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What English Do University Students Really Need

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Presentation by Terry Philips at the ELT conference/Khartoum University and British Council/ Sudan/ 1-3 March 2010

Presentation by Terry Philips at the ELT conference/Khartoum University and British Council/ Sudan/ 1-3 March 2010

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  • Continental drift – or Tectonic Plates or Alfred Wegener Quarks - Atoms – Electrons
  • When we listen in L1, we are able to predict: - the exact next word or phrase - the kind of word or phrase - the part of speech the communicative value We use: schema real world knowledge lexical knowledge grammatical knowledge particularly phrase structure grammar
  • When we listen in L1, we are able to predict: - the exact next word or phrase - the kind of word or phrase - the part of speech the communicative value We use: schema real world knowledge lexical knowledge grammatical knowledge particularly phrase structure grammar
  • This does not mean that a listener knows exactly what a speaker is going to say. When that is the case, we can’t be bothered to listen But a listener engaged in active listening is always predicting and checking hypotheses. Sometimes those hypothesis can be at the word level, sometimes at the discourse level.
  • This does not mean that a listener knows exactly what a speaker is going to say. When that is the case, we can’t be bothered to listen But a listener engaged in active listening is always predicting and checking hypotheses. Sometimes those hypothesis can be at the word level, sometimes at the discourse level.
  • This does not mean that a listener knows exactly what a speaker is going to say. When that is the case, we can’t be bothered to listen But a listener engaged in active listening is always predicting and checking hypotheses. Sometimes those hypothesis can be at the word level, sometimes at the discourse level.
  • Phrase = a group of words consisting of a head – noun, verb, preposition etc. and its modifiers
  • Transcript

    • 1. What English do university students really need ?
    • 2. Switching Codes
      • L2 code
      • 100%
      • L1 code
    • 3. Switching Codes
      • Schema / Socio-cultural Knowledge
      • Real World Knowledge
      • Discourse Structure
      • Orthography
      • Phonology
      • Syntax
      • Lexis
    • 4. Schemata
      • We must share or at least be aware of the values, attitudes, relationships, background culture of another speech community to be able to understand its stories .
      • Bartlett, 1932
    • 5. The Schema Code
      • It is essential to everyday life.
      • We have done it for thousands of years.
      • However, some people never do it.
      • Young children don’t do it.
      • Old people often don’t do it.
      • Even some mature adults don’t do it.
      • Do you?
      • breathing, eating, drinking?
      • aaargh!
      • ???
      • ???
      • ???
    • 6. Knowledge
      • … common-core knowledge …in my view is the next big step for ELT to take in the 21st century.
      • David Crystal, personal comment on Skills
    • 7. The Knowledge Code
      • I’m going to talk to you today about…
      • The Solar System
      • Continental drift
      • The Renaissance
      • The Theft Act
      • Scaffolding
      • Quarks
    • 8. Discourse
      • Arabic allows, and may even encourage, diversion from the main point; when a speaker writes a paper in English, the paper may make sense for a while to the English-speaking audience, and then suddenly it may seem to go way off track. Eventually, the paper may seem to regain its focus, only to lose it again.
    • 9. Discourse
      • This rhetorical structure, which appreciates adding interesting information or a story to a linear text, is beautiful and correct in some languages, but it generally does not work well for papers at a Western university, which we usually expect to follow either a deductive or an inductive pattern, with a thesis at the beginning or a conclusion at the end.
      • Dr. Anne Bliss University of Colorado
    • 10. Syntax
      • For us to be able to [write] … novel sentences,
      • we have to store in our heads not just the words of [a] language
      • but also the patterns of sentences possible in [the] language.
      • Jackendoff, Patterns in the Mind , 1994
    • 11. Syntax
      • Phrases are not , as they might appear to be, strung together serially, like beads on a string .
      • Phrases are like Chinese boxes, stacked inside one another.
      • Bickerton, 1990
    • 12. The Value of Syntax
      • The
    • 13. The Value of Syntax
      • The horse
    • 14. The Value of Syntax
      • The horse raced
    • 15. The Value of Syntax
      • The horse raced past the barn
    • 16. The Value of Syntax
      • The horse raced past the barn fell.
