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Relationship between nurse unit managers' motivation and their

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  • 1. International Research Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Vol 4, No. 5;May 2012 Relationship between Nurse Unit Managers' Motivation and Their Performance Management in Selected Hospital at Makkah Al Moukarramah, KSA 2 1*2 1 1 HalaY.Sayed Manal M. Ibrahim and Faculty of Nursing, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah, KSA. Faculty of Nursing, Menofia University. Faculty of Nursing, Cairo University2 Egypt Abstract Background: Nurse unit managers' motivation is a key factor that might affect the success of an intervention to improve their performance management. Motivation is the key of a successful organization to maintain the continuity of the work in a powerful manner and help organizations to survive. Managers who are motivated to do their work are enthusiastic, responsible, caring, and eager to improve. Aim.The aim of this research is to assess the relationship between nurse unit managers' motivation and their performance management.Design. The research design of the study is a descriptive correlational research design. Setting. The study conducted at King Abdul Aziz hospital, King Faisal hospital and Maternity& Children hospital at MakkahAl Moukarramah. Sample. Convenient sample was used to collect the data. The total sample of this study was 60 nurse' unit managers, 22 from King Abdul Aziz hospital, 20 from King Faisal hospital and18 from Maternity& Children hospital. Tools. There were two tools used to carry out this study.Results. More than half (58.3%) of the study subjects was in age group (30-39). There was highly statistical significant correlation between thenurse unit managers' motivation and their performance management. While, there was highly statistical significant difference was observed between the hospitals regarding to motivation and performance management.Conclusion. This study concluded that, the motivation (drive, control, relationships, challenges, and rewards) in the work environment at governmental hospitals can be effective method to motivate the nurse' unit managers as they affect the way of the 34 IRJBAS@SCIENCERECORD.COM
  • 2. International Research Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Vol 4, No. 5;May 2012 performance management. Recommendation.Rewards must be commensurate with the nature of individuals and not with the nature of the functional cadres, those up can be considered as a good motivational tool. Keywords: Nurses' Unit Manager, Motivation, Performance Management. Introduction: Motivation is an important factor on which organizational efficiency depends. It is a process of arousing behavior, sustaining behavior and channeling behavior in specific course. It explains why some people work hard and well whereas others perform poorly(Franco et al.2002). In nursing management, staff needs to be motivated to have quality patient care, to develop staff efficiency and to reduce absenteeism. A nursing superintendent must reward the good nursing care given by staff nurse so that she is motivated to work harder (Dieleman, et al. 2006)(Ibrahim,et al. 2003). Performance management is a participative process in which the staff member and unit manager share responsibility for the development of an action plan,by participating effectively in the performance management plan.Staff members have an opportunity to gain personal recognition and development.Performance management recognizes that the effective operation of the unit depends on the knowledge, skills and performance of its staff. It is working in a way that will enable continuous performance improvement in line with the unit direction, and will at the same time increase staff innovation and job satisfaction(Boyett et al. 2000). 35 IRJBAS@SCIENCERECORD.COM
  • 3. International Research Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Vol 4, No. 5;May 2012 The unit managers' duties include providing communication between the nursing staff, medical staff, administrative staff and any governing bodies within the organization. The nurse administrators must be familiar with the specifics of the health care industry and be able to effectively translate a variety of ideas to others within the organization that may not be as well versed in the field (Boyett et al. 2000 &Howell, 2000). An organization needs to influence satisfiers through performance management the "measuring, monitoring and enhancing the performance of staff", using a range of human resources management (HRM) tools such as: job descriptions, supervision, performance appraisals, continuous education, rewards and career development(Martinez, 2001 & Family Planning Management Development Technical Unit, 1998). Nurse managers play a vital role in health care. They are the essence of any health care system. Their chief responsibilities include taking care. Their ultimate goal is implementation of policies that ensures care, compassion and dedicated health care services(Stewart, 2004). Significance of the study Motivation can help improve unit managers' performance, reduce the chances of low manager morale, encourage teamwork and instill a positive attitude during challenging times. Unit managers' with a high level of motivation typically work harder and provide high-quality of care, maintain a high level of productivity and overcome common 36 IRJBAS@SCIENCERECORD.COM
