A Reference Model For A Service Oriented Government


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A Reference Model For A Service Oriented Government

  1. 1. Public the way we see itA reference model fora service-orientedgovernment
  2. 2. ContentsIntroduction 01Overview of the model1. The primary processes (Developments 1 to 5) 022. The secondary processes (Development 6) 023. Digital files and folders (Policy principle 7) 034. Chain integration (Policy principle 8) 035. Core registrations (Policy principle 9) 046. Governement desktop (Policy principle 10) 057. Political and management information (Policy principle 11) 068. Customer-friendly access (Policy principle 12) 07Present state of affairs 09
  3. 3. Public the way we see itIntroductionThe much-debated topic of New putting the Netherlands on the map policy principles of DifferentGovernment* requires governmental in global terms. Not for us to brag Government. It offers a way of think-innovation and reform. The challenges about in Holland, but an opportunity ing for going step by step towardsare abound. Some examples: do more to analyze how this success has been service-oriented government.with fewer people. Provide transpar- achieved. And by doing this, to in-ency. Respond faster to new legisla- spire others. It contains a handle for making thetion and regulations (time to market). developments manageable.To be able to work in a results-orient- Since the route to New Governmented and customer-focused manner. was first taken in 2004 a great many The Government Reference ModelDeliver measurable services. Offer changes have been set in motion in that we elaborate on below is built upmore and more services online. To the public sector. The developments into the final model section by sec-put the citizen service number to best appear to be following on from one tion. We start with the primary andpossible use. Manage file handling another ever faster. At the end of secondary processes of the govern-with often distributed entry of data, 2005 this resulted in the implementa- ment before moving on to the discus-and yet to have consistent, reliable tion of eight major changes to the law, sion of the implications for policy. Formanagement information available. To including the Social Insurance each section a general indication issay nothing of the integration of chain (Reduction of Administrative Burden given of what the development entails,partners within government and the and Simplification) Act, the Work and what the current state of the IT struc-ability to extract politico-governmen- Income according to Labour Capacity ture is and what impact the develop-tal information from such a chain Act, the Health Care Insurance Act ment has on IT.quickly. and the Life Course Scheme. All these changes had a major impactIn order to make a clear response to on the administration of governmentall these issues, the government needs and its IT. They are as it were alluseful tools. Tools that make it possi- based on the new capabilities: theyble to build the new government edi- encourage the breaking down of thefice of the future, step by step and in walls between institutes, with subse-a targeted fashion. What is most quent integration of the administrativeimportant is that close cooperation chain and we see they depend on newand optimum knowledge transfer be- capabilities of accessing basic recordstween government and the corporate in a national landscape.sector is crucial if this process is tosucceed. To gain an insight into the develop- Capgemini Nederland B.V. ment of New Government and to Public SectorThe Dutch government has invested a make the interdependence of thegreat deal of energy in this area in changes clear, Capgemini has devel- Nick van Rossumrecent years. We are now beginning to oped the ‘Government Reference VP Practiceleader SAP Public andreap the benefits of that effort. Take Model’ in collaboration with SAP Financethe Land Registry. This organization Netherlands. Albert Kuiperhas won the most important European This model contains the primary and Business Architectprize for E-government of the year. secondary processes of government Mario HalfhideNo small achievement. And there are together with a framework containing VP Business Development and Salesmany more such initiatives that are a number of the most important Public Sector* New Government is the translation of the term ‘Moderne Overheid’ which is the name of the initiative of the Dutch government in 2006.Introduction 1
