Sometimes additional information is necessary . . .
More than one author with the same last name
(H. James, 1878); (W. James, 1880)
Two or more works in the same parentheses
(Caruth, 1996; Fussell, 1975; Showalter, 1997)
Work with six or more authors
(Smith et al, 1998)
Specific part of a source
(Jones, 1995, chap. 2)
• If the source has no known author, then use an abbreviated version of the title: Full Title: “California Cigarette Tax Deters Smokers” Citation: ( “California,” 1999) • A reference to a personal communication: Source: email message from C. Everett Koop Citation: (C. E. Koop, personal communication, May 16, 1998) • A general reference to a web site Source: Purdue University web site Citation:(http://www.purdue.edu)
Recently, the history of warfare has been significantly revised by Higonnet et al (1987), Marcus (1989), and Raitt and Tate (1997) to include women’s personal and cultural responses to battle and its resultant traumatic effects. Feminist researchers now concur that “It is no longer true to claim that women's responses to the war have been ignored” (Raitt & Tate, p. 2). Though these studies focus solely on women's experiences, they err by collectively perpetuating the masculine-centered impressions originating in Fussell (1975) and Bergonzi (1996). However, Tylee (1990) further criticizes Fussell, arguing that his study “treated memory and culture as if they belonged to a sphere beyond the existence of individuals or the control of institutions” (p. 6).
All references begin with the same information that would be provided for a printed source (or as much of that information as possible). The WWW information is then placed at the end of the reference in the same way as publishing information is given for books. It is important to give the date of retrieval because documents on the Web may change in content, move, or be removed from a site altogether. The object of this is the same as all referencing - to supply the information needed to allow a user to find a source. If you do not know the author or the date and it does not have a clear title, think carefully before using it.
a. An article: Jacobson, J. W., Mulick, J. A. Schwartz, A. A. (1995). A history of facilitated communication: Science, pseudoscience, and antiscience: Science working group on facilitated communication. American Psychologist, 50, 750-765. Retrieved January 25, 1996, from http://www.apa.org/journals/jacobson.html b. A newspaper article: Sleek, S. (1996, January). Psychologists build a culture of peace. APA Monitor, pp. 1, 33 [Newspaper, selected stories on-line]. Retrieved January 25, 1996, from http://www.apa.org/monitor/peacea.html c. WWW Document: Li, X. & Crane, N. (1996, May 20). Bibliographic formats for citing electronic information . Retrieved March 10, 1997, from http://www.uvm.edu/~xli/reference/estyles.html
• If the source has no known author, then use an abbreviated version of the title: Full Title: “California Cigarette Tax Deters Smokers” Citation: (“California” A14) • If the source is only one page in length or is a web page with no apparent pagination: Source: Dave Poland’s “Hot Button” web column Citation: (Poland)
Alphabetize entries in the list of works cited by authors' last names (if a work has no author, alphabetize it by its title). The author's name is important because citations in the text of the paper refer to it and readers will be looking for it at the beginning of an entry in the alphabetized list.
If your list of works cited includes two or more works by the same author, use the author's name only for the first entry. For other entries, use three hyphens followed by a period. The three hyphens must stand for exactly the same name or names as in the first entry. List the titles in alphabetical order (ignoring the article A , An , or The at the beginning of a title).
Tan, Amy. The Bonesetter's Daughter . New York: Putnam, 2001.
Book with Editor
Plath, Sylvia. The Unabridged Journals of Sylvia Plath . Ed. Karen V.Kukil. New York: Anchor-Doubleday, 2000
MULTIVOLUME WORK :
Conway, Jill Ker, ed. Written by Herself . 2 vols. New York: Random,1996.
AUTHOR WITH A TRANSLATOR: Allende, Isabel. Daughter of Fortune . Trans. Margaret Sayers Peden. New York: Harper, 2000. EDITOR: Craig, Patricia, ed. The Oxford Book of Travel Stories . Oxford: Oxford UP, BOOK IN A SERIES Malena, Anne. The Dynamics of Identity in Francophone Caribbean Narrative . Francophone Cultures and Lits. Ser. 24. New York: Lang,1998 . ARTICLE IN A MAGAZINE Fay, J. Michael. "Land of the Surfing Hippos." National Geographic Aug . ARTICLE IN A DAILY NEWSPAPER Brummitt, Chris. "Indonesia's Food Needs Expected to Soar." Boston Globe 1 Feb. 2005: A7
Electronic sources This section shows how to prepare works cited entries for a variety of electronic sources, including Web sites, online books, articles in online periodicals and databases, and e-mail. NOTE: When a Web address in a works cited entry must be divided at the end of a line, MLA recommends that you break it after a slash. Do not insert a hyphen. AN ENTIRE WEB SITE: Begin with the name of the author or corporate author (if known) and the title of the site, underlined. Then give the names of any editors, the date of publication or last update, the name of any sponsoring organization, the date you accessed the source, and the URL in angle brackets. Provide as much of this information as is available. With author Peterson, Susan Lynn. The Life of Martin Luther . 2002. 24 Jan. 2005 <http://www.susanlynnpeterson.com/luther/home.html>.
With corporate (group) author United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Drinking Water Standards . 8 July 2004. 24 Jan. 2005 < http://www.epa.gov/safewater/standards.html > Author unknown Margaret Sanger Papers Project . 18 Oct. 2000. History Dept., New York U. 6 Dec. 2004 <http://www.nyu.edu/projects/sanger>. ONLINE BOOK Rawlins, Gregory J. E. Moths to the Flame . Cambridge: MIT P, 1996.11 Nov. 2004 <http://mitpress.mit.edu/e-books/Moths/contents.html>
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers System
The major difference between IEEE and other styles is that IEEE style encloses citation numbers within the text of a paper in square brackets  rather than as superscripts 1 or in bracketed form (Jones 98) . All other bibliographical information regarding the citation is reserved for the list of references at the end of the document.
Author-Name Substitution • IEEE style encourages substituting reference numbers for the name of the author whenever appropriate. As Smith, Wesson, and Williams demonstrate, the natural course of microprocessor evolution will likely lead to computers with . .X As , , and  demonstrate, the natural course of microprocessor evolution will likely lead to computers with . . . Citation Note Placement •Place note numbers directly after the reference rather than at the end of a clause or sentence, unless the reference ends at the end of a clause or sentence. Place all punctuation outside the square brackets, except commas used to separate multiple references One study examined the mRNA levels of jun C, Jun B, and Jun D in mouse tissues . X One study  examined the mRNA levels of Jun C, Jun B, and Jun D in mouse tissues.
Multi-reference Citations When more than one work is involved in the same citation, separate citation numbers with commas and without any spaces. If a sequence of three of more citation numbers occurs in the reference, use a single range separated by a hyphen. Though unlikely, the same effects were reported by , , .X Though unlikely, the same effects was reported by [2,7,12].