to the use of heat for 150 people in one day 40 houses (130m2) in one day
  • 19. Mapping of the Danish waste resource management sectorTo provide a general overview of the Danish waste manage- through the survey. The symbols in the matrixment sector, we have listed the companies in a matrix con- are as follows:taining information on their size and areas of expertise. 92 Type of product1 :companies are listed in the matrix. = Service provider = Technology provider Company matrix The company matrix is limited to companies Number of employees: based in Denmark working within the Dan- 1-10 ish waste resource management market. 11-25 Information on multinational companies only 26-50 applies to the products and services that their 51-100 Danish branches offer. 101-500 >500 The matrix lists the companies according to the technologies or services they provide in a = employees working with waste resource waste management process. It is important to management note that the matrix only includes companies = employees not working with waste working at the end-of-life phase of products. resource management We have not included companies in the matrix which work with waste prevention, but have Companies which are not included in the list restricted the matrix to companies reusing, but wish to be so, can contact the editor for recycling or recovering the resources or the information on how to be included. energy in waste. Furthermore, we have decid- ed to exclude haulage contractors from the matrix which are only engaged in transporta- 1  Companies listed both as technology and service tion of waste. The information presented in providers may not provide technology for all indicated the matrix was provided by the companies categories. Please see the ‘service & technologies’ column for specification of competenciesFigure 9. Waste hierarchy distribution of the companies’ areas of expertiseSource: Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster survey (n=97) Preparation for reuse (56%) Biogas (19%) Biodiesel/bioethanol 2nd or 3rd generation (9%) Composting (20%) Recovering of raw materials (36%) Thermal gasification (12%) Incineration (25%) Landfilling or destruction (20%)
  • 20. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 20Technology company matrix Recovery of raw materials Biodiesel or bioethanol, Deposit or destruction 2nd or 3rd generation Preparation for reuse Thermal gasification Waste collection Waste sorting Composting Incineration Biogas OtherTechnology companies Products and ServicesAage Vestergaard Larsen ApS Granules, collection and recyclingACTA Recycling A/S Reprocessing of all types of recyclable materialsAffaldplus Recycling stations, composting and incineration of wasteAmagerforbrænding Sorting of waste, incineration and preparing for reuseAndritz Feed & Biofuel A/S Waste pelleting, gasification, dryingAverhoff A/S Collection and treatment of WEEEA.V. Pehrsson A/S Regeneration of plastic waste, compoundingAvø A/S Waste collection, incinera- tion facility, landfills, recycling stationsBarsmark Composites Recycling of production residues from wind turbines, plastic and glass industryB. I. Miljø ApS Collection of used frying oilBigadan Biogas technology, construction of biogas plants, production of biogasBiogasol Pretreatment, fermentation, 2nd generation bio-ethanol, bio chemicalsBiocover Acidification of slurry, reduction in ammonia emissions and odorsBioNorden A/S OHD technology, recovery of liquid organic waste, industrial effluentsBramidan Compression of reusable packaging waste, vertical and horizontal bale pressCombineering Import, export, biogas, agri- cultureCompsoil Danmark ApS Composting, recycling Service provider Technology provider
  • 21. Recovery of raw materials Biodiesel or bioethanol, Deposit or destruction 2nd or 3rd generation Preparation for reuse Thermal gasification Waste collection Waste sorting Composting Incineration Biogas OtherTechnology companies Products and ServicesDansk Genknus Collection and pre-processing of construction- and industrial wasteDansk Olie Genbrug Reprocessing, re-refining of used oil, waste water purifica- tionDenova* Sorting, reprocessing and treat- ment of various types of wasteDHI Group Sampling, characterization, testing, leaching tests, con- struction wasteEnvac A/S Waste suction, mobile waste suction, central suction, paper basket suction, optical sortingEnviropac Compaction machines, com- posting, grinder systems for organic wastes , total solutions for source separationFaxe