    • 17. The Value of Syntax
      • The
    • 18. The Value of Syntax
      • The car
    • 19. The Value of Syntax
      • The car driven
    • 20. The Value of Syntax
      • The car driven past the barn
    • 21. The Value of Syntax
      • The car driven past the barn crashed.
    • 22. The Value of Syntax
      • The car (driven past the barn) crashed.
    • 23. Syntax
      • In additional to [phrase structure], there is argument structure , which is particularly helpful in guessing the role of the various nouns in a sentence.
      • If you see an intransitive verb , such as “sleep”, you can be sure that one noun (or pronoun) will suffice to complete the thought – namely, the actor.
      • Calvin, 1997
    • 24. Syntax
      • [a sentence is like] a little play or story, in which each of the characters has a specific role to perform…
      • Agent…, John cooked dinner.
      • Theme …, John cooked dinner .
      • Goal…, I gave it to Mary.
      • Beneficiary… I bought it for you.
      • Bickerton, 1990
    • 25. Syntax
      • [SVO] is only one of the six permutations of those units, and each permutation is found in some human language.
      • Some word orders are more frequently found than others, but the variety suggests that word order is a cultural convention …
      • Calvin, 1997
    • 26. Syntax
      • Comprehension demands an active intellectual process of listening to another party while trying to figure out, from a short burst of sounds , the other’s meaning and intent – both of which are always imperfectly conveyed.
      • Production by contrast, is simple . We know what we think and what we wish to mean.
      • Sue Savage-Rumbaugh quoted in Calvin, 1997
    • 27. Syntax
      • Normal speech consists, in large part, of fragments, false starts, blends and other distortions of the underlying idealized forms.
      • Nevertheless,… what the child learns is the underlying [idealized form ].
      • Chomsky, quoted in Calvin, 1997
    • 28. The Orthographic Code
      • r otc`n a m` i<nh, j> S e m A nym
      • myn A m e S <j,hn> i`m an`ct or
      • myn A m e S j,hn i`m an`ct or
      • myn A m e S jo hn i a m an A ct or
      • myn A m e is jo hn i a m an A ct or
      • mynam e is jo hn i am anact or
    • 29. The Orthographic Code
      • myname is john i am anactor
      • my name is john i am an actor
      • my name is john i am an actor.
      • my name is john. i am an actor.
      • my name is John. i am an actor.
      • My name is John. I am an actor.
    • 30. The Orthographic Code
      • written left to right
      • space between words
      • no space between letters in the same word
      • capital to mark the start of new sentence
      • capital to mark proper nouns
      • letters keep same basic shape wherever they appear in a word
    • 31. The Orthographic Code
      • one letter cannot change the shape of another letter
      • diacritics are not the only difference between letters
      • some letters can be combined to create distinct phonemes
      • short vowels are represented by letters
    • 32. The Orthographic Code
      • complete ideas are formed into sentences
      • the end of sentence marker sits on the line
      • single brackets contain extra information
      • cursive style varies from person to person
    • 33. Switching Codes
    • 34. Switching Codes
    • 35. EAP vs GE
      • analytical
      • objective
      • intellectual
      • serious
      • impersonal
      • formal
      • not impressionistic
      • not subjective
      • not emotional
      • not conversational
      • not personal
      • not colloquial
      • Clanchy and Ballard,1992,
      • cited in Jordan, 1997, p.244
    • 36. Switching Codes
      • Advanced GE EPP
      • Beginner
    • 37. Switching Codes
      • ESL
      • EFL
      • ESOL
      • ESP
      • EAP
      • ESAP
      • EOP
      • ENOP
      • EPP
    • 38. EPP
      • English for Professional Purposes
      • academic study
      • work in multinational companies
      • attendance at conferences
      • ‘ membership’ of the world academic community
    • 39. EPP
      • Receptive skills…
      • Listening
      • Reading
      • are more important than
      • Productive skills…
      • Speaking
      • Writing
    • 40. EPP is not ENOP
      • clear end use
      • assumed knowledge / skills
      • genuine feedback loop
    • 41. EPP is not ENOP
      • Listening
      • Speaking
      • Reading
      • Writing