  • 4. International Research Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Vol 4, No. 5;May 2012 workplace challenges with ease, this helps the unit reach its objectives and improve operations overall. Aim of the study This study aimed to: Assess the relationship between nurse unit managers' motivation and their performance management. • Research Question What is the relationship between nurse unit managers' motivation and their performance management? Subjects and methods Research Design The research design of the study is a descriptive correlational design. Setting The present study was conducted in three hospitals at Makkah Al Mokarama, Saudi Arabia. The first setting is the King Abdul-Aziz hospital. This hospital was built in 1376 AH, located in the AL-Zaher street; it is considered one of the oldest hospitals in Makkah, composed of eleven units and wards as follow: renal dialysis, OPD, ER, OR, medical male, medical female, surgical male, surgical female, orthopedics, ICU and day care unit. The second setting is the King Faisal hospital is one of the medical edifices in the Holy City which provides therapeutic services at all levels. This hospital was built in 1384 AH. Composed of ten units and wards as 37 IRJBAS@SCIENCERECORD.COM
  • 5. International Research Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Vol 4, No. 5;May 2012 follow: OPD, ER, OR, ICU, surgical male, surgical female, medical male, medical female, renal dialysis and viruses & isolation unit. The third setting is the Maternity& Children hospital which is the first governmental hospital in KSA for treating the maternity and children diseases. This hospital was built in 1372 AH. It's in Jarwal region, composed of four floor with 300 bed capacity and eleven units and wards as follow: gynecology ER, pediatric ER, OPD, anti natal ward, delivery room, OR, nursery, surgical ward, post natal ward, pediatric ward and gynecology ward. Sample Convenient sample was used to collect the data. The total sample of this study was 60 nurse unit managers, 18 from Maternity& Children hospital, 22 from King Abdul Aziz hospital and 20 from King Faisal hospital. The unit managers fall into two categories: a bachelor degree in nursing and a diploma in nursing. The number of bachelor was 14, and the number of diploma was 46 unit managers. Tools of data collection In order to fulfill the research aim, two tools were used to collect data. First, motivation tool, which was developed by Smith (1988).This tool aimed at assessing the unit managers’ motivation. The Questionnaire is consists of 35 items: divided to 5 categories as follow: drive (10 items), control (6 items), relationships (5 items), challenge (11 items) and rewards (3 items). Second, performance management tool, which was developed by Family 38 Planning Management Development Technical IRJBAS@SCIENCERECORD.COM
  • 6. International Research Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Vol 4, No. 5;May 2012 Unit(1998).The tool aimed at assessing unit managers' performance management. It consists of 45 items: divided to 5 categories as follow: departmental responsibilities (7 items), nursing process / patient care responsibilities (15 items), continuing education (5 items), equipment (6 items), and attitude (12 items).The tool had translated into Arabic to make it easier for the diploma nurses who are not fluent in English. Responses to the questions of two tools were answered by “agree”, “neutral”, and “disagree”; scored by using a likert scale from1 to 3 respectively. Statistical Analysis Data entry and analysis were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences “SPSS” program, version 13. Data were presented using descriptive statistics in the form of frequencies and percentages for qualitative variables and means and standard deviations for quantitative variables. ANOVA analysis was used for assessment of the relationships of the study variables among three hospitals. Chi-Square analysis was used for assessment of the relationships among qualitative variables. Ttest was used to test significant. Statistical significance was considered at p-value ≤ 0.05. Pilot study After review of the tools by experts and its approval, a pilot study was carried out before starting the actual data collection. The purpose of the pilot study was to ascertain the clarity, and applicability of the study tools, and to identify the obstacles and problems that may be encountered during data collection. It also helped to estimate the time needed to fill in 39 IRJBAS@SCIENCERECORD.COM
