Why not use ICT in SudanDr. Hala Salih Mohammed NurEnglish Language Institute/University of KhartoumICT for English: Challenges and Opportunities for Adapting ICT in Education1-3 April 2013orgainzed by ESL CentreatSudan Open University
I am not an expert in technology butjust simply an English languageteacher who loves and usestechnology
Session Outline• What is technology?• Definition of ‘technology’• Internet timeline• Shift Happens• Important Terms• Why not use ICT in Sudan?• Facts about Internet in Sudan• Why use ICT in education• Standards• Examples of international projects• Examples use of technology in the classroom
What is technology?• The branch of knowledge that deals with thecreation and use of technical means and theirinterrelation with life, society, and theenvironment, drawing upon such subjects asindustrial arts, engineering, applied science, andpure science.• The total knowledge and skills available to anyhuman society for industry, art, science, etc(Taken from dictionary.com)
Internet timeline 1• 1957 USSR launches Sputnik, the first artificial satellite. In response, theU.S. forms ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) within the DOD(Department of Defense). The main goal of the project was to establish amilitary research network that would be resistant to enemy attack.• 1960s The Proposal of the Packet Switching Network emerges. Packetswitching is the concept of breaking down data into packets, which aretransmitted across the network. If one of the packets gets lost along theway, another packet can be sent.• 1971 Ray Tomlinson invents email program that allows users to sendmessages across a network.• 1976 The Queen of England sends her first email.• 1982 First definition of “Internet” as a connected set of networks is usedwhen TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol) isestablished.
Internet timeline 2• 1984 Domain Name System (DNS) is introduced allowing users to typehost names (e.g. www.mpl.org) rather than memorizing numericalInternet Protocol (IP) addresses (e.g. 184.108.40.206).• 1988 Internet Relay Chat is developed allowing users to chat in real time.• 1992 Veronica, a gopher-space search tool, is released by University ofNevada; World Bank goes online; and the expression “Surfing theInternet” is coined.• 1993 MOSAIC, the first WWW browser is released (Marc Andressen andNCSA), the White House goes online (http://www.whitehouse.gov), andan email account is created for the President of the United States(email@example.com).• 1994 Yahoo, an Internet Search Tool, is developed by two Ph.D.candidates from Stanford University and Pizza Hut customers can placean order online.
Internet timeline 3• 1995 RealAudio technology is released, dial-up systems begin to provideInternet access for home use (e.g. America Online, CompuServe, andProdigy), and Netscape goes Public.• 1998 The US Postal Service begins to offer users the ability to purchase,download, and print stamps from the Web.• 2005 YouTube.com is launched.• 2006 There are an estimated 92 million Web sites online, with well over7 billion indexable pages.• 2007 Search engine giant Google surpasses Microsoft as "the mostvaluable global brand," and also is the most visited Web site.• As of September, 69% of the U.S. population (234 million) use theInternet. Worldwide, there are 1,244,449,601 users.[http://www.zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline].
Important terms 1Digital immigrants / Digital natives
Important terms 2Digital divideScholar Howard Besser contends that the digital divideis more than just a gap between those who have accessto technology and those who don’t. This issueencompasses aspects such as:Information literacyAppropriateness of contentAccess to contentAbility to apply critical thinking to technology or notThose who speak English or notThose who create digital content or merely consume it
Important terms 3Digital literacy /Digital safety• Digital literacy researchers explore a wide varietyof topics, including how people find, use,summarize, evaluate, create, and communicateinformation while using digital technologies.• Digital safety is learning to protect personalidentity information, creating strong passwords,and being cautious when downloading programsand files. This is crucial to the safety and securityof the digital devices students use, as well as theinformation those devices store.
What’s all the fuss about computers?• Calvin: If I had a computer, I ‘am sure I’d getbetter grades on my book reports.• Dad: But still you have to read the books andtell the computer what you want to say,…• Calvin: Man, what’s all the fuss aboutcomputers?? (Watterson, 1995)
Facts about Internet in Sudan• Sudan represents by far the fastest growing fixedtelephony market not only in Africa butworldwide. Telecommunications investment hasskyrocketed from only US$500,000 in 1994 toover US$100 million per year. Enormous furtherpotential exists since the country’s totalteledensity is still one of the lowest in the worldat less than 3%.http://www.internetworldstats.com/africa.htm#sd
Facts 2Internet Usage and Population GrowthYear Users Population %2000 30,000 36,841,500 0.1 %2003 300,000 35,035,677 0.9 %2009 4,200,000 34,206,710 9.3 %6,499,275 Internet users on June 30, 2012, 19.0% of the population, per IWS.34,206,710 populationhttp://www.internetworldstats.com/africa.htm#sd
Facts 3• Adrian Hon (the Founder and Chief Creative at Six to Start, anonline games company; he originally trained as aneuroscientist at Cambridge and Oxford) Telegraph 30 April2013.• “Last week, I received an email about a problem my companywas having with our online shop. I happened to be out of theoffice, so I pulled out my laptop, plugged in a 3G mobilebroadband dongle, and went online to try and fix it –something countless workers and commuters do every day.The difference was that I was standing in a field near Atbara inNorth Sudan, while villagers were making mud bricks a fewmeters away.”
