Efl materials preparation context and syllabus

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  • He proposes view of the nature of lanaguge,2-views of the language and langue learning,3-views of teaching and the language teacher,4-and the whole context, which includes the educational setting, the language context, and the language teaching background will appear throughout the book.
  • Contextual factors include the school culture, classroom conditions, class size, and availability ofteaching resources in situations where the materials will be used.Learners’ characteristics range between entire group or subgroups, from the individual to less general, some can be assessed others are some can be highly influenced by teachers performance. BUT in the end, it’s the teacher in the classroom who will be exposed to the burden of other factors and this where the teacher goes for other choices of material and methods. Many of these factors will go with us along the course. Other researchers and linguist had classified them differently.Another factor plays a crucial role in determining what the materials will look like and how they will work. One is the theory of language and language use reflected in the materials, and the theory of language learning on which the materials are based. This source of input provides the necessary link between theory and practice. While the preparation of instructional materials might appear to be an essentially practical activity, materials will certainly reflect a theory of the nature of language, communication, or language use.-Check the case study on your book p 9.-This is your reading for this week: Contextual factors in SLA.  
  • Contextual factors include the school culture, classroom conditions, class size, and availability ofteaching resources in situations where the materials will be used.Learners’ characteristics range between entire group or subgroups, from the individual to less general, some can be assessed others are some can be highly influenced by teachers performance. BUT in the end, it’s the teacher in the classroom who will be exposed to the burden of other factors and this where the teacher goes for other choices of material and methods. Many of these factors will go with us along the course. Other researchers and linguist had classified them differently.Another factor plays a crucial role in determining what the materials will look like and how they will work. One is the theory of language and language use reflected in the materials, and the theory of language learning on which the materials are based. This source of input provides the necessary link between theory and practice. While the preparation of instructional materials might appear to be an essentially practical activity, materials will certainly reflect a theory of the nature of language, communication, or language use.-Check the case study on your book p 9.-This is your reading for this week: Contextual factors in SLA.  
  • Syllabus In developing materials for any aspect of language learning, whether it be a skill- based course in listening, speaking, reading or writing or an integrated-skills basic series, the teacher’s understanding of language and language use will have a major impact on material's selection, since it will reflect the role of the previously determined goals for the materials, the focus will be of the materials themselves and the activities within them. Syllabus design is an activity that can draw on a considerable body of relevant research. 
  • Efl materials preparation context and syllabus

