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CDS R-02 Presentation

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CDS R-02 Thermal Processing Presentation

CDS R-02 Thermal Processing Presentation


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  • 1. D RY I NG & C U R I NG T E C H NO LOG Y FO R CERAMICS, REFRACTORIES, ADVANCED CERAMICS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS Presented by:- Andrew J Hall, President of CDS Inc. NJ, USA
  • 2. History Privately owned and formed in 1983. Based in Stoke-on-Trent, England and New Jersey U.S.A. Curing and Drying Systems Specialists 80 people employed throughout the CDS Group, covering: Sales Design Engineering Fabrication, and Installation Commissioning Accredited to ISO 9001/2000.
  • 3. Curing & Drying Technologies Available Conventional H & V Systems with basic Temperature and Air Change Systems Advanced H & V Systems with Full PID Temperature and Air Change Systems Vacuum Microwave
  • 4. Pros and Cons of the Curing & Drying Technologies Available Conventional H & V Systems with basic Temperature and Air Change Systems are Extremely Low Technology very Energy Hungry, extended drying cycles poor quality of product and Sometimes Unsafe Advanced H & V Systems with Full PID Temperature and Air Change Systems are A major improvement on the above. With the correct Controls and Safety equipment this can be a much better alternative. Vacuum is expensive to operate and the integrity of the oven structure has to be well maintained Microwave is and excellent curing / drying process in theory. But the capital cost, safety issues and electrical operational usage has its limitations on many processes especially with large scale production operations.
  • 5. The CDS Alternative for Curing and Drying….. This being the or REDUCED OXYGEN !!
  • 6. What is R-O2 Drying? So to reduce the Oxygen content we need to replace the air… SO HOW DO WE DO THIS??? R-O2 Curing / Drying is a method of drying which uses dry superheated steam at atmospheric pressure to perform the curing / drying process.
  • 7. WHAT IS DRY SUPERHEATED STEAM? Basically superheated steam at atmospheric pressure is an invisible dry gas with a temperature of above 100°C - (212 °F) The best analogy is to visualise a domestic kettle, which when boiling emits steam from the spout. The steam only becomes visible when it condenses on contact with the surrounding atmosphere as it exits the spout. This is witnessed by viewing the spot immediately at the tip of the exit spout, there will be small area where the steam is invisible, because at that location the temperature is more than 100°C - (212 °F). This is dry superheated steam.
  • 8. HOW CAN SUPERHEATED STEAM BE USED FOR DRYING? Steam is ‘wet’, how can it dry anything? When water is boiled it becomes steam at 100°C - (212 °F) When steam is heated to above 100°C - (212 °F) it becomes dry superheated steam and, like air, which is simply superheated oxygen and nitrogen, it can be used as a drying medium
  • 9. HOW CAN SUPERHEATED STEAM BE USED FOR DRYING? Because the specific heat capacity of steam is more than twice that of air, it can transfer more than twice the amount of heat for the same mass flow. The viscosity of steam is approximately half that of air at the same temperature which enhances its ability to impinge on or percolate through a moist product thus increasing its drying effect. DENSITY SPECIFIC HEAT VISCOSITY CAPACITY Kg/m3 J/kg/K Ns/M2 AIR 1.29 993 18.3 STEAM 0.8 220 8.7
  • 10. How Does Steam Replace air? The steam is generated from the moisture contained only within the product. When water boils & becomes steam its volume increases by a factor of 1,670. As the water evaporates, each Kg of water occupies a volume of 1.67 m3 R-O2 Dryers operate on full recirculation so no new air is required to enter the system. As both the recirculation mix and the product get hotter, 1.67m3 of increasingly humid air is vented as each Kg of water is evaporated. This process continues until the Curing / Drying System is virtually free of air which is replaced with ‘DRY’ superheated steam.
  • 11. How Does Steam Replace air?
  • 12. How Does Steam Replace air?
  • 13. What is the R-O2 Curing / Drying Cycle? The R-O2 curing / drying cycle consists of only 2 phases: - The Warm Heat Up Phase - between ambient and 100°C. - (212°F) - The Curing / Drying Phase - Above 100°C. - (212°F) During the Warm Up Phase the small amount of water evaporated from the product effectively raises the humidity level. This suppresses undue evaporation and allows the product to be rapidly heated to 100°C - (212°F) without rapid shrinkage.
  • 14. What is the R-O2 Curing / Drying Cycle? Additional heating further heats the product and evaporates the remaining water, while the additional steam generated from the moist product continues to be vented from the chamber. Heating continues until the product is dry at which stage ambient air is introduced into the curing / drying system to cool both chamber and products. In summary, the combination of the rapid heating during the warm up phase and rapid moisture removal during the drying phase allows R-O2 drying to achieve such substantial reductions in drying times against conventional techniques.