Standards 1what needs to be done• Develop a national policy for the pedagogical integration of ICT.• Develop a national policy for teacher training in the pedagogicalintegration of ICT.• Provide ongoing training for school staff.• Develop technopedagogical resource banks for different education levels.• Set up incentive plans for teachers and students to use ICT.• Set up spaces for collaborative dialogue (e.g., forums, annual conferences)on the pedagogical integration of ICT.• Identify the academic competencies to which ICT can be applied forteaching and learning.• Establish public–private partnerships• http://blogs.worldbank.org/edutech/developing-ict-skills-in-african-teachers
Standards 2The ICT-enhanced teacher standards for Africa released by UNESCO-IICBA,which are an attempt to help contextualize the broader UNESCOframework and standards based on specific needs and contextsexpressed by education policymakers from across Africa, are organizedaround six broad standards or domains meant to help develop relatedskills in teachers as they:(i) Engage in Instructional Design Processes(ii) Facilitate and Inspire Student Learning, Innovation and Creativity(iii) Create and Manage Effective Learning Environments(iv) Engage in Assessment and Communication of Student Learning(v) Engage in Professional Development and Model EthicalResponsibilities(vi) Understand Subject Matter for Use in Teachinghttp://blogs.worldbank.org/edutech/developing-ict-skills-in-african-teachers
Examples of International projects 1Hole in the Wall• Dr. Sugata Mitra, Chief Scientist at NIIT, is credited with thediscovery of Hole-in-the-Wall. On 26th January 2008, Dr. Mitrasteam carved a "hole in the wall" that separated the NIIT premisesfrom the adjoining slum in Kalkaji, New Delhi. Through this hole, afreely accessible computer was put up for use. This computerproved to be an instant hit among the slum dwellers, especially thechildren. With no prior experience, the children learnt to use thecomputer on their own. This prompted Dr. Mitra to propose thefollowing hypothesis:The acquisition of basic computing skills by any set of children canbe achieved through incidental learning provided the learners aregiven access to a suitable computing facility, with entertaining andmotivating content and some minimal (human) guidance..
Examples of International projects 2One Laptop Per Child project
Examples of International projects 2One Laptop Per Child projectEthiopian kids hack OLPCs in 5 months with zeroinstructionSpeaks to how we consistently underestimate youngpeople and how we over emphasize the barriers thatculture may play. In the end, its about access andopportunity. And perhaps about how education isultimately about teaching oneself what is necessaryand relevant rather than standards createdsomewhere outside of that.
International Examples 2• OLPC founder Nicholas Negroponte at MIT Technology Reviewssaid in EmTech conference :"We left the boxes in the village. Closed. Taped shut. No instruction,no human being. I thought, the kids will play with the boxes! Withinfour minutes, one kid not only opened the box, but found the on/offswitch. Hed never seen an on/off switch. He powered it up. Withinfive days, they were using 47 apps per child per day. Within twoweeks, they were singing ABC songs [in English] in the village. Andwithin five months, they had hacked Android. Some idiot in ourorganization or in the Media Lab had disabled the camera! And theyfigured out it had a camera, and they hacked Android.“• http://www.dvice.com/archives/2012/10/ethiopian-kids.php
Challenges facing the teaching ofEnglish language• Super large classes (100-300)• Limited time allocated to English languageclasses (2 hours/15 weeks)• Mixed-ability classes.• No use of English outside the classroom.• Great need for a more proficient graduates inthe work market.(B)
Examples from our classroomsUsing videos in the classroom• Started in the department of English Language at theAUR in 2010.• Target group: Second year students at the Faculty ofAgriculture.• The total number of students was 300• They were studying “English for Agriculture”
Examples from our classroomsUsing yahoo groups and wikis in the classroom• Started in the department of English Language atthe AUR in 2011• Target group: Second year students at the Facultyof Science .• The total number of students was 250• They were studying “English for Biology ”
Students’ Attitude Towards the Use ofICT in EducationNur, Hala (2009)
Advantages of Blended Learning• It can accommodate a range of learning styles.• It involves interaction between the learner andinstructor.• It can facilitate extensive learner to learnerinteractions• It can increase the pace of learning because its ondemand learning - and enables the training oflarger numbers of people in shorter periods of timethan is possible with classroom training.• It can make learning more relevant by allowing forlearning in context.
Examples form our classrooms 2Project - based learning• Started in the department of English Language atthe AUR in 2012.• Target group: First year students at the Faculty ofArchitecture.• The total number of students was 80• They were studying “English for Agriculture”
Using the toolsLearning Management SystemMoodleStudents’ Blogs
Characteristics of PBL• Builds on previous work;• Integrates speaking, listening, reading, and writing skills;• Incorporates collaborative team work, problem solving, negotiatingand other interpersonal skills;• Requires learners to engage in independent work;• Challenges learners to use English in new and different contextsoutside the class;• Involves learners in choosing the focus of the project and in theplanning process;• Engages learners in acquiring new information that is important tothem;• Leads to clear outcomes; and• Incorporates self-evaluation, peer evaluation, and teacherevaluation.
Observed Results*Increase in students motivation.*Use of target language outsideclassroom.*Use of target language in meaningfulactivities.*Students take responsibility of theirown learning.*Improved language proficiency
“Give a student a language course, and you teach thestudent for a semester. Teach a student to become anautonomous technology-assisted language learner,and you teach the student for a lifetime.” (Gary Cziko,2005)