Forsyning A/S Collection schemes as well as electricity and heat production through gasification of sludgeFilterSupport Bag filters for gas purification, dosing equipment, pneumatic transport systems, control systemsFJ Separation ApS* Treatment installations for cooling lubricant waste, alkaline cleaning fluids, oil contaminated water.Fornæs Recycling, shipbreakingGamle Mursten ApS Waste, bricks, tiles, recycled tiles, old bricksGenbrugscenter Pap & Plast Recycling of cardboard, plastic and aluminum waste, waste woodGendan* Complete solutions for waste treatment, consultancy, repro- cessing of construction and business wasteGen-Tek Concrete crushing, garden waste treatment, gypsum recy- cling, construction waste Service provider Technology provider *Service & technologies’ coloumn filled out by Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster
  • 22. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 22 Recovery of raw materials Biodiesel or bioethanol, Deposit or destruction 2nd or 3rd generation Preparation for reuse Thermal gasification Waste collection Waste sorting Composting Incineration Biogas OtherTechnology companies Products and ServicesGrønnes Miljø Sorting and collection of waste. Storage of organic waste with- out odor nuisance.Gypsum Recycling Interna- Recycling of gypsum wastetional A/SHaldor Topsoe Filter technology, catalytic smoke cleaning, gas clean- ing, SCR technology, catalytic oxidationHals Metal Recycling, hazardous waste, metal separation, reprocessingHashøj Biogas Biogas technologyIMDEX Car tires, rubber granules, rub- ber tiles, tire cord, rubber padJoca A/S Sale of equipment for waste collection in DenmarkKali i/s Biogas purification, carbon dioxide reuse, proteinKommuneKemi High temperature incineration of hazardous waste, consultan- cy regarding hazardous waste treatment. Neutralization of alkaline and acidic waste types.Komtek Miljø A/S Reprocessing of organic wasteKyborg A/S* Software for waste data handlingLemvig Biogasanlæg Treatment of fat-sludge from sewer manholesLotra A/S Waste collection, sorting, reuse, marketing of materialsL90 Collection, transport, process- ing, landfill and incineration, sludge incinerationMeldgaard MILJØ A/S Sorting, collection of house- hold waste, residual product handling, slag sortingMiljøteam A/S Consultancy, transport, waste management, collection, sorting Service provider Technology provider *Service & technologies’ coloumn filled out by Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster
  • 23. Recovery of raw materials Biodiesel or bioethanol, Deposit or destruction 2nd or 3rd generation Preparation for reuse Thermal gasification Waste collection Waste sorting Composting Incineration Biogas OtherTechnology companies Products and ServicesModtagestation Vendsyssel Collection systems for hazard-I/S ous waste, clinical waste, slop oil facilityMunks Produkt* Decomposing, scrap yard, con- struction wasteNomi I/S* Sorting and treatment of busi- ness wasteNordforbrænding I/S Incineration plant, district heat- ing supply, recycling stations, landfills, hazardous wasteNordisk Computer Recycling Environmental treatment of electronic equipment and secu- rity destructionNORRECCO A/S Recycling of construction waste, waste transport, innova- tion in the waste areaNovozymes* Enzyme production and devel- opmentNVRaffald I/S Waste collection, packaging waste collection, operation of recycling stationsOdense Waste Management Collection and treatmentCompany* of various types of waste. Consultance, R&D, educational activitiesOrganic Fuel Technology Conversion of biomass and organic materials for bio-oilP. Olesen & Sønner A/S Collection, sorting, reprocessing, recycling, marketingPolyloop ApS Plastic waste, plastic granules residuesProvas Recycling Stations, collection of municipal waste and recyclable materialsRe-Bag Production of recyclable bags made of recycled materialReiling Glasrecycling Danmark Recycling of glas, transport ofAps bulk goods Service provider Technology provider *Service & technologies’ coloumn filled out by Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster
