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  • All species of animals (including humans) learn in similar equal ways with the same guiding principles.
  • First Order Classical Conditioning:
  • What happens immediately before the behavior
  • Something incidental to something else

Perspectives on Learning:The Behavourist Approach Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Perspectives on Learning: the behaviorist approach EDU 301 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Semester 111 2011-2012 Dr. Hala Fawzi Kingdom of Saudi Arabia The Royal Commission at Yanbu Yanbu University College Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah x
  • 2. 02/12/12 Dr. Hala Fawzi
    • Brief overview of behaviorism
    • Classical Conditioning
    • Learned emotional reactions
    • Operant conditioning
    • Positive &negative reinforcement
    • Schedules of reinforcement
    • Evaluation of classical conditioning
    • & operant conditioning
    • Applications of behaviorism
  • 3. Behaviorism
    • One of the oldest scientific approaches to studying leaning.
    • Suffered from the "cognitive revolution" of recent years.
    • Although widely criticized, some of its paths still provide good accounts of otherwise curious behaviour.
    • The psychologists founders are Skinner, Watson and Pavlov and Rodgers.
  • 4. The scientific approaches to studying leaning is to concentrate on observables behaviour . To understand learning processes, focus on stimulus and responses. Internal process should be excluded from the study of learning. Learning is evidenced by a behavior change. Learning is a result of environmental events. Assumptions of Behaviorism
  • 5.
    • Classical conditioning: (Pavlov-1849-1936) addresses learning of involuntary responses..
    Two main types of learning
    • Operant conditioning : ( Skinner-1903-1991 ) addresses learning of voluntary responses.
  • 6.
    • Classical Conditioning - Pavlov
  • 7.
    • Classical Conditioning - Pavlov
    US = Unconditioned Stimulus (food) UR = Unconditioned Response (saliva) CS = Conditioned Stimulus (bell) CR = Conditioned Response (saliva) Learning by association S US UR CS US CR
  • 8. Learned emotional reactions "smell of baking" is linked with "kitchen at home in childhood" associates with “ ... ... and ..... .". (Smell creates powerful conditioning because of the way it is perceived by the brain.) But "sitting at a desk" associates with "classroom at school" and hence perhaps with “...... ... and ........... ” love care embarrassment failure “ Principles can be applied to learned emotional reactions which are the central of the educational process”.
  • 9. Learned emotional reactions Read the example of learned emotional reactions on page 22. Do progress exercise 2.1
  • 10. Evaluation of classical conditioning
    • Individuals' motivation to learn and their belief in their ability to learn will affect “the” how and the ability to learn.
    • As Unpleasant emotional association will interfere with the learning process, they MUST be pleasant.
    • Emotional reactions interfere with the learning process.
    • Learning any skill involves many cognitive processes.
  • 11. Operant conditioning -Someone does something . (an organism emits a behaviour) -The consequences of that behaviour are reinforcing , it is more likely to do it again (emit it again). Skinner(1903-19901 “ Environment's reaction’ to an individual’s behavior controls that individual’s behavior”. The response is made first, then reinforcement follows.
  • 12. Operant conditioning Skinner(1903-19901 Actions followed by reinforcing.............to re-occur. Actions followed by unpleasant consequences ......... likely to re-occur . likely less Punishment or reinforcement?
  • 13.
    • Behavior is sandwiched between :
      • Antecedents ( what happens before the behavior) results in the correct behavior being elicited.
    • Consequences (what comes after the behavior)
      • A-B-C Model
    1. Antecedents 2. The behaviour 3. Consequences of the behaviour.
  • 14.
    • Both increase the probability that the response will occur again.
    • But they act differently upon the individual to create the same response. How?
    Positive and Negative reinforcement Positive: Lead to a certain behavior that in the past led to desirable outcomes. Negative: Engages in behavior to avoid previously experienced negative behavior.
  • 15. *Read about positive and negative reinforecemnt.p.24. Read pp:24-28 for tomorrow's lecture.
  • 16. Operant conditioning: factors important to the learning process Both increase the probability that the response will occur again. They act differently. P.24 Positive and negative reinforcement
  • 17. Operant conditioning: factors important to the learning process “ Behavior which is rewarded on a variable schedule is more resistant to extinct.” Schedule of reinforcement
  • 18. “ Complex behavior could be broken into smaller components parts. These parts could be selectively reinforced”. Go to p.26 Operant conditioning: factors important to the learning process Shaping
  • 19. Evaluation of operant conditioning
  • 20. Applications of behaviorism Behavior was controlled by environmental contingencies. (Reward and punishment) Skinner’s concerns : “Were the principles of learning being used effectively to promote learning?” classroom’s disruptive behavior: To explain and to control it. Skinner sees it in terms of antecedents, behavior and consequences. Skinner believed in utilization of positive reinforcement of shaping the desired responses. Reinforcement---repeating behavior. Punishment------decreasing repeating of behavior.
  • 21. Evaluation of Applications
    • Reinforcement in schools were not used effectively to enhance the learning process.
    • Children need to be active in the learning process to achieve constant reinforcement and evaluation .
    • No to the “Whole class teaching.”?Yes to “ Teaching machine”.
    • Errorless learning.
    • Teaching the curriculum carefully by teachers .
    • Important: Read each for more details on p.28
  • 22.  
  • 23. Lecture round –up In today’s and yesterdays’ sessions, we have learnt about: • • • • •
  • 24. Take Away Points & Terms 12/02/12 LING 411-103 Dr. Hala Fawzi classical Conditioning Learned emotional reactions Applications of behaviorism
    • Operant conditioning
    Schedules of reinforcement
    • Positive &negative reinforcement
      • A-B-C Model
      • Shaping
  • 25. Further readings Read about Conditioning and Phobias http://www.simplypsychology.org/Classical%20Conditioning.pdf     Watch the video (on the Moodle), read and learn more about the Little Albert experiment by behaviourist John B. Watson.