2. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |MAIN SUBJECT INDEX1. active/passive equivalentsKeywords: active, passive equivalent2. as + adjective + asKeywords: as, adjective3. as present participleKeywords: present participle , with verbs of movement with verbs of perception, as adjective withspend, with waste, with catch, with find, replacing time clause, replacing reason clause4. certaintyKeywords: certainly, definitely, probably, surely5. changes of time and place referenceKeywords: time reference, place reference6. common irregular verbs - group 1Keywords: irregular verbs7. common irregular verbs - group 2Keywords: irregular verbs8. common irregular verbs - group 3Keywords: irregular verbs9. comparative + thanKeywords: comparative , than, adjective10. comparative formKeywords: comparative, adverbs11. comparatives & superlativesKeywords: comparatives, superlatives, adjectives12. comparisons of quantity - showing no differenceKeywords: quantity, comparison, adjective, difference13. comparisons of quantity - menuKeywords: quantity, comparison, adjective14. comparisons of quantity - showing differenceKeywords: quantity, comparison, adjective, difference15. compound nounsKeywords: compound nouns, phrasal verbs16. countable & uncountableKeywords: countable, uncountable, noun17. defining relative clausesKeywords: defining relative clauses18. defining words - which,whoseKeywords: which, whose19. degree - enough,very,too,extremely,almost etcKeywords: enough, very, too, extremely, almost, nearly, completely20. demonstratives - this,that,these,those etcKeywords: this, that, these, those, determiners21. difference words - other,anotherKeywords: other, another22. distributives - all, both, halfKeywords: all, both, half, distributives, determiners23. distributives - each, every, either, neitherKeywords: each, every, either, neither24. distributives - menuKeywords: all, both, half, each, every, either, neither25. examplesKeywords: get, got, getting26. exceptions to using the definite article
3. Keywords: no definite article, determiner, exceptions27. form - adjectivesKeywords: gender, position, form, adjective28. form - adverbKeywords: adverb, form29. form -pastKeywords: be + past participle30. form, with or without toKeywords: to-infinitive, zero infinitive31. functionKeywords: order, adjectives, function32. functionKeywords: adverb, function33. functionKeywords: function, infinitive of purpose, infinitive as subject, infinitive after adjectives, infinitivewith too/enough34. functionKeywords: unknown agent, subject, by formal/scientific texts35. future continuousKeywords: future, actions in progress36. future forms - introductionKeywords: future, attitude37. future forms - simple futureKeywords: will/shall, prediction, decision, future facts, certainty38. future perfectKeywords: future, completed actions39. future perfect continuousKeywords: unfinished, future time40. future with going toKeywords: plans, intentions41. gerund or infinitive?Keywords: gerund/infinitive-, no difference in meaning42. gerund/infinitive - difference in meaningKeywords: gerund/infinitive, difference in meaning43. gerundsKeywords: gerund, as subject, after prepositions, after phrasal verbs, in compound nouns, cantstand.cant help44. get,got,gettingKeywords: get, got, getting45. get/have something done, x needs doingKeywords: get, need46. if sentences with conditional perfect continuousKeywords: conditional perfect continuous47. if sentences with if + past,would,present condtionalKeywords: if + past, would, present condtional48. if sentences with if,condtional tensesKeywords: if, condtional tenses49. if sentences with if+not,unless,verbsKeywords: if+not, unless, verbs50. if sentences with mixed conditionalsKeywords: mixed conditionals51. if sentences with perfect conditional,if + past perfectKeywords: perfect conditional, if + past perfect52. if sentences with wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if onlyKeywords: wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if only53. if setences with present continuous conditionalKeywords: present continuous conditional54. infinitive after question wordsKeywords: infinitive, question words55. interrogative - why, where, how, whenKeywords: why, where, how, when56. introduction - defining relative clauses, non-defining relative clausesKeywords: defining relative clauses, non-defining relative clauses57. introduction - irregular verbs
4. Keywords: verbs, irregular58. introduction - present participle, gerundKeywords: present participle, gerund59. introduction - reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speakKeywords: reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speak60. irregular comparatives & superlativesKeywords: irregular comparatives, superlatives, adjectives61. list of common irregular verbKeywords: irregular, verbs62. main menu - adjectivesKeywords: adjectives63. main menu - adverbsKeywords: adverbs64. manner - adverbsKeywords: adverbs, manner65. menu - function and classKeywords: determiners, function, class, pre-determiners66. menu - kinds of adverbsKeywords: kinds, adverbs67. menu - nounsKeywords: nouns68. menu - quantifiersKeywords: much, many, a little, a few, some, any69. menu / introductionKeywords: