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Concordancing 1

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  • The uses of concordancers in teaching and learning range from 'low contact' to 'high contact'. 'Low contact' refers to concordances being used as a reference tool by a teacher, much as an individual may use a dictionary. At the other end of the spectrum is 'high contact' use in which concordances are used as one of the main language resources in a class. 'Low contact' to 'high contact' use can also refer to the extent to which students are involved in the production of concordances. At one end of the continuum students do not even see the concordances. Their textbooks may be informed by the data revealed in corpora and concordances. Alternatively, their teacher may refer to them when making teaching materials. At the other end of this continuum students use concordances as part of their learning routine, and may even be involved in their production. All uses of concordances centre on the concept that the key word is either present, or is deleted. In terms of instruction, when the node word is present the concordances serve as examples. A teacher favouring an inductive approach to learning could present the concordances as examples of a language structure already taught. Those favouring a deductive approach could present the concordances as data for the students to analyse. For example, setting the students the task of finding collocations or creating their own 'rules', rather than having them rely on the prescriptive rules of a grammar book. With most tools, concordances can be sorted so that combinations of interest appear together. When the key word has been deleted, the student has to use her lexical and grammatical knowledge to work out the missing word. As teaching material this is useful for learners to assess whether or not they have fully grasped a certain item of vocabulary or structure. Concordances with deleted nodes can also be used as test material.
  • The term corpus (plural corpora ) comes from the Latin word meaning body . Religious text; Quran, Bible Literary works; e-book, novel, epic poem
  • The simplest way to answer this is to look at some English ones to begin with. For instance here is a concordance for the word "sin", prepared manually, and shown with the text from which the four separate occurrences of this word are taken.
  • Because of the time and difficulty and expense involved in creating a concordance in the pre- computer era, An alphabetical index of all the words in a text or corpus of texts, showing every contextual occurrence of a word: a concordance of Shakespeare's works.
  • Because of the time and difficulty and expense involved in creating a concordance in the pre- computer era, An alphabetical index of all the words in a text or corpus of texts, showing every contextual occurrence of a word: a concordance of Shakespeare's works.
  • Because of the time and difficulty and expense involved in creating a concordance in the pre- computer era, An alphabetical index of all the words in a text or corpus of texts, showing every contextual occurrence of a word: a concordance of Shakespeare's works.
  • Concordances are frequently used in linguistics , when studying a text. For example: comparing different usages of the same word analysing keywords analysing word frequencies finding and analysing phrases and idioms finding translations of subsentential elements, e.g. terminology , in bitexts and translation memories creating indexes and word lists (also useful for publishing)
  • Transcript