      • Grammar
      • to formal extended turns
      • formal extended turns
      • for research purposes
      • formal reports
      • of formal English
    • 42. EFP is not ENOP
      • Listening and taking notes
        • not interactive listening
        • not ‘eavesdropping’
        • not multiple listening
        • not ‘after doing’ comprehension questions
    • 43. EFP is not ENOP
      • Speaking from knowledge
        • not phatic communion
        • not every function under the sun
        • not ad hoc
    • 44. EFP is not ENOP
      • Reading for research
        • not reading for pleasure
        • not every text type under the sun
        • not ‘after doing’ comprehension questions
    • 45. EPP is not ENOP
      • Writing in formal situation
        • not first person
        • not informal postcards, letters
        • not integrative
    • 46. EPP is not ENOP
      • Grammar syllabus based on complexity in EPP
        • not ‘every tense under the sun’
        • not one or two word phrases
        • not short sentences
    • 47. EFP is not ENOP
      • Themes based on areas of human knowledge
        • not quirky
        • not invented
        • not ‘one-off’ human interest stories
        • not ‘teen topics’
    • 48. How do we learn?
      • This seems like a simple ...
      • but there is no simple …
      • In the next two lectures, we’re...
      • to look at theories of …
      • I’m going to talk...
      • theories from Ancient…
      • Next, theories from …
      • a Russian scientist, …
      • ...agree about learning....
      • question
      • answer
      • going
      • learning
      • about
      • Greece
      • Islamic scholars
      • Ivan Pavlov
      • However…
    • 49. How do we learn?
      • This seems like a simple ...
      • but there is no simple …
      • In the next two lectures, we’re...
      • to look at theories of …
      • I’m going to talk ...
      • theories from Ancient…
      • Next, theories from …
      • a Russian scientist, …
      • ...agree about learning. However...
      • deixis; lexis
      • lexis
      • schema, verb phrase
      • syntax
      • lexis, context
      • general knowledge
      • ?
      • ?
      • discourse markers
    • 50. When we listen in L1…
      • we predict:
      • the exact next word / phrase
      • the kind of word or phrase
      • the part of speech
      • the communicative value
      • we use:
      • schema
      • general knowledge
      • grammatical knowledge
      • lexical knowledge
      • discourse knowledge
    • 51. Receptive Skills
      • The receiver
      • must be
      • ahead of
      • the producer
    • 52. Receptive Skills
      • The listener
      • must be
      • ahead of
      • the speaker
    • 53. Receptive Skills
      • The reader
      • must be
      • ahead of
      • the text
    • 54. Multiple paths…
      • The brain can think...
      • four times faster than...
      • the mouth can speak.
      • and twice as fast as…
      • the eyes can read
    • 55. … or Garden Path?
      • Rapid …
      • writing
      • righting
      • riding
      • of the canoe
      • of ‘The Canoe’
      • of the Kanu
      • saved their lives.
    • 56. Receptive Skills:Top Down
      • Schemata
      • Real world knowledge
      • Hypothesis
      • Hypothesis vs contents
    • 57. Receptive Skills: Bottom Up
      • Pragmatic meaning
      • Grammatical meaning vs hypothesis
      • Grammatical meaning
      • Meaningful units
    • 58. Receptive Skills:Top Down
      • Schemata
      • Real world knowledge
      • Hypothesis
      • Hypothesis vs contents
    • 59. Receptive Skills: Bottom Up
      • Pragmatic meaning
      • Grammatical meaning vs hypothesis
      • Grammatical meaning
      • Meaningful units
    • 60. Productive Skills
      • researched
      • meaning
      • into
      • rehearsed
      • words
    • 61. Productive Skills:Top Down
      • Research
      • Discourse plan
      • Topic sentences
      • Paragraph development
    • 62. Productive Skills: Bottom Up
      • Adding stance
      • Adding introductions
      • Joining sentences
      • Expanding sentences
      • Forming basic sentences
    • 63. The consequence of failure
    • 64. EAP vs ENOP
        • 80% - 85% of academic and technical English is in … the present, including passives
        • 5% - 10% is in …
        • … the past, including passives
        • 5% is in …
        • … every other tense / verb form.
