Perspectives on Learning:The Behavourist Approach


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  • All species of animals (including humans) learn in similar equal ways with the same guiding principles.
  • First Order Classical Conditioning:
  • What happens immediately before the behavior
  • Something incidental to something else
  • Perspectives on Learning:The Behavourist Approach

    1. 1. Perspectives on Learning: the behaviorist approach EDU 301 EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY Semester 111 2011-2012 Dr. Hala Fawzi Kingdom of Saudi Arabia The Royal Commission at Yanbu Yanbu University College Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah x
    2. 2. 02/12/12 Dr. Hala Fawzi <ul><li>Brief overview of behaviorism </li></ul><ul><li>Classical Conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Learned emotional reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Operant conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Positive &negative reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Schedules of reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation of classical conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>& operant conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Applications of behaviorism </li></ul>
    3. 3. Behaviorism <ul><li>One of the oldest scientific approaches to studying leaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Suffered from the &quot;cognitive revolution&quot; of recent years. </li></ul><ul><li>Although widely criticized, some of its paths still provide good accounts of otherwise curious behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>The psychologists founders are Skinner, Watson and Pavlov and Rodgers. </li></ul>
    4. 4. The scientific approaches to studying leaning is to concentrate on observables behaviour . To understand learning processes, focus on stimulus and responses. Internal process should be excluded from the study of learning. Learning is evidenced by a behavior change. Learning is a result of environmental events. Assumptions of Behaviorism
    5. 5. <ul><li>Classical conditioning: (Pavlov-1849-1936) addresses learning of involuntary responses.. </li></ul>Two main types of learning <ul><li>Operant conditioning : ( Skinner-1903-1991 ) addresses learning of voluntary responses. </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Classical Conditioning - Pavlov </li></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Classical Conditioning - Pavlov </li></ul>US = Unconditioned Stimulus (food) UR = Unconditioned Response (saliva) CS = Conditioned Stimulus (bell) CR = Conditioned Response (saliva) Learning by association S US UR CS US CR
    8. 8. Learned emotional reactions &quot;smell of baking&quot; is linked with &quot;kitchen at home in childhood&quot; associates with “ ... ... and ..... .&quot;. (Smell creates powerful conditioning because of the way it is perceived by the brain.) But &quot;sitting at a desk&quot; associates with &quot;classroom at school&quot; and hence perhaps with “...... ... and ........... ” love care embarrassment failure “ Principles can be applied to learned emotional reactions which are the central of the educational process”.
    9. 9. Learned emotional reactions Read the example of learned emotional reactions on page 22. Do progress exercise 2.1
    10. 10. Evaluation of classical conditioning <ul><li>Individuals' motivation to learn and their belief in their ability to learn will affect “the” how and the ability to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>As Unpleasant emotional association will interfere with the learning process, they MUST be pleasant. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional reactions interfere with the learning process. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning any skill involves many cognitive processes. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Operant conditioning -Someone does something . (an organism emits a behaviour) -The consequences of that behaviour are reinforcing , it is more likely to do it again (emit it again). Skinner(1903-19901 “ Environment's reaction’ to an individual’s behavior controls that individual’s behavior”. The response is made first, then reinforcement follows.
    12. 12. Operant conditioning Skinner(1903-19901 Actions followed by re-occur. Actions followed by unpleasant consequences ......... likely to re-occur . likely less Punishment or reinforcement?
    13. 13. <ul><li>Behavior is sandwiched between : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antecedents ( what happens before the behavior) results in the correct behavior being elicited. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequences (what comes after the behavior) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A-B-C Model </li></ul></ul>1. Antecedents 2. The behaviour 3. Consequences of the behaviour.
    14. 14. <ul><li>Both increase the probability that the response will occur again. </li></ul><ul><li>But they act differently upon the individual to create the same response. How? </li></ul>Positive and Negative reinforcement Positive: Lead to a certain behavior that in the past led to desirable outcomes. Negative: Engages in behavior to avoid previously experienced negative behavior.
    15. 15. *Read about positive and negative reinforecemnt.p.24. Read pp:24-28 for tomorrow's lecture.
    16. 16. Operant conditioning: factors important to the learning process Both increase the probability that the response will occur again. They act differently. P.24 Positive and negative reinforcement
    17. 17. Operant conditioning: factors important to the learning process “ Behavior which is rewarded on a variable schedule is more resistant to extinct.” Schedule of reinforcement
    18. 18. “ Complex behavior could be broken into smaller components parts. These parts could be selectively reinforced”. Go to p.26 Operant conditioning: factors important to the learning process Shaping
    19. 19. Evaluation of operant conditioning
    20. 20. Applications of behaviorism Behavior was controlled by environmental contingencies. (Reward and punishment) Skinner’s concerns : “Were the principles of learning being used effectively to promote learning?” classroom’s disruptive behavior: To explain and to control it. Skinner sees it in terms of antecedents, behavior and consequences. Skinner believed in utilization of positive reinforcement of shaping the desired responses. Reinforcement---repeating behavior. Punishment------decreasing repeating of behavior.
    21. 21. Evaluation of Applications <ul><li>Reinforcement in schools were not used effectively to enhance the learning process. </li></ul><ul><li>Children need to be active in the learning process to achieve constant reinforcement and evaluation . </li></ul><ul><li>No to the “Whole class teaching.”?Yes to “ Teaching machine”. </li></ul><ul><li>Errorless learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching the curriculum carefully by teachers . </li></ul><ul><li>Important: Read each for more details on p.28 </li></ul>
    22. 23. Lecture round –up In today’s and yesterdays’ sessions, we have learnt about: • • • • •
    23. 24. Take Away Points & Terms 12/02/12 LING 411-103 Dr. Hala Fawzi classical Conditioning Learned emotional reactions Applications of behaviorism <ul><li>Operant conditioning </li></ul>Schedules of reinforcement <ul><li>Positive &negative reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A-B-C Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shaping </li></ul></ul>
    24. 25. Further readings Read about Conditioning and Phobias     Watch the video (on the Moodle), read and learn more about the Little Albert experiment by behaviourist John B. Watson.