  • 24. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 24 Recovery of raw materials Biodiesel or bioethanol, Deposit or destruction 2nd or 3rd generation Preparation for reuse Thermal gasification Waste collection Waste sorting Composting Incineration Biogas OtherTechnology companies Products and ServicesReno Djurs i/s Recycling stations, municipal waste, landfills, waste planning, settling tank systemReno-Nord i/s Incineration and landfilling. Treatment and crushing of construction wasteRenofyn i/s Collection of waste suitable for incineration, sorting of recyclable waste and shredding of confidential documentsRenoSyd i/s Collection, preparation for recy- cling, composting, construction waste, incinerationRevas Waste sorting, processing, composting, all kinds of waste, logisticsRuni A/S Compactors, dewatering, EPS, REJEKT, PETShark Solutions Regeneration of PVB from crushed car windows and lami- nated glassSimatek A/S Flue gas purification, adsorp- tion, absorption, filtration, ash handlingSpecial Waste System A/S Hazardous waste incinerationStjernholm A/S Sand washing so that sand from sewage can be reusedSvendborg Kraftvarme A/S Incineration plant, decomposi- tion, heat and power generationTAS i/s Waste incineration, REnescienceTheilgaard Mortensen A/S Software, environmental man- agement, waste registration and reporting, CSR, environmen- tal impactT. K. Energy Waste drying, decomposition, dosage, ash handlingTonerGenbrug Collection of used printer toners and ink cartridgesVand og Affald Municipal Solid Waste collection, operation of recycling stations Service provider Technology provider
  • 25. Recovery of raw materials Biodiesel or bioethanol, Deposit or destruction 2nd or 3rd generation Preparation for reuse Thermal gasification Waste collection Waste sorting Composting Incineration Biogas OtherTechnology companies Products and ServicesVarde Forsyning i/s Waste collection from private households, recycling stationsVattenfall Waste incineration, production of heat and electricityVeksø A/S Waste Baskets, environmental stations, container guardsVestforbrændning Planning and operation of waste schemes for household waste, recycling stations, waste incin- eration, educational activitiesVipilon ApS Software, waste Data reporting, System to System, Automated reporting, Easy management of waste data.Weiss A/S Complete incineration plants in standard sizes 2-4-8 Mw.3P Technology Software, automation of pro- cesses for waste incineration Service provider Technology provider
  • 26. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 26Consultancy company matrix Mapping of waste streams Recovery of raw materials Landfill (including landfill Biodiesel or bioethanol, Incineration (including 2nd or 3rd generation thermal gasification) & Life Cycle Analysis Collection & sorting Waste prevention Procurement Composting mining) Biogas OtherTechnology companies Products and ServicesCOWI All aspects of waste manage- ment from planning and studies to procurement, supervision and operational optimisation, as well as policy and regulatory developmentForce Technology Sensors, sorting, feasibility studies, technology surveys, incineration, training, LCA, emis- sion monitoringGeerticon Legal permits, operational guidelines, innovation, project managementHolmboe Consult Resource Management, Strate- gies, Environment, Production and DevelopmentP&I Engineering Enzymatic conversion,drying in superheated steam, gasificationRambøll Recycling,energy recovery, biosolids, planning, landfills Consultancy
  • 27. ConclusionIn a green and sustainable future the world’s waste streamsmust be regarded as valuable resources. Danish technologyand know-how is ready to provide green fuel for this transi-tion away from waste. The Danish waste resource management sector is currently undergoing the transition from waste management to resource man- agement. This not only prompts the develop- ment of new and innovative waste treatment technologies, it also demands investment, knowledge-sharing and collaboration across all levels of society. Luckily, Denmark is a small country with a long tradition of cooperating in developing the right solutions. The Danish waste resource management sector is char- acterized by a strong industrial composition which provides leading technologies for key waste management processes, such as bio- and thermal gasification, the recycling of spe- cific waste streams, and incineration. Further- more, the sector is currently being influenced by an ambitious political climate in which politicians are willing to make the necessary investment and take the necessary steps to facilitate the transition towards resource management. All this has infused the sector with self-confidence and optimism about the future – an optimism which is reflected in the high expectations of the companies for the coming years, and their willingness to engage in new forms of collaboration.
