Semantics, Sensors, and the Social Web

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Slides of invited talk presented at ESF-COST conference on Future Internet and Society: A complex Systems Perspective

Slides of invited talk presented at ESF-COST conference on Future Internet and Society: A complex Systems Perspective

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  • 1. Semantics, Sensors, and the Social Web Harith Alani Knowledge Media institute, The Open University, UK Future Internet and Society: A Complex Systems Perspective Aquafredda di Maratea, Italy, 2-7 October 2010
  • 2. Offline + online social networking Who should Anyone I I talk to? Where have I know here? met this guy? Where should I go? ESWC2010 2
  • 3. Social Web Communities Sept. 2008 3
  • 4. Semantic Web + Social Web + RFIDs <?xml version="1.0"?>! <rdf:RDF! xmlns="http:// tagora.ecs.soton.ac.uk/schemas/ tagging#"! xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/ 1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"! xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/ XMLSchema#"! xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/ 2000/01/rdf-schema#"! xmlns:owl="http://www.w3.org/ 2002/07/owl#"! xml:base="http:// tagora.ecs.soton.ac.uk/schemas/ tagging">! <owl:Ontology rdf:about=""/>! <owl:Class rdf:ID="Post"/>! <owl:Class rdf:ID="TagInfo"/>! <owl:Class rdf:ID="GlobalCooccurrenceInfo"/>! <owl:Class rdf:ID="DomainCooccurrenceInfo"/>! <owl:Class rdf:ID="UserTag"/>! <owl:Class rdf:ID="UserCooccurrenceInfo"/>! <owl:Class rdf:ID="Resource"/>! <owl:Class rdf:ID="GlobalTag"/>! <owl:Class rdf:ID="Tagger"/>! <owl:Class rdf:ID="DomainTag"/>! <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="hasPostTag">! <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#TagInfo"/>! </owl:ObjectProperty>! <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="hasDomainTag">! <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#UserTag"/>! </owl:ObjectProperty>! <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="isFilteredTo">! <rdfs:range rdf:resource="#GlobalTag"/>! <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#GlobalTag"/>! </owl:ObjectProperty>! <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="hasResource">! <rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#Post"/>! <rdfs:range =…!
  • 5. Live Social Semantics (LSS) •  Integration of physical presence and online information •  Semantic user profile generation •  Interest identification from distributed tagging activities •  Logging of face-to-face contact •  Social network browsing •  On-site and post-event support for social networking •  Analysis of online vs offline social behaviour + +        real-­‐world  social   contacts semantic  web  linked  data online  social  networks 5
  • 6. Components of LSS Communities of Practice Communities of Practice rkbexplorer.com dbtune.org rkbexplorer.com Publications Profile Builder dbpedia.org Publications Profile Builder semanticweb.org semanticweb.org ontology Web-based Systems (" !" interests data.semanticweb.org TAGora Sense Profile T Delicious builderDelicious rkbexplorer.com Repository Extractor Extractor Flickr publications, co-authorship networks Flickr m Daemon Social Tagging mbid -> dbpedia uri Daemon Social Tagging Social Networks tag -> dbpedia uri Social Networks LastFM #" LastFM '" Facebook Connect API JXT Triple Store Facebook Connect API JXT Triple Store Contacts social semantics Contacts %" URIs Tag disambiguation Social triple store Social service Semantics RDF cache Aggregator Semantics RDF cache Aggregator contacts data RFID ID Local Local aders Readers tags, networks Real World Server Server Real-World Tag to URI Real-World service Contact Data Contact Data &" tags ID $" RFID dges Badges Visualization Web Interface Linked Data Visualization Web Interface Linked data Web interface Visualization 6
  • 7. But what is the Semantic Web anyway?