    1. 1. Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaThe Royal Commission at YanbuYanbu University CollegeYanbu Al-Sinaiyah x The framework of Material and Methods: Context and syllabus Chapter (1) EFL Materials Preparation LING 405 Semester II – 2010/2011 Applied Linguistics
    2. 2. What is this chapter about?• “Planning a successful language program means; NOT only to consider content and presentation of teaching materials, but it means taking into consideration an number of other factors too”. (Richards, 1985).• Although teachers work in different situations, with different learners, with different aims and in different contexts, their work can be described along with shared and generalized dimensions.• These dimensions are: learners, the teaching context and the syllabus types available to us.• The differences lie in the relative importance of these factors and the choices made.2/11/2012
    3. 3. Introducing the sceneRichards (1985): "The current statue of English has turneda significant percentage of the worlds population intopart-time users of English".However, wherever we work, we share many assumptionsof what we do; we prepare teaching materials, classroommethods and techniques based on common or comparableprinciples. Yet, we, as teachers, feel isolated! How? 2/11/2012
    4. 4. Introducing the scene Different expectations Under pressure Geographically isolated Different unique problems Lack access to any sort of professional development channels (in-service training-journals-workshops) No Internet at the workplace2/11/2012
    5. 5. The Need for a common core No matter where we teach., each teacher has his/her own teaching situation in any part of the world. (Thinking beyond our teaching circumstance )2/11/2012
    6. 6. Why do we need a common core? 1. To define objectives of a syllabus OR a curriculum we have to have goals. 2. Common core is very useful upon looking on the material selected by us or the educational authorities, because both should be based on the pedagogical principles and method design. 3. When we need to plan any language program we need to look for stages of planning which should include several factors, e.g., why a group of learners? Which environment?? For what?2/11/2012
    7. 7. Shared FrameworkObjective of the framework: To show the standard phases of planning a language programThe two factors considered:1. The wide-range criteria on which decisions about language teaching programs are based.2. Pedagogical principles according to which materials and methods are actually designed.2/11/2012
    8. 8. The Framework of Language Teaching LearnersContext Implementation of GOALS Educational setting Syllabus construction Materials, classroom methods Framework of Language Teaching. (McDonough and Shaw, 2003) 2/11/2012
    9. 9. The Framework of Language TeachingThe overall goals of a language teaching program is to know why a group of learners in Learnersa certain environment needs to learn English. Context Implementation of GOALSThese goals of language teaching may be stated generally (embedded in the nationalpolicy, or the whole a country), or specifically ( for more restricted environment: age Educational settinggroup, school, and class.). Syllabus constructionExample “to meet the needs of learners who need to improve their ability tocommunicate when studying abroad.”.4. OR “to create a society which will methods Materials, classroom be able touse the language to communicate effectively wherever the needs arise” Framework of Language Teaching. (McDonough and Shaw, 2003) 2/11/2012
    10. 10. The Framework of Language Teaching LearnersThere is a range of possibilities for defining goals of language teaching Contextfor a country, age group, a school, a class or for one learner; or Implementation of GOALSwhether for general educational purposes, EAP, ESP or any other reason.Methods and materials cannot be seen in isolation, but are embedded Educational setting Syllabus constructionin a broader professional context. This is what M. and Shaw startedwith: Goals should be realistic- for specific circumstances: equipments+EDU+ multimedia: Framework of Language Teaching. (McDonough and Shaw, 2003) 2/11/2012
    11. 11. The Framework of Language Teaching Learners Context Implementation of GOALSThe statement of goals, then, related to the learners and conditioned by the setting,leads to the selection of an appropriate type of syllabus content and specification Thebroad syllabus outline then will in turn have direct implications for the more detaileddesign and selection ofEducational setting the planning of individual lessons, the materials and tests,management of the classroom itself. Syllabus construction Materials, classroom methods Framework of Language Teaching. (McDonough and Shaw, 2003) 2/11/2012
    12. 12. Stern’s comprehensive conceptual framework (p.5)No single factor should offer a solution to most language learningproblems.All factors must be considered and language teaching should be seenas interdisciplinary.Read the views he proposes on p.5. 2/11/2012
    13. 13. ?
    14. 14. Context Contextual FactorsLearners Setting 2/11/2012
    15. 15. Contextual Factors Learners Learning styles Academic and educational level age L1 Aptitude Personality Motivation Attitudes to learning Reasons for learning Level of proficiencyRead pages 6-7 to learn how each characteristic may affect setting the goals
    16. 16. Context Contextual FactorsSetting All factors in included in the setting will determine whether the aims of the language are actually feasible and realistic, which, for EFL teachers, will influence the 2/11/2012
    17. 17. Context Contextual FactorsSetting The role of the teach in the country Tests Management PersonnelThe role of English in the school Time teachers Procedures Resources The sociocultural environmentPhysical environment Number of students Read in details to learn about how each relates to the setting. Pp:7-8. 2/11/2012
    18. 18. Context Contextual FactorsThe Setting conditions how… Goals are carried out.. Courses are planned.. Syllabus is designed.. Materials and resources selected. . Methods are agreed upon.. 2/11/2012
    19. 19. ?
    20. 20. Why prepare material?2/11/2012
    21. 21. 2/11/2012
    22. 22. What is the Difference between Syllabus and Curriculum? A complete set of taught martial in a school system. (Prescriptive ) Syllabus Curriculum -The content of topics to be-Objectives covered.-Methods chosen -Time line of a particular-Standards to be achieved by students course.-Focus of study, consisting of various -The way the content iscourses all designed to reach a organized..p.13particular proficiency or qualification. 2/11/2012
    23. 23. What is the difference between approach,technique and methods? 2/11/2012
    24. 24. The syllabus p.11 & 162/11/2012 p.13:syllabus inventory.
    25. 25. 2/11/2012
    26. 26. 2/11/2012
    27. 27. Words to remember..“An approved textbook may easily become thecurriculum in the classroom, yet fail to incorporatesignificant features of the policy or goals that it issupposed to address. Reliance on the textbook maydistract attention from behaviours andJudith M. (1999). Lamie, educationalbeliefs crucial to the achievement of desired outcomes”. 2/11/2012
    28. 28. The syllabus2/11/2012
    29. 29. The syllabus2/11/2012
    30. 30. The syllabus2/11/2012
    31. 31. The syllabus2/11/2012
    32. 32. The syllabus2/11/2012
    33. 33. The syllabus2/11/2012
    34. 34. The syllabus2/11/2012
    35. 35. The syllabus Page 202/11/2012
    36. 36. More to remember…“No single type of syllabus is appropriate for all teaching settings”. (Mohseni,2008)“it is uncommon for one type of syllabus to be utilized fully in actual teachingsettings”. (Mohseni, 2008). “it is wise to take an eclectic approach, taking what is useful from each theory and trusting also in the evidence of your own experience as a teacher”. Hutchinson and Waters (1987:51) “the teacher’s understanding of language and language use will have a major impact on materials selection, since it will reflect the role of the previously determined goals for the materials, the focus will be of the materials themselves and the activities within them”. 2/11/2012
    37. 37. Remember..However good the textbook, it will never be perfect for every teachersteaching situation. In some respect it will always need adapting,modifying or supplementing. The only limit for this is the teachers timeand imagination. With a little of both most objectives can be fulfilled. Lamie, Judith M. (1999).Before you make decision on the material you need to prepare, think about:What is the rational for the kinds of activities employed and their sequencingwithin the material. (Richards, 2005) 2/11/2012
    38. 38. Which syllabus type would be best for you?2/11/2012
    39. 39. ReferencesJohnson, K. (1999). Understanding language teaching: Reasoning in action. New York: Heinle& Heinle.Lamie, Judith M. (1999). Making the Textbook More CommunicativeThe Internet TESL Journal, Vol. V, No. 1, January 1999http://iteslj.org/Articles/Lamie-Textbooks.htmlNunan, D. (1999). Second language teaching and learning. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.Reilly, T. (1988). Approaches to Foreign Language Syllabus Designhttp://www.ericdigests.org/pre-928/design.htmRichards, J.(1996). Teachers’ maxims in language teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 30, 2, 281-296. 2/11/2012

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