  • 28. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 28Research and Development projectsBelow is a table of selected current research and develop-ment projects, supported by public funding. Their findings willbe published as they progress and can be used as a base forfurther research or as inspiration for new projects. The tabledoes not cover all projects. Accordingly, if there is a companyor research institution which wants to have a project includedin the table, please contact the editor.Title Project aims PartnersPlastic Zero The aim of the project is to reduce the amount of plastic Municipalities of Copenhagen, Malmo, and Hamburg.www.amfor.dk in the waste. The waste companies Amagerforbrænding, LiepajasRAS, and Tampere. Danish Technical University and Aalborg University.CleanWaste The aim of the CleanWaste project is to combine the University of Southern Denmark, University of Copen-www.cleanwaste.dk competences of the strongest research groups in Den- hagen, University of Aarhus, Denmark, University of mark and to develop cost-effective, and environmentally Limerick, Ireland. friendly technologies for the Danish and global livestock industry.Sustainable textiles – from The project aims to develop a process that can transform Novozymes A/S, DTU Kemiteknik, DTU Kemisugar for polyester sugar into a chemical building block: a dicarboxylic acid,www.hoejteknologifonden.dk which can be used in the production of polyesters.Bread waste as biomass The project aims to test and document the optimal condi- Kohberg Brød A/Swww.ecoinnovation.dk tions for biogas production based on waste from bread production mixed with cattle and pig manure.From organic waste to The aim of the project is to develop an effective and envi- SCF Technologies A/S, University of Aarhus, Universitybiofuels ronmentally friendly process for producing biofuels from a of Aalborgwww.hoejteknologifonden.dk range of different waste streams.Reprocessing of organic waste The aim of the project is to demonstrate that it is an KomTek A/Sto Biopulp advantage to reprocess (mix and pulp) organic wastes forwww.ecoinnovation.dk energy production on biogas plants before they are used for agricultural purposes.Development of new tech- The project aims to develop and test a process for separa- DTU Bygnique for phosphorus extrac- tion of ash from the incineration of sewage sludge, so thattion from ashes from the the phosphor is recovered in a form useable as fertilizer.incineration of sewage sludgewww.ecoinnovation.dkTopWaste The project aims to develop a coordinated set of tools to Aalborg University, Risø DTU National Laboratory forwww.topwaste.dk analyze and plan investments and activities, taking into Sustainable Energy, University of Southern Denmark, account that the waste management sector and the RAM-solve computer, Holmboe Consult, IVL Swedish energy sector are intertwined and will be subject to new Environmental Research Institute, KTH Royal Institute of market conditions. Technology, Lund University, Yale University, Amagerfor- brænding, Reno-Nord. Ramboll, COWI, Grontmilj Carl Bro. Important questions which the project seeks to answer: Advisory board members from Scuola Agraria del Parco di “What is the future optimal treatment of waste fractions Monza, The Federation of German Consumer Organiza- in terms of economy and the environment: recycling or tion (VZBV), Danish Energy Agency, Danish Environmental energy production?” “Which regulatory and organizational Protection Agency, Waste Denmark, RenoSam, European measures may support the achievement of political goals Topic Centre on Sustainable Consumption and Produc- under different market conditions?” tion.
  • 29. Title Project aims PartnersAikan – Transforms organic The project aims at further developing the Aikan biogasifi- Solum Group A/Swaste from the city and the cation technology.countryside into energy andfertilizer productswww.aikantechnology.comMolitor The project aims to develop a production facility that Kalundborg Municipality, Vækstforum Sjællandwww.molitor-ruc.dk converts organic waste from private kitchens and indus- trial companies into valuable insect protein and fertilizer material.Sustainable biodiesel using The aim of the project is to develop a method to produce Novozymes A/S, Emmelev A/S, DTU Kemiteknik, DTUenzyme technology a 100 % green biodiesel using enzymes. Management, University of Aarhuswww.hoejteknologifonden.dkElectrodialytic upgrade of flue The project aims to further develop the elektrodialytic DTU Byggas wastes from hazardous upgrade of flue gas waste and document the quality ofwaste to secondary resource the output products and their possible application.www.ecoinnovation.dkCombining of flue gas purifica- The aim of the project is to finish the design of the Stena Metall A/Stion wastes and “scrubber HALOSEP-technology for treatment of flue gas fromliquid” from incineration facil- waste incineration facilitites. Furthermore, the projectity using HALOSEP process aims to clarify opportunities for the recycling of certainwww.ecoinnovation.dk fractions of residues.Development of 2. generation The aim of the project