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  1. 1. University of Salahaddin College of Education Biology department By: Halala Rahman Qadir M.Sc. Plant physiology 12/17/2013 1
  2. 2. The objectives are: 1-Definition of leaf 2-Photosynthesis 3-The function of leaf 4-Types of leaf 12/17/2013 2
  3. 3. The definition of leaf Leaf is an organ of a vascular plant, and the food making factories of green plants. Leaves come in many different shapes and sizes. Leaf 12/17/2013 3
  4. 4. Structure of leaf • • • • External Features Leaf blade – Flattened part of the leaf Petiole – Leaf stalk Stipules – Leaf-like appendages at the base of the leaf. 12/17/2013 Figure (2): External structure of leaf 4
  5. 5. Leaf Leaves can be simple. They are made of a single leaf blade connected by a petiole to the stem. An oak leaf is an example. A compound leaf is a leaf made up of separate leaflets attached by a petiole to the stem like a palm leaf. 12/17/2013 5
  6. 6. Photosynthesis  The process of photosynthesis take place in leaf of the plant to produce of glucose SUN photons chlorophyll 6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2 glucose 12/17/2013 6
  7. 7. The functions of leaf *They... 1. Produce oxygen for animals for respiration 2. Remove carbon dioxide from the air 3. Produce food for the plant 4. Create shade 5. Create hiding places for wildlife 6. Are a source of food (for animals and people) 7. Reduce soil erosion by intercepting rain as it falls 8. Lower the air temperature as a by product of transpiration 12/17/2013 7
  8. 8. Leaf anatomy A leaf is a plant organ and is made up of a collection of tissues in a regular organization. The major tissue systems present are: The epidermis that covers the upper and lower surfaces The mesophyll inside the leaf that is rich in chloroplasts (also called chlorenchyma) The arrangement of veins (the vascular tissue) 12/17/2013 8
  9. 9. Leaf anatomy Figure(1): Anatomy structure of the leaf 12/17/2013 9
  10. 10. Types of leaves Simple leaf compound leaf Palmately 12/17/2013 Pinnately 10
  11. 11. Types of leaf *According to blade 1. Simple leaf: has one single blade 2. Compound leaf: has more than single blade 12/17/2013 11
  12. 12. Types of leaf Types of compound leaf 12/17/2013 12
  13. 13. Types of leaf According to veins Parallel- veined leaves: the veins run at the same distance to other like in canes. • Pinnate leaves: there is a main vein called midrib, from which the other nerves derive, remembering a plume. Palmate leaves: the nerves derive from main point such as the fingers do in the palm of the hand. 12/17/2013 13
  14. 14. Types of leaf Types of compound lead Compound leaf Palmately Pinnately Unifolate leaf Unipinatley 12/17/2013 Bipinately Tripinately Bifoliate leaf Trifoliate leaf De compound leaves 14
  15. 15. Types of compound leaf Pinately simple leaf: 1. Uni Pinately: exp: Nem tree 2. Bi Pinately: exp: Acacia leaf 3. Tri Pinately: exp: Moringa leaf 4. Decompound Pinately: exp: Carrot leaf BiPinately Uni Pinately 12/17/2013 Tri Pinately Decompound Pinately 15
  16. 16. Types of compound leaf Palmately compound leaf 1. Unifolite: ex: Citrus 2. Bifolite: ex: Gulmohar leaf 3. Triifolite: ex: Trifolium 1 2 4. Quadrifoliate : ex: Penis quadrifolium 5. Mulifoliate : ex: Cotton tree 3 12/17/2013 4 5 16
  17. 17. References 1. Bayer, M. B. (1982). The New Haworthia Handbook. Kirstenbosch: National Botanic Gardens of South Africa. 2. Couder, Y.; L. Pauchard.; C. Allain; M.Adda-Bedia; S. Douady (2002). "The leaf venation as formed in a tensorial field". The European Physical Journal B 28 (2): 135–138. 3. Mauseth, J. D. ( 2008). Botany: An Introduction to Plant Biology. Publisher: Jones & Bartlett. 12/17/2013 17
  18. 18. Home work Q/ What is the type of leaf in kidney bean? Q/ Write the factors that effect on the process of photosynthesis? 12/17/2013 18
  19. 19. 12/17/2013 19