  • 7. International Research Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Vol 4, No. 5;May 2012 the questionnaire. Based on the results of the pilot study, modifications, clarifications, omissions, and rearrangement of some questions were done. The pilot study was done on 5 assistant head nurses and 5 unit managers working in different wards/units on King Faisal hospital, King Abdul- Aziz hospital and Maternity& Children hospital and those were included in the total study subjects after reassessment and modification of the tools. Ethical Considerations and Procedure Before any attempt to collect data, a formal letter was issued from the Faculty of Nursing Umm Al Qura University, to obtain an official approval from the administrators of the hospitals where the data were collected to conduct the study. The letter identified the researchers, the title and aim of the research. The data collection phase of the study was carried out in one month (May 2011). The researcher introduced herself to the respondents, and explained the aim of the study to the unit managers in the study setting. Each participant was notified about the right to refuse to participate in the study before taking her verbal consent. Anonymity and confidentiality of the information gathered was ensured. Then, the study tools was distributed to them, during morning shift for one day/week, with instructions about its filling and collected on the same day. This was repeated in each unit/ward of the study hospitals. The researcher was present most of the time to clarify any ambiguity. The time taken for every questionnaire to be completed was about 30-50 minutes for each nurse unit manager. Results 40 IRJBAS@SCIENCERECORD.COM
  • 8. International Research Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Vol 4, No. 5;May 2012 Table (1):Distribution of demographic variables and general characteristics of the study subjects. Variables Age 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-60 Gender Male Female Marital Status Unmarried Married Level of Education Diploma Bachelor Experience Years 1-10 11-20 20Training Courses Yes No Number of training courses 1-20 21-40 41- 41 No = 60 NO 10 35 10 5 NO 4 56 NO 29 31 NO 46 14 NO 30 20 10 NO 60 0 NO % 16.7 58.3 16.7 8.3 % 6.7 93.3 % 48.3 51.7 % 76.7 23.3 % 50 33.3 16.7 % 100 0 % 46 10 4 76.7 16.6 6.7 IRJBAS@SCIENCERECORD.COM
  • 9. International Research Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Vol 4, No. 5;May 2012 Table (1) illustrate that, more than half (58.3%) of the study subjects were in age group (30-39), while the least frequent (8.3%) of them were in the age group (50-60). Regarding to the gender of the study subjects, the highest percentage (93.3%) was female, while the lowest percentage (6.7%) was male. Nearly half (51.7%) of the study subjects were married, while unmarried were 48.3%. According to the level of education, more than three fourths (76.7%) of the study subjects were diploma nurse. While, the rest (23.3%) of them were bachelor degree. In relation to years of experience for the study subjects was found that 50% of them had experience ranging from (1-10) years, while the least percentage (16.7%) had experience of more than 20 years. Also, 76.6% of the study subjects had received training courses and hold a number of training courses ranging between (1-20) , compared to 6.7% of them had training courses more than 40 courses. Table (2):Percentage distribution of the total study subjects according to motivation categories Motivation Agree Neutral Disagree No % No % No % Drive 52 86.7 3 5 5 8.3 Control 56 93.3 3 5 1 1.7 Relationships 51 85 8 13.3 1 1.7 Challenges 55 91.7 5 8.3 0 0 Rewards 46 76.7 4 6.6 10 16.7 Total 42 86.68 7.64 5.68 IRJBAS@SCIENCERECORD.COM
  • 10. International Research Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Vol 4, No. 5;May 2012 Table (2) showed that, the highest response (93.3%) was observed on control category, followed by challenges category (91.7%), drive (86.7%), relationships (85%) and rewards (76.7%). While there was disagree response regarding to all items except the challenges among the minority of the study subjects. Table (3):Percentage distribution of the total study subjects according to performance management categories Performance Management Agree Neutral disagree No % No % No % 57 95 3 5 0 0.00 57 95 2 3.3 1 1.7 Continuing education 57 95 3 5 0 0.00 Equipment 60 100 0 0.00 0 0.00 Attitude 58 96.7 2 3.3 0 0.00 Departmental responsibilities Nursing process / Patient. care responsibilities Totalperformance management 96.34 3.32 0.34 Table (3) illustrated that, the equipment category was more item supported by (100%) agree response, followed by attitude category (96.7%). Moreover, the departmental responsibilities, nursing process / pt. care responsibilities, and continuing education categories were equal percent (95%). While disagree response was observed regarding to all items except nursing process / pt. care responsibilities as reported by 1.7% of study subjects. 43 IRJBAS@SCIENCERECORD.COM
