Course Content Abbreviations and Acronyms Teaching of English in Sudan Methodology of English Language Teaching Teaching Language Skills Teaching Language Systems Computer Assisted Language Learning Teaching Young Learners Learners’ of English Language Second Language Acquisition Assessment and Testing Syllabus Design Lesson Planning
Terms ESL ESOL EFL EAL EIL ELF ESP EAP ELL English as a Second Language English to Speakers of Other Languages English as a Foreign Language English as an Additional Language English as an International Language English as a Lingua Franca English for Specific Purposes English for Academic Purposes English Language Learner
Other Terms World English refers to the English language as a lingua franca used in business, trade, diplomacy and other spheres of global activity. World Englishes refers to the emergence of localised or indigenisedvarieties of English, especially varieties that have developed in nations colonised by Great Britainor the United States
Teaching of English Language in Sudan (Problems /Challenges)
The Changing Status of English Language in Sudan Past, Present and Future.
Sudan is a country in northeastern Africa. It is the largest country in Africa.
Linguistic diversity is a feature of Sudan. This diversity has become a symbol of multiple identities: religious, cultural, ethnic and Linguistic. It is estimated that there are around 177 languages spoken in Sudan (Abu Manga, 2006).
Sudan has been historically both a north-south and an east-west migration crossroad. This factor and other factors like the constant population movement as a result of drought, famine, civil war and emigration from neighboring countries has made Sudan very diverse linguistically.
Language Policy Northern Sudan The British wanted to create an elite administrative body of Sudanese so they opened some primary, intermediate schools to teach English language. 1902 Gordon Memorial Collage was opened. In 1946 it was affiliated with London University. 1934 BukterAlruda teacher training institute was opened.
Discovery of oil Globalization Internet Conflicts NGOs
Language Policy Southern Sudan Education was left for the missionaries. Very few schools were opened. The situation was very complex, 44 languages were spoken. Arabic was spoken as the lingua franca in many areas. "little money there was for education was spent in the North and southern education became 'the lowest priority in a low-priority area' " (Sandell, 1982
The Second Civil War In 1983 when President Jafaar Numeri declared the nationwide application of Sharia Laws and revived efforts to impose Arabic language and Islamic themed curriculum in the South. A rebellion broke out which turned into a cancerous civil war that continued for more than twenty years with Sudan's People Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M)growing as a major force in the South.
Comprehensive Peace Treaty March 2005 Chapter 2, article 8 of the CPA stated: 2.8 Language 2.8.1. All indigenous languages are national languages which shall be respected and developed and promoted. 2.8.2. Arabic language is the widely spoken national language in the Sudan. 2.8.3. Arabic, as a major language at the national level, and English shall be the official working languages of the national Government business and languages of instruction for higher education. …… 2.8.5 The use of either language at any level of government or education shall not be discriminated against.