  • 8. Semantic Web Layer Cake 8
  • 9. RDF !<rdfs:label>Harith RDF Description</rdfs:label> ! !<foaf:firstname>Harith</foaf:firstname>! !<foaf:surname>Alani</foaf:surname>! !<foaf:phone rdf:resource="tel:+44-(0) 1908-659399"/>! !<foaf:homepage rdf:resource="http:// people.kmi.open.ac.uk/harith/"/>! !<foaf:publications rdf:resource="http:// kmi.open.ac.uk/publications/harith-alani"/>! !<foaf:thumbnail rdf:resource="http:// kmi.open.ac.uk/img/members/harith-alani.jpg"/>! !…!
  • 10. Semantic triples and formal inference <kmi:harithalani rdf:type foaf:Person> <kmi:harithalani kmi:works-with isi:cirocattuto> <fb:alain_barrat fb:friend fb:ciro_cattuto> <kmi:works-with rdfs:subPropertyOf foaf:knows> <fb:friend rdfs:subPropertyOf foaf:knows> <kmi:harithalani foaf:knows isi:cirocattuto> <fb:alain_barrat foaf:knows isi:cirocattuto>
  • 11. Linked Open Data Cloud 2007 social networks music publications geographic general millions of objects life science Billions of triples 11
  • 12. http://wiki.dbpedia.org/ 12
  • 13. 13
  • 14. 14
  • 15. The Rise of the Semantic Web Facebook’s Open Graph 15
  • 16. Semantic data sources Communities of Practice Communities of Practice rkbexplorer.com dbtune.org rkbexplorer.com Publications Profile Builder dbpedia.org Publications Profile Builder semanticweb.org semanticweb.org ontology Web-based Systems (" !" interests data.semanticweb.org TAGora Sense Profile T Delicious builderDelicious rkbexplorer.com Repository Extractor Extractor Flickr publications, co-authorship networks Flickr m Daemon Social Tagging mbid -> dbpedia uri Daemon Social Tagging Social Networks tag -> dbpedia uri Social Networks LastFM #" LastFM '" Facebook Connect API JXT Triple Store Facebook Connect API JXT Triple Store Contacts social semantics Contacts %" URIs Tag disambiguation Social triple store Social service Semantics RDF cache Aggregator Semantics RDF cache Aggregator contacts data RFID ID Local Local aders Readers tags, networks Real World Server Server Real-World Tag to URI Real-World service Contact Data Contact Data &" tags ID $" RFID dges Badges Visualization Web Interface Linked Data Visualization Web Interface Linked data Web interface Visualization 16
  • 17. SW sources conference chair proceedings chair author CoP 17
  • 18. Social networking systems Communities of Practice Communities of Practice rkbexplorer.com dbtune.org rkbexplorer.com Publications Profile Builder dbpedia.org Publications Profile Builder semanticweb.org semanticweb.org ontology Web-based Systems (" !" Profile interests data.semanticweb.org TAGora Sense T Delicious builderDelicious rkbexplorer.com Repository Extractor Extractor Flickr publications, co-authorship networks Flickr m Daemon Social Tagging mbid -> dbpedia uri Daemon Social Tagging Social Networks tag -> dbpedia uri Social Networks LastFM #" LastFM '" acebook Connect API JXT Triple Store Facebook Connect API JXT Triple Store Contacts social semantics Contacts %" URIs Tag disambiguation Social triple store Social service Semantics RDF cache Aggregator Semantics RDF cache Aggregator contacts data RFID D Local Local aders Readers tags, networks Real World Server Server Real-World Tag to URI Real-World service Contact Data Contact Data &" tags D $" RFID dges Badges Visualization Web Interface Linked Data Visualization Web Interface Linked data Web interface Visualization 18
  • 19. Social and information networks 19
  • 20. http://sioc-project.org/ 20
  • 21. Making Sense of Folksonomies Semantic User Profiles FOAF DBpedia + Wordnet Identity Integration Tag Integration Delicious Last.fm … Flickr Facebook •  Tag ambiguity, misspellings, redundancy •  No semantic structure •  Distributed and disintegrated personal tag clouds •  Disconnected social network islands
  • 22. Merging social networks 22
  • 23. Tag structuring 23
  • 24. Tag Filtering Service Semantic modeling Semantic analysis Collective intelligence Statistical analysis Syntactical analysis
  • 25. Tag Filtering Service