  • 11. International Research Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Vol 4, No. 5;May 2012 Table(4):Relationship between demographic data of the study subjects and their motivation andperformance management Variables Performance Management Motivation F p F P Age 4.96 0.002** 0.56 0.80 Years of experience 2.96 0.02* 1.30 0.26 No. of training courses 2.53 0.05* 2.12 0.05* *Statistically significant at level ≤ 0.05. **Statistically significant at level 0.01. ***Statistically significant at level 0.001. Table (4) clarified that, there was highly statistical significant relationship between unit managers' age and their performance management (p = 0.002). Also, there was a statistical significant relationship between unit managers' years of experience, number of training courses and their performance management (p = 0.02, 0.05) respectively. While, there was no statistical significant relationship between unit managers' motivation and their demographic data except with number of training courses (p = 0.05). Table (5):Relationship between demographic data of the study subjects and their motivation and performance management Variables Gender 44 Performance Management p χ2 12.85 0.012** Motivation P χ 60.00 0.000*** 2 IRJBAS@SCIENCERECORD.COM
  • 12. International Research Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Vol 4, No. 5;May 2012 Marital Status 12.15 0.016** 39.06 0.000*** Level of education 30.47 0.000*** 42.03 0.000*** Table (5):illustrated that, there was highly statistical significant relationship between unit managers' gender, marital status and level of education and their performance management (p= 0.012, 0.016, and 0.000) respectively. Also, there was highly statistical significant relationship between unit managers' gender, marital status and level of education and their motivation (p= 0.000, 0.000, and 0.000)respectively. Table (6):Relationship between nurse unit managers' performance management and their motivation Motivation Performance Management χ2 Drive 22.50 0.000*** Control 36.40 0.000*** Relationship 46.93 0.000*** Challenges 45.66 0.000*** Rewards 10.30 0.006** Total 45 p 29.00 0.000*** IRJBAS@SCIENCERECORD.COM
  • 13. International Research Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Vol 4, No. 5;May 2012 Table (6) clarified that, there was highly statistical significant relationship between unit managers' performance management and all categories of their motivation (drive, control, relationships, and challenge) where p value of chi-square = 0.000, except reward category where p value = 0.006. Moreover, there was highly statistical significant relationship between unit managers' performance management and their total motivation (p = 0.000). Table (7):Total mean scoresof nurse unit managers' motivation and their performance management regarding to the hospitals King Abdul Aziz hospital Variables Maternity& Children hospital King Faisal hospital M Performance management M S.D M S.D 42.45 Motivation S.D 5.15 41.00 4.48 41 4.07 18.90 0.015 45.77 2.24 45.38 2.11 45.85 2.34 t 29 p 0.000 Table (7)showed that, the mean and standard deviation was observed regarding to unit managers' motivation in hospitals as follow: King Abdul-Aziz hospital (M=42.45, S.D=5.15), Maternity& Children hospital (M=41.00, S.D=4.48) and King Faisal hospital (M=41.00, S.D=4.07). Also, the mean and standard deviation were observed 46 IRJBAS@SCIENCERECORD.COM
  • 14. International Research Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Vol 4, No. 5;May 2012 regarding to unit managers' performance management in hospital as follow: King Faisal hospital (M=45.85, S.D=2.34), King Abdul Aziz hospital (M=45.77, S.D=2.24) and Maternity& Children hospital (M=45.38, S.D=2.11).While, there was highly statistical significant difference was observed between the hospitals regarding to unit managers' motivation and their performance management ( χ 2 =18.90, p=0.015) ( χ 2 =29, p=0.000) respectively. Discussion: The use of positive motivational techniques must be consistent and timely in order to be effective. Proper use of positive motivation is critical for nursing managers in today's constantly changing health environment. Hospitals with effective motivational programs continue to have the extra edge needed to stayahead of their competitors(Abdel Hamed, 2002).The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between nurse unit managers' motivation and their performance management. In the present study, the highest percentage (93.3%) of participants were female, while the lowest percentage was (6.7%) of them were male, because the all most of the subjects were female. The present study findings revealed that, more than half of nurses had diploma, this may be because nursing diploma program was the only source of nursing graduate at Makkah Al Mukarama till the recent establishment of faculty 47 IRJBAS@SCIENCERECORD.COM