    • 1. Concordancing Kingdom of Saudi Arabia The Royal Commission at Yanbu Yanbu University College Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah x Applied linguistics Department Educational Technology EDU 401-111 2011-2012
    • 2. 11/12/11 Practical use
    • 3. What is a ‘corpus’?
      • A ‘collection of words’
      • corpus   is a large and structured set of texts (now usually electronically stored and processed)
      • Thus, in the case of language, we are talking about a body of language - a collection, usually computer-stored, of language which can then be used for analysis.
      • Bank of English (University of Birmingham): 250 million words
      • British National Corpus (BNC Consortium): 100 million words (90% written, 10% spoken) ( http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk/ )
      • Searchable using computer software and the Internet
    • 4. What is concordance? 11/12/11 A “concordance”, according to the Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary (1987) , is: “An alphabetical list of the words in a book or a set of books which also says where each word can be found and often how it is used .”
    • 5. What is concordance? 11/12/11 A basic manual concordance taken from Shakespeare “Romeo and Juliet” give us very accurate information about the way language is authentically used an alphabetical list of the principal words used in a book or body of work, with their immediate contexts
    • 6. What is concordance? 11/12/11 A basic manual concordance taken from Shakespeare “Romeo and Juliet” So a concordance is a list of words (called keywords , e.g. here "sin"), taken from a piece of authentic language ( corpus , e.g. here Romeo and Juliet ), displayed in the centre of the page and shown with parts of the contexts in which they occur (here maximum 29 characters to the left of the keyword and to the right). This is also known as a Key Words In Context concordance or a KWIC concordance.
    • 7. What is concordance? 11/12/11 only works of special importance, such as the Bible, Qur'an or the works of Shakespeare, had concordances prepared for them. A basic manual concordance taken from Shakespeare “Romeo and Juliet” can be used to search, access and analyze language from a corpus.
    • 8. What is concordancing? 11/12/11 The software used for doing this are often called KWIC concordancers ( Key Words In Context). A basic manual concordance taken from Shakespeare “Romeo and Juliet” Concordancing is the act of picking out examples of a given word in context.
    • 9.  
    • 10. A concordancer is a piece of software that searches a corpus (a collection of texts in electronic form) for a selected word or phrase and presents every instance of that word or phrase in the centre of the computer screen, with the words that come before and after it to the left and right.
    • 11. A node word is a selected word, appearing in the centre of the screen. A concordance is the lines of text illustrating the search word, the node
    • 12. Concordancer
      • a computer program that automatically constructs a concordance
      11/12/11 typical concordancers allows us to enter a word or phrase search for multiple examples of how that word or phrase is used more complex concordancers can extract examples from very particular contexts and even discriminate between spoken or written language use. a piece of software , either installed on a computer or accessed through a website
    • 13. What is concordance?
      • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QbwgruJ4_gA
      • This is the video that teach you how to use the concordancer.
      11/12/11
    • 14. Concordancer
      • Concordancers are also used in corpus linguistics to retrieve alphabetically or otherwise sorted lists of linguistic data from the corpus in question, which the corpus linguist then analyzes
      11/12/11
      • WordSmith Tools
      • Microconcord
      • Monoconc
      • Collins CoBuild
    • 15. Online Concordancers 11/12/11 Thus, for example if we are interested in the word “ stand” the concordancing program would search out all examples of the word and place them in rows with the word “stand” in the middle. Have a look below to give you some idea of what a concordance line looks like, using the word ‘media’ taken from the Video Corpus. A computer-generated concordance
    • 16. Linguistics
      • study of a text:
      • comparing different usages of the same word
      • analysing keywords
      • analysing word frequencies
      • finding and analysing phrases and idioms
      • creating indexes and word lists (also useful for publishing)
      11/12/11
    • 17. In the classroom: Some teaching ideas 11/12/11 Rather than tell students a particular rule, students can be given a set of concordances and asked to discover for themselves what rules can be deduced from the evidence. This could be something simple such as discovering that the verb form changes the third person. In addition, this task can be done with more complex patterns such as collocations Find the rule So what can you do in the classroom with a corpus? There are several things that can be done very easily:
    • 18. In the classroom: Some teaching ideas 11/12/11 This is the most simple and most corpus analysis tools will give you the frequency lists of texts. This is perhaps not very interesting, but it can show - apart from all the grammar and function words - which special words, for example, in a given genre are the most frequent. Thus you could feed in the language found in this Video Corpus and compare it to a general English corpus. Looking at Frequency
    • 19. In the classroom 11/12/11 he fact that computers can generate such a large amount of collocations in seconds affords the teacher and student access to very interesting and relevant information. For example, a business English student wants to know more about how the word market is used. The word can be keyed in and the collocates examined. In this way new collocates and even idiomatic phrases can be seen in context and learned. Have a look at Michael Lewis’s book Implementing the Lexical Approach   for a much more detailed account of how this can be done.   Looking at Collocations So what can you do in the classroom with a corpus? There are several things that can be done very easily:
    • 20.
      • Many common words have a number of usages and meanings. Students can be given some concordances of a single word, and told to group them according to usage.
      In the classroom: Some teaching ideas 11/12/11 Categorize
    • 21. In the classroom: Some teaching ideas 11/12/11 With the advent of cheap and free authoring software it is now possible to create ones own internet quizzes (see 'hot Potato'). With such software it is possible to create quizzes in which students have to fill gaps. Just as these gaps can be part of a larger passage of text, they can also be part of concordance lines. Furthermore, with these kinds of online 'tests' it is possible to give students instant feedback. As a computer quiz
    • 22. In the classroom: Some teaching ideas 11/12/11   For more advanced students you can use a corpus for them to see how certain grammatical patterns are used in real speech/writing. In 1988, Johns use a corpus to get his students to look at the differences when the word “to” is used as an infinitive and when it is used as a preposition. He also asked them to look at how the words “therefore” and “hence” differentiated in their use. Getting students to see grammatical patterns:
    • 23. In the classroom: Some teaching ideas 11/12/11 Concordances are an efficient way of providing students with a large amount of example sentences. These examples can be sorted so that similar usages appear together. Certainly, a dictionary contains examples, but often examples are too few. Example sentences
    • 24. In the classroom: Some teaching ideas 11/12/11   Again, another very simple old exercise. Take sentences from the corpus and split the sentences in half. Then ask the students to put them back together again.  Linking sentences
    • 25. In the classroom: Some teaching ideas 11/12/11 Many common words have a number of usages and meanings. Students can be given some concordances of a single word, and told to group them according to usage. Put in order
    • 26. In the classroom: Some teaching ideas 11/12/11 The old standard gap-fill type exercises are much better when you can take them directly from an authentic corpus - just  remove collocates or key words and get the students to fill them back in again. Fill in the gaps
    • 27. In the classroom: Some teaching ideas 11/12/11 Finding genuine examples Understanding different meanings/uses Looking at their own errors
    • 28.  
    • 29. For more teaching ideas 11/12/11 Check the handout about more a advantages of using concordancers in language classroom
    • 30. Some Possible Problems
      • Majority of corpora are based on authentic language use - far too challenging for lower level students.
      • Not all concordancer interfaces are user-friendly and some can be very complex for students to use- often uses quite complex linguistic terminology.
      • simple alternative is to use any normal search engine and type in the word you are interested in.
      • Not all teachers and students have access to the Internet during class.
    • 31. Summary
      • Often seem challenging to both teachers and students.
      • Incorporating concordancers into L&T process may take time and effort.
      •   Ultimately can be an incredibly useful tool for L&T process.
    • 32.
      • Go to the tutorial on the files’ section: How to use a concordancers
      • http://www.lextutor.ca/concordancers
      • 2. Start exploring and follow the steps
      • 3. Next, go to http://www.lextutor.ca/concordancers/concord_e.html and choose a new corpus and see if there are any differences between spoken and written English.
      Lab Work
    • 33.
      • Questions?
    • 34. References
      • How to use concordances in teaching English: Some suggestions
      • http://www.nsknet.or.jp/~peterrs/concordancing/usingconcs.html
      • using concordance programs in the Modern Foreign Languages classroom
      • http://www.ict4lt.org/en/en_mod2-4.htm

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