  • 26. Tag Disambiguation •  Term vector similarity •  Term vector from tag co-occurrence •  Term vector for each suggested Dbpedia disambiguation page Co-occurring 80, .. tags in the whole folksonomy film, 19 User tags regardless of the resource (Period of Time) apple, co-occurring tags in the same resource , .. ree , fruit ap ple, t User Tags co - occurring in the same resource 26
  • 27. From Tags to Semantics 27
  • 28. Tags to User Interests •  Based on 72 POIs verified by users Global Delicious Flickr lastFM Concepts 2114 1615 456 43 generated Concepts 449(21%) 307(19%) 133(29%) 9(21%) removed Only 15% of rejected interests had incorrect Dbpedia matching Phd candidates? 28
  • 29. From raw tags and social relations to Linked Data Collective intelligence User raw Semantic data data Linked data ontologies
  • 30. Communities of Practice Communities of Practice rkbexplorer.com dbtune.org rkbexplorer.com Publications Profile Builder dbpedia.org Publications Profile Builder semanticweb.org semanticweb.org ontology Web-based Systems (" !" interests data.semanticweb.org TAGora Sense Profile T Delicious builderDelicious rkbexplorer.com Repository Extractor Extractor Flickr publications, co-authorship networks Flickr m Daemon Social Tagging mbid -> dbpedia uri Daemon Social Tagging Social Networks tag -> dbpedia uri Social Networks LastFM #" LastFM '" Facebook Connect API JXT Triple Store Facebook Connect API JXT Triple Store Contacts social semantics Contacts %" URIs Tag disambiguation Social triple store Social service Semantics RDF cache Aggregator Semantics RDF cache Aggregator contacts data RFID ID Local Local aders Readers tags, networks Real World Server Server Real-World Tag to URI Real-World service Contact Data Contact Data &" tags ID $" RFID dges Badges Visualization Web Interface Linked Data Visualization Web Interface Linked data Web interface Visualization 30
  • 31. SocioPatterns platform 31
  • 32. Convergence with online social networks leverage social context 32
  • 33. Communities of Practice Communities of Practice rkbexplorer.com dbtune.org rkbexplorer.com Publications Profile Builder dbpedia.org Publications Profile Builder semanticweb.org semanticweb.org ontology Web-based Systems (" !" interests data.semanticweb.org TAGora Sense Profile T Delicious builderDelicious rkbexplorer.com Repository Extractor Extractor Flickr publications, co-authorship networks Flickr m Daemon Social Tagging mbid -> dbpedia uri Daemon Social Tagging Social Networks tag -> dbpedia uri Social Networks LastFM #" LastFM '" Facebook Connect API JXT Triple Store Facebook Connect API JXT Triple Store Contacts social semantics Contacts %" URIs Tag disambiguation Social triple store Social service Semantics RDF cache Aggregator Semantics RDF cache Aggregator contacts data RFID ID Local Local aders Readers tags, networks Real World Server Server Real-World Tag to URI Real-World service Contact Data Contact Data &" tags ID $" RFID dges Badges Visualization Web Interface Linked Data Visualization Web Interface Linked data Web interface Visualization 33
  • 34. Live Social Semantics Deployed at: Participation Event Attendees RFIDs LSS collected accounts ESWC09 300 187 139 HT09 150 113 97 ESWC10 310 175 132 Total 760 475 368
  • 35. Declaration of SNS Accounts Facebook Delicious lastFM Flickr TOTAL ESWC09 78 59 57 52 246 HT09 48 28 26 23 125 Facebook Twitter TOTAL ESWC 79 47 126 2010
  • 36. Survey of users with no SNS accounts •  84 registered with no SNS accounts •  36 responded to our survey •  Some used LinkedIn or xing •  This survey does not include conf attendees who did not participate in LSS Option Reason No. Users % a don’t have those accounts (or rarely use them) 16 44% b use different networking sites 10 28% c don’t like to share them 3 8% d didn’t get a chance to share them (e.g. no 6 17% computer, slow internet) e other 1 3% TOTAL 36 100% 37
  • 37. Degree •  Degree: number of other 10 2 participants with whom an attendee has interacted 1 10 1 2 10 10 ESWC2010 Total interaction time •  Total time: total time spent in 10 4 interaction by an attendee 3 10 3 4 5 10 10 10 •  Link weight: total time spent in 4 Links’ weights 10 F2F interaction by a pair of 3 10 returning attendees in 2010, 2 10 versus the same quantity 1 10 1 2 3 4 5 measured in 2009 10 10 10 10 10 ESWC2009 38