  • 15. International Research Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Vol 4, No. 5;May 2012 of nursing at Umm Al Qura University at 2006. The high percentages of the nurses were married ,because most of them are in age group (30-39). The finding of the current study,revealed that there was statistical significant difference between unit managers' number of training courses and their motivation. This finding is consistent withCapozzoli(1998) who found that a motivating environment may produce satisfiedemployees, which in turn may make many employees happy. A motivating environment exists with conditions of high standards, clear objectives, adequate training, effective leadership, rewards that employees value, and adequate working conditions. In the same line, Kamery(2004) mentioned that one of motivators used by various organizations include educational trainings programs and staff development. Also, Dieleman, etal. (2006) they found that, the main motivators of health workers were related to responsibility, training and recognition, next to salary. These can be influenced by performance management (job descriptions, supervisions, continuous education and performance appraisal). All of these represent long-term programs thatare specifically designed to increase worker satisfaction and effectiveness.So, increasing number of attending training courses leads to gain new knowledge and this can lead to gain power and motivation(Bessell, et al. 2006). 48 IRJBAS@SCIENCERECORD.COM
  • 16. International Research Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Vol 4, No. 5;May 2012 The findings of this study indicated that there was a statistical significant difference between years of experience and performance management, this findingis consistent with Peiyulin (2007)who found that the employees that had been working more than six years foundinteresting work more important than the employees that had only beenworking for less than five years. The reason for this could be that theemployees that had been working for more than six years felt that they had enough job security, wages that they thought were good enough, andenough job appreciation from the managers, and were also satisfied with theworking conditions and loyalty from the company(Hiram, 2003). In the finding of present study clarified that , there was a highly statistical significant relationship between gender and motivation. This finding was supported by Peiyulin (2007)who found that, there were significant difference between male and female employees regarding motivation according to whether the wage were good and whether the manager helped the employees with their personal problems. Majority of male employees were highly motivated by good wage. The finding of the current study indicated that, there was a highly statistical significant difference between rewards and unit managers' performance management. When rewards are given to those who achieve high performance, they can become an important instrument to encourage the continuance of the desired behavior.The relationship between the employees’ 49 performance and organizationalrewards is IRJBAS@SCIENCERECORD.COM
  • 17. International Research Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Vol 4, No. 5;May 2012 important(Herzberg, 2003). Managers must make sure that the employees believe that if theyget a performance appraisal, it will lead to organizational rewards. Many employees seethis relationship as weak because the organization does not give rewards just on theirperformance, so there is a lack of motivation (Robbins, 2003). The finding of the present study revealed that there was a highly statistical significant relationship between unit managers' motivation and their performance management, these finding were supported by Chowdhury (2007)who found that,unit managers engaged in positive motivational behaviorsthat managers' intrinsic motivations were increased, which turn, increased their performance. Positive Achievement motivational leaders are those whoinspire followers to transcend their self-interests and whoare capable of having a profound and extraordinary effecton followers (Robbins, 2003). Demonstrating positivemotivational behavior becomes instrumental in motivatingemployee work performance (Mumford et al., 2002; Robbins, 2003;Chowdhury, 2006& 2004). Moreover, Motivation is a process of arousing and sustaining goaldirectedbehaviorof several work motivation theories,both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation plays an importantrole in influencing employee work performance(Chowdhury,2007). 50 IRJBAS@SCIENCERECORD.COM