        • Biber et. al., 1999
    • 65. EAP vs ENOP
        • 90% of EAP is in simple aspect
        • 7% of EAP is in perfect aspect
        • 3% of EAP is in progressive aspect
        • 0.5% of EAP is in perfect progressive aspect
        • Biber et. al., 1999
    • 66. EAP vs other genres
    • 67. 10 things more common in EAP…
      • nouns = hypernyms, hyponyms
      • nominalisation = Oxygen was discovered… – The discovery of…
      • prepositions = embedding in the NP
      • or = alternative; definition / explanation
      • cataphoria = e.g. the problem + exposition
      • its, their = non-human reference
      • our = to avoid my
      • -tion nouns = production, definition etc.
      • passives = although still only 25% of total
      • noun C = e.g . the person that…; a way of doing
        • Biber et. al., 1999
    • 68. 7 things less common in EAP…
      • pronouns = EAP uses alternative nouns
      • not / no = EAP states positive propositions
      • questions = except as rhetorical devices
      • imperatives = although technical has many
      • phrasal verbs = Latinate words used instead
      • clefting = The thing I did was…
      • pseudo clefting = What I did was …
        • Biber et. al., 1999
    • 69. Research
      • BARTLETT F.C.
        • Remembering: An Experimental and Social Study . (CUP, 1932)
        • Thinking . (Basic Books, 1958)
      • BIBER D. et al.
        • The Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English (Longman, 1999)
      • BICKERTON D.
        • Language and Species (University of Chicago Press, 1990)
    • 70. Research
      • BRANSFORD J.D., & FRANKS J.J.
        • “ The abstraction of linguistic ideas.” Cognitive Psychology, 2, 331-350. (1971).
      • CALVIN W.
        • How Brains Think (HarperCollins, 1996)
        • The Cerebral Code (MIT Press, 1996)
      • HIGGINS, J.
        • “ I speak analogue, you hear digital”. In Mary-Louise Craven, Roberta Sinyor & Dana Paramskas (Eds.), CALL: Papers and reports (pp. 17-21). La Jolla, CA: Athelstan. (1990).
    • 71. Research
      • JACKENDOFF R.
        • Patterns in the Mind: Language and Human Nature (Basic Books, 1994)
      • MANDLER J.
        • Stories, Scripts, and Scenes: Aspects of Schema Theory . (Erlbaum, 1984)
      • MILLER G.
        • “ The magical number seven, plus or minus two: some limits in our capacity for processing information”, Psychological Reviews 63: 81-87 (1956)
    • 72. Research
      • NATION, P.
        • Teaching and learning vocabulary. (Heinle & Heinle, 1990).
      • PINKNER, S.
        • The Language Instinct (Morrow, 1994)
      • QUINN, N. & HOLLAND D.
        • Cultural Models of Language and Thought. (CUP, 1987).
    • 73. Research
      • RUMELHART, D.E.
        • “ Schemata: The building blocks of cognition.” In R.J. Spiro, B.Bruce, & W.F. Brewer (eds.), Theoretical Issues in Reading and Comprehension. (Erlbaum 1980).
      • SIMON, H.
        • Models of Thought (Yale University Press, 1979)
      • SLOBIN, D.
        • see bibliography at: http://ihd.berkeley.edu/slobin.htm
      • SWAN, M. AND SMITH, B.
        • Learner English (CUP, 1987)
    • 74. Research
      • Research papers available on the Internet including:
        • University of Kwazi Zulu, South Africa
          • see, inter alia, work on language acquisition
        • Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
          • see, inter alia, work on psycholinguistics
        • University of Groningen, Netherlands
          • see, inter alia, work on speed of speech, and speed of speech perception.
    • 75. [email_address]