  4. 4. Overview of the modelIn this model we distinguish twelve ERP too is increasingly being imple- 1. The primary processesdevelopments. Reflections and views mented to put the primary processes (Developments 1 to 5)on these developments can be found into effect. At the Ministry for Socialin this book. We outline the develop- Affairs and Employment the Hermesments briefly for you as follows. system is being set up. This budgeting system with work-flow, authorizations1. The primary processes and management information looks 1(Developments 1 to 5) after the determination and allocation This box is for the placementEach government organization is re- of the budgets to the various benefits 2sponsible for the execution of one or agencies. of a graphic. 3more of the five primary processes: Right-click on this box andmaking policy, raising taxes and col- At the Ministry of Defense the diffe- 4lecting revenues, assigning funds and rent logistics and financial systems are change contentdisbursements of grants, executing being replaced during the reorganiza- to 5 picture and place thelaws (a wide range of different proces- tion of the branches of military serv-ses) and control of the execution of ice. The privatization of the housing appropriate artwork.laws. corporations leads to the replacement of their current bespoke and packageLooking at these primary processes solutions. The whole handling of Newand the way in which they are put Citizen Integration (including theinto practice from the IT viewpoint, attendance of courses and the conclu-one thing immediately catches the sion of loans) is going to be adminis-eye. In the field of primary processes tered at the IB-Groep. These exam-the government, with just a few ples, solutions are based on a SAPexceptions, is using bespoke systems. platform. We also see that municipal-These customized systems are at the ities have started to use package solu-end of their life cycle, are difficult to tions in recent years.adapt to the new legislation and regu-lations and are very expensive to 2. The secondary processesmaintain. They were never designed (Development 6) 2. The secondary processesfor cooperation in (supply) chains. If we look at the secondary processes, (Development 6)Any attempts at decompartmentaliza- the administration or support servicestion would consequently be futile and as they are also called, then we seemerely be cosmetic. that in recent years there has been a major switch to application packages.A shift to application packages SAP clearly has the leading edge in 1The replacement of some of these this area. At various Ministries appli- This box is for the placementcustomized systems with application cation packages have now been intro- 2packages was only started two years duced for financial accounting and of a graphic. 3ago. In terms of the primary process personnel processes. At the same time Right-click on this box andof levying taxes and collecting reve- the purchasing process at a great 4nues the Tax Department for example many government organizations is change contentis having its current customized currently under scrutiny and work is to picture and place the 5system for the collection process under way on replacement of the cus- 6 appropriate artwork.replaced by a best-of-breed solution. tomized systems with an application package. To take two examples: the Land Registry and the Tax Depart-2
  5. 5. Public the way we see it ment. At a number of government of submissions for building construc- 3. Digital files and folders (Policy organizations the IT management of tion electronically over the internet. principle 7) the secondary processes is also being Construction application forms, draw- accommodated in Shared Service ings and calculations are submitted Centers with a view to standardization and processed digitally. The applicant and cost savings. can follow the decision-making in the process on the internet too. 1 7 This box is for the placement 3. Digital files and folders Digital files & folders 2 (Policy principle 7) 4. Chain integration (Policy prin- of a graphic. Under the New Government style of ciple 8) 3 thinking, the citizen and the corporate Government organizations however Right-click on this box and 4 sector take centre stage in the services do not stand alone in the execution of change content of government. As a result it is no the tasks assigned to them. They are to 5 picture and place the longer the individual processes that dependent on cooperation with are guiding, but rather the file of the ministries, independent authorities, 6 appropriate artwork. citizen or the business approaching municipalities, provinces and some- the government. A 360-degree under- times even the corporate sector. The standing of all contact-moments in policy of New Government is aimed at connection with the file (the case) is giving simpler and clearer shape to the consequence. This means that all this cooperation in the chains. This the relevant information concerning means that apart from the develop- the government’s customers must be ments within the organization itself, available in digital form and that new the developments of the organizations work flow processes must be set up. in their own chain are also important. Alls processes must be redeveloped to Think for example of the social chain make the sharing of digital files part of Social Affairs and Employment, of the workflows. Social Security Agency and Munici- palities for the payment of benefits As an example, from 2008 a digital or the education chain with Finance, customer file will have to be created Education Departments, Culture and for the application for a social benefit Science, the IB-Groep and the educa- in which all the customer data and tional institutes. documentary evidence about the unemployment are collected electroni- In these