is to improve technology for DONG Energy A/S, Novozymes A/S, Statoil A/S, Biogasolbiofuels pretreatment of biomass, which can then be used in the ApS, Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S, DI, DTU Systembiologi, Copen-www.hoejteknologifonden.dk production of 2nd generation biofuels. hagen University - LIFE, RISØ DTURecycling of Stone Wool The project aims to develop a recycling concept for stone Enviso Group A/S, Recyclingcenter Horsens, Rockwoolwww.fornyelsesfonden.dk wool. This will primarily include the reprocessing of used A/S, NCC Roads A/S stone wool to new stone wool. But the project will also seek to find alternative uses.Biomass should provide us The project aims to develop technology and biology so Copenhagen University - LIFE, DTU - Kemiteknik, A.P.with chemicals and fuel the that we can produce sustainable chemicals and fuels for Møller-Mærsk A/S, DONG Energy Power A/S, Haldorworlds ships shipping. The project brings together some of the worlds Topsoe A/S, Novozymes A/S, Man Diesel & Turbowww.hoejteknologifonden.dk strongest players in biomass, biotechnology and shippingMarket maturation of envi- The purpose of this project is to market mature a new Primodan A/S, Naturmælk a.m.b.a, WecaPack A/Sronmentally friendly and cost type of packaging for the food industry which will replaceeffective packaging for the plastic products (polypropylene and polyethylene).food industrywww.fornyelsesfonden.dkShredder waste: Low-tech The project objective is to develop and test a low-tech and DHIexploitation of resources easily implemented concept for the optimal recovery ofin Shredder waste via size resources in shedder waste deposits.distributionwww.ecoinnovation.dkRecycling of fly ash from The project aims to develop a facility which cleans the 4 envi, CompSoil Danmark ApS, Balgårde-Landhandel,biomass-fired plants heavy metals out of fly ash. After the cleaning process Dansk Aquakemi A/S, SH Management, Efftech Ltd.,www.fornyelsesfonden.dk the ash will be used as fertilizer. BirminghamImproved resource efficiency The project aims to finish developing a technology for the H.J. Hansen Recycling Industry A/Sof shredder waste recycling of heavy metals from shredder waste as well aswww.ecoinnovation.dk recovering the energy content of the waste
  • 30. Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster 30Title Project aims PartnersRETROMAX The project aims to develop a manure treatment tech- Liqtech International A/S, LSM Pumper ApSwww.ens.dk nique which increases the amount of manure biomass suitable for biogas processes.Fuel flexible, efficient and The project aims to test the PYRONEER gasification Risø DTU, Dong Energy, University of Aarhus, HedeDan-sustainable low-temperature technology as a promising platform for the use of difficult mark, Knowledge Center for Agriculture, AgroTechbiomass gasification biomass in heat and electricity productionwww.dongenergy.com/py-roneerDemonstration of sustainable The project will develop a CatLiq demonstration unit for SCF Technologies, Vattenfall, University of Aalborgbio-oil production using CatLiq industrial-scale use, capable of converting low-value feedtechnology streams such as pig slurry into high-value bio-oil, whichwww.stateofgreen.com/www. can subsequently be used for CHP production.ens.dkREneScience Waste Refinery The aim of the project is to develop the REnescience tech- Dong Energy, Amagerforbrænding, Copenhagen Univer-www.dongenergy.com/REnesci- nology which separates organic material from inorganic sity - LIFE, University of Aarhus, DTU, Tas i/sence material in waste using enzymes.Catalytic Decomposition of tar The project aims to develop a gas cleaning unit, which will Technological Institute, Haldor Topsoe A/S, ChimneyLabfrom biomass gasifiers be used to clean gas from biomass gasification processes. Europe ApSwww.ens.dk The project focuses on removing the high boiling tar com- pounds, naphtalenes, by catalytic decomposition.Thermo-alcalic NIX-pretreat- The project aims to develop the NIX-pretreatment method Xergi A/S, LM Stålindustri A/Sment of manure for biogas in order to be able to create more homogeneous bio-production masses and achieve higher biogas yields.www.ens.dk
  • 31. Knowledge Institutions and OrganisationsName WebsiteAalborg University www.en.aau.dkAarhus University www.au.dkCradle-to-Cradle – EKEA Copenhagen www.vuggetilvugge.dkDAKOFA - Danish Competence Centre on Waste www.wasteandclimate.orgDanish Centre for Verification of Climate and Environmental Technologies www.etv-denmark.comDanish Environmental Protection Agency www.mst.dkDanish Ministry of the Environment www.mim.dkDansk Miljøteknologi www.danskmiljøteknologi.dkDanish Nature Agency www.nst.dkDanish Producer Responsibility – DPA-system www.dpa-system.dkDI Bioenergi www.bioenergi.di.dkDTU – Technical University of Denmark www.dtu.dkInnovation Network for Environmental Technology www.inno-mt.dkRenoSam www.renosam.dkRisø - DTU www.risoe.dtu.dkSymbiosis Center www.symbiosecenter.dkUniversity of Copenhagen www.ku.dkUniversity of Roskilde www.ruc.dkUniversity of Southern Denmark www.sdu.dkWaste Denmark www.affalddanmark.dk