  • 15. A Typical R-O2 Curing / Drying Cycle
  • 16. What Are The Advantages of R-O2 Curing / Drying? In a superheated steam atmosphere the product temperature quickly attains the steams 100°C - (212 °F) saturation temperature, eliminating the moisture’s surface tension and halving its viscosity. This absence of surface tension assists the surface moisture to evaporate quickly while the lower viscosity enables the internal moisture to migrate faster to the products’ surface. The absence of air / oxygen within a drying process prevents oxidation of sensitive products and at the same time avoids contamination by combustion residues occurring during directly heated conventional curing / drying methods. The low % levels of air/oxygen within the drying process also prevents the risk of material combustion or explosion of potentially flammable products, eg solvents, plastics, etc, when being cured / dried at elevated temperatures.
  • 17. FURTHER ADVANTAGES OF R-02 SUPERHEATED STEAM DRYING As the Specific Heat of steam is twice that of air, less Fan power is required to supply a given amount of heat to the moist product. R-O2 Curing / Drying is more energy efficient because, not only is fresh air excluded from the process (which in conventional Dryers needs heating), most of the heat input can be usefully re-cycled, and is typically around 80% of the total heat input. In summary R-O2 Curing / Drying is a SAFE Drying Method Offers Vastly Reduced Drying Times Reduction of energy requirements High thermal efficiency Smaller Plant Footprint required Minimal exhaust emissions to atmosphere. Traditional stack is not needed. Energy recovery potential Virtual elimination of the potential explosion and or product combustion risk
  • 18. WHAT CAN BE DRIED BY USING THE R-O2 DRYING? The answer to this question is simple. Any product or material that can safely tolerate a temperature of above (212 °F) can be dried / cured in the ‘R-O2’ Dryer . Refractory products All Sanitaryware, Bathroom products Ceramic Insulating Bricks Clay Pipes, Roof Tiles and Bricks Pottery Insulation Fibres and Materials. HT Electrical Porcelain Insulators Solvent Based Binder Ceramics Speciality Ceramics of all descriptions Minerals Slurries, Colours, Glazes
  • 19. NON WATER BASED BINDERS!! With solvent based binder ceramics the R-02 Technology is of equal benefit The advantages are such that the risk of fire and explosion is greatly reduced. The emissions are reduced as the need of excess air is not required to reduce the LEL Where possible the gasses from the system can be condensed instead of being sent to atmosphere or sent through an RTO system. With such R-02 Systems in this sector of the market CDS provides PrevEx monitoring as a safe guard.
  • 20. Isometric Drawing of a Typical R-O2 Drying Chamber
  • 21. R-O2 Drying Chambers
  • 22. R-O2 Drying Chambers
  • 23. R-O2 Continuous Systems
  • 24. R-O2 Continuous Systems
  • 25. Temperature profile in a Continuous R-O2 Dryer
  • 26. R-O2 Processing Systems
  • 27. R-O2 Processing Systems
  • 28. R-O2 Research & Development Facilities
  • 29. R-O2 Trial Plants We have extensive testing facilities located in Stoke-on-Trent, UK. These facilities consist of a wide range of R-O2 processing equipment which allows us to carry out trials on almost any type of product, producing trial-sized quantities of up to 1,000 kg/hr.
  • 30. R-O2 Technology Independent Verification
  • 31. Independent Verification `Energy Efficiency Best Practice Programme (UK) Future Practice Final Report 58 by ETSU, Harwell, Didcot, OX11 0RA, acting on behalf of the DETR 1997. Found: R−O2 Drying offers energy consumption savings over industry survey averages of between 60% and 85%. `R−O2 Drying for Ceramic Products Ceram Research Report KAIR−IV Final Project Report, J. Fifer (Project Manager) and T. Evans (Report) 1996: Found: Savings relating from shorter cycle times and or reduced product damage; Savings achievable by full re−use of the R−O2 Dryers exhausted steam energy and or use of its flue gas energy CERAM
  • 32. R-O2 References Worldwide Kermansavi Dutch Govt Calortec Se-Shin Palmex RESCO Morgan Matroc Kanthal Cookson Mathey Vesuvius Ideal Standard Parkinson Spencer Refractories IFGL & MIR Global Dyson Refractories Incesa Standard Harbison Walker Villeroy & Boch Morganite Crucible Kohler Sanimex Morgan Thermal Steelite plc Hepworth Refractories Dudson plc Carborundum Vista Alegra Ceradyne Pfalzgraph Norton Ceramics Harbison Walker Diamond Refractories Swell Corporation Acme Marls American Standard Cape Insulation Aguascalientes CERAM Jacob Delafon Promat Celtek ECU National Metalurgical Laborities Doncasters Marine System Technology Skamol
  • 33. CDS CONTACT P.O Box 478, Boonton, NJ 07005 Tel: +1 973 641 6857 Cell: +1 973 641 5663 Email: andy@cds-inc.us.com Web: www.cds-group.co.uk Andrew J Hall, President