processes the various parties cally. This file will be created at the are dependent on (the correctness of) intake interview by the front-office of the data of their predecessors. Time the Ministry for Labour and will be saving, cost saving and more error- available for use by various organiza- free information transfer are the main tions such as the Social Security gains that can be achieved by govern- Agency and municipal Social Services ment. who are responsible for timely reinte- gration. Currently the majority of the informa- tion exchange within the chains takes Another example is the constructions place on paper by means of (extracts applications project that is currently from) files. In the Health Care chain in the process of implementation. This the form and contents of the Elec- is a project that involves the handling tronic Patient File are now beingOverview of the model 3
  6. 6. 4. Chain integration (Policy principle 8) This box is for the placement of a graphic. 1 7 Right-click on 1this box and change8 content 8 7 1 7 Digital files & folders Digital files & folders Digital files & folders 2 2 2 to picture and place the appropriate artwork. View chain 3 3 View chain 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6developed. Soon medical data will 5. Core registrations (Policybe exchanged between the different principle 9)health care providers. In addition The idea behind core registrations isto the security aspect the technical that citizens, business and other orga-implementation is a key issue. This nizations only have to have theiris precisely where the problems are details registered at one place and onein the development of the Electronic time and these are subsequently usedPatient File as that it appears that in all their interaction with govern-there are major differences in the ment. In all contacts thereafter thelevels of the degree of automation of core registrations are used as a start-the various organizations in the chain. ing point. The main consequences are that the basic records must be mana-By focusing on the chain there obvi- ged centrally and that all governmentously are also opportunities to reduce organizations must be connected. Thecomplexity of architecture and reduc- government organizations are obligeding costs. Shared Service Centers to use these core registrations by law.across various different organizationsof the chain are the solution to this. Originally this Act would have come into force for six basic records fromThe Ministry of Defense is currently January 2007. Problems with theseeing the introduction of a central implementation (how can this beservice for electronic payment of achieved with the present IT infra-invoices for procurement. The structure?) have led to the postpone-Ministry of Defense is leading the ment of the start date of the Act.way in this functional area. Of these six basic records the Registration of Persons of the munici-4
  7. 7. Public the way we see it 5. Core registrations (Policy principle 9) 1 7 This box is for the placement of a 8 8 1 7 graphic. 1 7 Digital files & folders Digital files & folders Digital files & folders 2 Right-click on this box and change content 2 2 View chain View chain 3 3 3 4 to picture and place the appropriate artwork. 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 9 Core registrations pal personal records database, the 1. The public servant who can do his Register of Businesses (basic address work anywhere and at any time. In and buildings record) of the Chamber the near future new public servants of Commerce and the Property will be knowledge workers; Registration of the Land Registry are 2. To be an attractive employer for the three best known. The country’s new recruits; citizens are currently being urged to 3. One-off entry of data; apply for their Citizen Service 4. Portals and personalized access Number (for the identification of the (for the customer as well as the public Registration of Persons) and their servant). DigiD (type of pin code for authoriza- tion). These are all activities on the The first objective means that the registration side: i.e. availability of the public servant must be able to work data, a unique identification and a from any government organization he security code. The actual implementa- wants or from home. The public serv- tion within the New Government ant has access via a screen layout and organizations has yet to start. requisite systems tailored specifically to the performance of his duties 6. Government desktop (Policy (objective 4). What we already stated principle 10) is that the public servant will be a Another policy principle that is affect- knowledge worker. All processes mus ing every government organization is be executed automatically (electroni- the central government desktop. The cally) with minimal human interven- objectives of the introduction of the tion. one format for the government desk- top are:Overview of the model 5