  • 18. International Research Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Vol 4, No. 5;May 2012 Conclusion: There was highly statistical significant difference was observed among the hospitals regarding to motivation and performance management. All these motivation (drive, control, relationships, challenges, and rewards) imply that creating a positive environment through encouragement and positive reinforcement of nurse unit managers will improve work motivation and performance. Recommendations: The present study recommended that: 1- Establishment of training courses and workshops on the importance of motivate the nurses' unit manager in hospitals to improve and raise the level of performance management and their skills. 2-Further researches are needed regarding to the factors affect the nurse unit managers' motivation and their performance management. 3- Administrative directives by the heads of departments must be participatory, effective and should be moving away from strict orders to be replaced by the implementation of the action team. 4- The relationship in the workplace should be used well to obtain the optimum level performance. Corresponding author ManalMoussa Ibrahim Moussa Associate Professor of Nursing Management Faculty of nursing, Umm Al Qura University, KSA. Nursing Administration Department, Faculty of Nursing, Menofia University, Egypt. 51 IRJBAS@SCIENCERECORD.COM
  • 19. International Research Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Vol 4, No. 5;May 2012 mmmoussa66@yahoo.com References Abdel Hamed, M.(2002).The relationship between motivation and satisfaction among nurses.Master thesis in nursing service administration, Faculty of Nursing, Zagazig University. -Bessell, I.,Dicks,B.,Wysocki, A &Kepner, K (2008). Understanding Motivation: An Effective Tool for Managers, a series of the Food and Resource Economics Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. -Boyett, H. & Jimmie T. (2000). Worldclass advice on managing and motivating people.Boyett and Associates.Available on the World Wide Web at http://www.jboyett.com/managing1.htm. Date visited, March 25, 2002. -Capozzoli, T. (1998). Creating a motivating environment for employees. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc., 16. -Chowdhury , M. (2007). Enhancing motivation and work performance of thesalespeople: the impact of supervisors’ behavior, African Journal of Business Management.Vol. 1 (9), pp. 238-243. -Chowdhury M (2006). “Pygmalion in Sales: The Influence of Supervisors’ Expectations on Salespersons’ Self-Expectations and their Work Evaluations”, J. Bus. Public Aff. 1(1): 1-12. -Chowdhury M (2004). “Gender and Race in Salespersons Evaluations: A Case Study of a Multicultural Sales force. J. Bus. Behav. Sci. 12, (1); 52-60. 52 IRJBAS@SCIENCERECORD.COM
  • 20. International Research Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Vol 4, No. 5;May 2012 -Dieleman, M, Toonen, J., Touré, H& Martineau, T (2006). The match between motivation and performance management of health sector workers in Mali, Human Resources for Health, 4:2 pp. 1-7. -Family Planning Management Development Technical Unit, (1998) The Health and Family Planning Manager's Toolkit. Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Management Sciences for Health; 1998. Performancemanagement tool.http://erc.msh.org/newpages/english/toolkit/pmt.pdf. -Franco LM, Bennett S, KanferR..(2002).Health sector reform and publicsector health worker motivation a conceptual framework.Social Science and Medicine, 54:1255–1266. - Hiram, A.(2003).Motivational Management http://books.google.com.sa/books?id=00txA_FQoQsC&printsec=fron tcover&hl=ar&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f =false. -Howell H. (2000). Motivating and appreciating yourstaff. A Catanzaro and Associates, Inc. website availableon the World Wide Web at http://v-p-c.com/catanzaro/mgtinfo/newsletter/spring2000/ motivat.htm. Date visited, March 25, 2002. -Herzberg F. (2003). One more time: how do you motivate employees? Harvard Business Review. 81:87–96. - Ibrahim M.,Abd EL-Whaab E. &Abd EL-Fattah M. (2003) Impact of nurses’ motivation on their productivity in centralized VS. decentralized organization structers.Nursing Faculty Conference - Ain Shams University-Egypt. 53 IRJBAS@SCIENCERECORD.COM
  • 21. International Research Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences Vol 4, No. 5;May 2012 -Kamery. R. (2004).Employee motivation as it relates toeffectiveness, efficiency, productivity,and performance. Proceedings of the Academy of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, Volume 8, Number 2. pp. 139-143. -Martinez J. (2001). Assessing Quality, Outcome and Performance Management. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2001. -Mumford M, Scott M, Gaddis B, Strange, M (2002). “Leading creative people: Orchestrating expertise and relationships. The Leadersh. Q. 13: 705-750 -Peiyulin,S (2007). The Correlation between Management and Employee Motivation in Sasol Polypropylene, Business, South Africa pp. 190-195. -Robbins P (2003). Organ.Behav. 10th edition, Prentice hall, NJ. -SmithJ. Motivation questionnaire.(1988). http://www.docstoc.com/docs/42147926/motivation-questionnaire. -Stewart, D (2004).Goals & Objectives for Nurse Managers eHow, pp. 1-3. 54 IRJBAS@SCIENCERECORD.COM