  • 38. Offline networking vs online networking Users with Facebook and Twitter accounts in ESWC 2010 •  people who have a large number of friends on Twitter and/or Facebook don’t seem to be the most socially active in the offline world 39
  • 39. Average seniority of neighbours in F2F networks 5 se Avgnn seniority of the neighbours Average seniority of neighbors se weighted averages withnn,w 4 senn,max Seniority of user with strongest link 3 2 1 0 0 5 10 seniority (number of papers) •  No clear pattern is observed if the unweighted average over all neighbours in the aggregated network is considered •  A correlation is observed when each neighbour is weighted by the time spent with the main person •  The correlation becomes much stronger when considering for each individual only the neighbour with whom the most time was spent 40 •  Similar results with h-index is considered as a measure of seniority
  • 40. Scientific seniority vs Twitter followers •  Comparison between people’s scientific seniority and the number of people following them on Twitter •  Most senior scientists are not the mostly followed on Twitter, and vice versa 41
  • 41. Conference Chairs all chairs all chairs participants 2009 participants 2010 2009 2010 average degree 55 77.7 54 77.6 average strength 8590 19590 7807 22520 average weight average 159 500 141 674 number of events per 3.44 8 3.37 12 edge •  Conf chairs interact with more distinct people (larger average degree) •  Conf chairs spend more time in F2F interaction (almost three times as much as a random participant)
  • 42. Networking with online and offline ‘friends’ Characteristics all users coauthors Facebook Twitter friends followers average contact 42 75 63 72 duration (s) average edge weight 141 4470 830 1010 (s) average number of 3.37 60 13 14 events per edge •  Individuals sharing an online or professional social link meet much more often than other individuals •  Average number of encounters, and total time spent in interaction, is highest for co- authors
  • 43. Limitations and future work •  Data is naturally sparse, –  not all conference attendees participated in LSS –  not all users participated in all LSS deployments –  many F2F contacts take place outside the RFID reader perimeters (e.g. at the bar, restaurant, beach!) •  Social networks and their analysis is influenced by many parameters and types of relationships –  Results might contain some bias due to data limitation to LSS users only, and to data and attendees of our conferences –  Other parameters: age, affiliation, memberships, non-CS conferences, time (when SNS account was created, when a ‘friendship’ link was added), SNS usage •  Richer user profiles –  currently building models and tools for generating rich user profiles to represent user’s activities in various SNS –  Such profiles can then be analysed to identify usage and social behaviour, influence, trends, and interests 44
  • 44. Live Social Semantics core team Wouter van Den Broeck Alain Barrat Martin Szomszor ISI, Turin CPT Marseille & ISI CeRC, City University, UK Ciro Cattuto Harith Alani ISI, Turin KMi, UK References: •  Barrat, A., et al. (2010) Social dynamics in conferences: analyses of data from the Live Social Semantics application. In 9th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC), China. •  Szomszor, M., et al. (2010) Semantics, Sensors, and the Social Web: The Live Social Semantics experiments. Extended Semantic Web Conference (ESWC), Crete. •  Broeck, W., et al. (2010) The Live Social Semantics application: a platform for integrating face-to-face presence with on-line social networking, Workshop on Communication, Collaboration and Social Networking in Pervasive Computing Environments (PerCol), IEEE PerCom, Mannheim. •  Alani, H., et al. (2009) Live Social Semantics. In 8th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC), US. 45