  8. 8. 6. Government desktop (Policy principle 10) 10 Government desktop This box is for the placement of a graphic. 1 7 Right-click on 1this box and change8 content 8 7 1 7 Digital files & folders Digital files & folders Digital files & folders 2 to picture and place the appropriate artwork. 2 2 View chain View chain 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 9 Core registrationsThe one-off entry (objective 3) must have a low learning-threshold and beensure that data is recorded clearly, recognizable in their operation.fewer errors are made and greaterefficiency occurs. As an example of 7. Political and managementone-off entry consider diary manage- information (Policy principle 11)ment. A request for a holiday via Political and management informationOutlook immediately triggers a work- refers to the retrieval of unstructuredflow for approval, leading to the debi- ad hoc information from governmentting of the days in the time records of systems in support of decision-makingthe personnel system and the inclu- processes or accountability.sion of the request as a document inthe personnel file. This does not mean the structuredAt the outset all this seems easy to information about for example thearrange. However, at the back-end a costs of a construction project, butgreat amount of effort has to be digitized information that is obtaina-invested in the current customized ble now that more and more informa-systems and application packages. tion is becoming available electroni-There is even talk of a potential cally in files and can be accessed now‘implementation bottleneck’. that the systems can be linked to one another more easily.The purpose of the second objective is Information is politically indispensa-that the government remains an at- ble. An example of this unstructuredtractive employer for the new genera- information is the information thattion, which is growing up working the Dutch Ministry of Finance neededwith the latest technology, in the futu- on Property Tax at the beginning ofre too. Systems must be user friendly, 2006. Part of the national property tax6
  9. 9. Public the way we see it 7. Political and management information (Policy principle 11) 10 Government desktop 11 This boxPolitical and management information is for the placement of a graphic. 1 7 Right-click on 1this box and change8 content 8 7 1 7 Digital files & folders Digital files & folders Digital files & folders 2 to picture and place the appropriate artwork. 2 2 View chain View chain 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 9 Core registrations was abolished, and the other part was form of the ad hoc establishment of allowed to rise only by a maximum of connections between this data has yet 2%. The municipalities became more to be determined. autonomous in the taxation and could set the height of the tax. The provinc- 8. Customer-friendly access es had the task to overview the height (Policy principle 12) of the municipal taxes and agree Key to customer-friendly accessibility exemptions. On a request in Parlia- is a government that offers the citizen ment, how many municipalities had and the corporate sector the opportu- increased the property taxes above the nity to use the services of government allowed percentage and had obtained over the internet. This means that all this exemption from their provinces, the processes that we currently still the Ministry could not provide a have to access to by going to the direct answer and the provinces were municipality or the province for only able to give him information example in person, are also handled about the situation two months later. over the internet. Examples of services that can be availed over the Internet Having political and management include applying for permits or subsi- information available to its fullest dies. This customer-friendly accessibi- extent is something for the future. lity makes deep inroads into the cur- Only a small part of these links be- rent processes, not only at the front tween the government systems exists (the applications), but also during the in the current IT infrastructure. At the process (feedback of status and decisi- same time a lot of government infor- on-making on the application) and at mation still has to be recorded elec- the end of the process (the final deci- tronically first and also the technical sion and the follow-up activities).Overview of the model 7
  10. 10. 8. Customer-friendly access (Policy principle 12) 10 Government desktop 11 Political and management information This box is for the placement of a graphic. 1 7 Right-click on 1this box and change8 content 8 7 1 7 Digital files & folders Digital files & folders Digital files & folders 2 2 2 to picture and place the appropriate artwork. View chain 3 3 View chain 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 6 9 Core registrations 12 Customer-friendly accessAt the front for example this implies The municipalities are now concentra-the use of easy to complete forms pro- ting on providing an electronic provi-vided electronically. For the public sion for the variety of information thatsector worker this represents a far currently appears in brochures.more direct and faster (for exampleemail) contact with the citizen or the In addition, they are providing thebusiness. The whole process becomes application-forms electronically, butmore transparent and easier to follow. which then have to be printed out,In the back office standard handling completed and returned. The munici-will then be set up that can perform palities and provinces will then gothe standard test on the content and through the process as of old. Theroute the difficult cases to a real electronic catalogues with applicationknowledge worker. This public sector forms of services are not thereforeworker can also work in a different genuinely integrated, there is hardlyorganization in the chain. In this way any question of a government work-the creation of a one-stop virtual shop ing differently as part of a new digitalfor government information is also era. The core issue lies precisely ingenuinely linked to a virtual delivery integration, in which the processesorganization. really are transformed from front to back into an interactive sequence ofBy the mid 2008 the municipalities steps that starts with access over theand provinces must provide digital internet. This is where the true valueaccess to at least 65% of services. It’s lies. Only then can we move on to thelikely that they will be able to achieve actual reorganization of the chains forthis target with ease. However, this example with a more local presence:figure is highly distorting. the municipalities as front office.8
  11. 11. Public the way we see itPresent state of affairsThe Government Reference Model The bottleneck lies in the actual crea-shows clearly that all these develop- tion of the link from the front office toments are closely related. At the same the back office, usually also across thetime it appears that none of the deve- boundaries of the organization. In thelopments is anything more than barely IT architecture one of the main causesout of the starting blocks. The designs of this bottleneck lies in the fact thatare on the drawing boards (at the the back office still consists entirely oflikes of EGEM and ICTU). a setup with bespoke applications and closed application packages. If theKey to these designs of ICTU and objectives (cost savings, flexibility,EGEM is the idea that the intercon- transparency, the citizen centre stage,nection within government (across all quality) are to be achieved, then a reallayers) can be achieved with a frame- drive for openness still has to bework of mutual ‘services’. An example made. There are already the first mur-of a service is the provision of the murs of an implementation bottle-basic details of a citizen (to authorized neck: there is too little capacity, direc-enquirers). Another service can be the tion and budget to realize the fullcollection of levies imposed. We see transformation.here that the architecture based onservices can also actually cause a spe- It is impossible to realize thesecialization within government. We changes with a big-bang approach.already know the shared service cen- Firstly, because it involves too manyters from the secondary processes, but risks and secondly because it meanswe are going to encounter them in the that much that is good would be dis-primary process too in the years carded: a disinvestment that no orga-ahead. Municipalities will for example nization can afford. An evolutionaryact more and more as a front office by process is required, a process con-forming an ‘access service’ to citizens sisting of the setting up of a futureand businesses for government tasks. architecture on the basis of the ex-The government is occupied with an isting architecture and then slowlyaccelerated development to a networ- migrating to the new architecture.ked form of organization. Behindthese services that the organizations A handsome and practical way to getdeliver to one another is a layer of to grips is to develop a SOA-Roadmapapplications that actually make the that covers all implementation issues.services possible. In fact, such a Roadmap can be seen as a combination of classicalTo bring the new and desired service- IT-Strategy and Business Strategy.oriented government to fruition notonly must the service processes beadapted, but also the IT architecture(Service Oriented Architecture). Theunderlying principles that have beenset out so beautifully in the vision ofa New Government must also be putinto practice.Present state of affairs 9
  12. 12. About Capgemini Capgemini, one of the and through a global delivery model world’s foremost providers called Rightshore®, which aims to offer of consulting, technology and outsourc- the right resources in the right location ing services, enables its clients to trans- at competitive cost. Present in 36 coun- form and perform through technologies. tries, Capgemini reported 2007 global Capgemini provides its clients with revenues of EUR 8.7 billion and employs insights and capabilities that boost their over 83,000 people worldwide. freedom to achieve superior results through a unique way of working More information is available at - the Collaborative Business Experience® - www.capgemini.com IN/8D-051.28Copyright © 2008 Capgemini. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. www.nl.capgemini.comCapgemini Nederland B.V.Papendorpseweg 100P.O.Box 2575 - 3500 GN UtrechtThe NetherlandsTel. +31 030 689 00 00Fax +31 030 689 99 99