menu, introduction, tenses70. nationalitiesKeywords: nationalities, country, nouns71. negative infinitiveKeywords: negative infinitive72. non-defining relative clausesKeywords: relative clauses, non-defining73. not as + adjective + asKeywords: not, as, so, not as, not so, adjective74. noun genderKeywords: gender, masculine, feminine, noun75. order of adjectivesKeywords: order, adjectives76. other forms of futureKeywords: is to, obligation, about to, immediate future77. other forms of infinitiveKeywords: perfect infinitive, continuous infinitive, passive infinitive, perfect continuous infinitive78. past continuousKeywords: past continuous, description, narrative79. past perfectKeywords: past perfect, just80. past perfect continuousKeywords: past perfect continuous, process, reported speech81. place, adverbs of placeKeywords: adverbs, place82. pluralsKeywords: singular plural, irregular plural, noun83. possessiveKeywords: possessive, time expressions, apostrophe, names, possessive84. possessivesKeywords: possessive adjectives, possessive pronouns, my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, our,ours, their, theirs85. pre-determinersKeywords: such, what, rather, quite86. prepositions in relative clausesKeywords: prepositions, relative clauses87. present continuousKeywords: -ing, verbs, tenses, present participle, verbs not used in continuous form88. present continuous for future eventsKeywords: arrangements, future
5. 89. present perfect 1Keywords: present perfect, past participle, irregular verbs90. present perfect 2Keywords: present perfect, ever, never, already, yet91. present perfect 3Keywords: present perfect, simple past, time, attitude92. present perfect 4Keywords: present perfect, for, since93. present perfect continousKeywords: present perfect continous, present participle94. quantifiers 1 - determiners,a few,few,a little,littleKeywords: determiners, a few, few, a little, little95. quantifiers 2 - many,much,more,most etc.Keywords: many, much, more, most, little, less, least, few, fewer, fewest96. quantifiers 3 - how,much,many,few,lot etc.Keywords: how, much, many, few, lot, number, several, countable, uncountable97. quantifiers 4 - numbersKeywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions, decimals, units, years, zero98. quantifiers 5 - some and anyKeywords: determiners, quantifiers, some, any99. quantifiers 6 - something,somebody,someone etc.Keywords: something, somebody, someone, somewhere, anything, anybody, anyone, anywhere,nothing, nobody, noone, nowhere,100. quantifiers 7 - enoughKeywords: enough, quantifiers, determiners101. question words - which,what,whoseKeywords: which, what, whose102. relative adverbs - which,what,whoseKeywords: where, when, why103. reporting hopes and intentionsKeywords: hopes, intentions, to-infinitive, that-clause104. reporting orders, requests, suggestionsKeywords: orders, requests, suggestions, should - omission, that-clause105. reporting questionsKeywords: reporting yes/no questions, reporting questions with question words106. simple pastKeywords: simple past, form, function, irregular verbs, irregular verbs, auxiliary did, ago107. simple presentKeywords: verbs, tenses, present simple108. simple present for future eventsKeywords: future, facts, timetable, calendar109. summaryKeywords: verb tenses, present tenses, perfect tenses, conditional tenses, past tenses, future tenses110. summary of reporting verbsKeywords: summary, reporting verbs, to-infintive, that-clause111. tense changesKeywords: reported speech, tense changes112. the + superlativeKeywords: the, superlative, adjectives113. the definite articleKeywords: the, definite article114. the indefinite articleKeywords: the, indefinite article, a, an115. the,a,anKeywords: the, a, an, indefinite article, exceptions116. time, adverbs ofKeywords: adverbs, time117. type 1 conditionalKeywords: if + present + future, fact118. use of capital lettersKeywords: capital letters, names, months, days, holidays, seasons, geographical, names, streets,buildings, titles of books, nouns119. verbs + infinitive with/without nounKeywords: verb with or without noun + infinitive
7. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TABLE OF CONTENTSGeneralAbout the authorWhich English?Ask our English teachers a questionVisit the members section of the English4Today websiteAdjectivesas + adjective + ascomparative + thancomparatives & superlativescomparisons of quantity - showing no differencecomparisons of quantity - menucomparisons of quantity - showing differenceform - adjectivesfunctionirregular comparatives & superlativesmain menu - adjectivesnot as + adjective + asorder of adjectivesthe + superlativeAdverbscertaintycomparative formdegree - enough,very,too,extremely,almost etcform - adverbfunctioninterrogative - why, where, how, whenmain menu - adverbsmanner - adverbsmenu - kinds of adverbsplace, adverbs of placerelative adverbs - which,what,whosetime, adverbs ofviewpoint, commentingDeterminersdefining words - which,whosedemonstratives - this,that,these,those etcdifference words - other,anotherdistributives - all, both, halfdistributives - each, every, either, neitherdistributives - menu
8. exceptions to using the definite articlemenu - function and classmenu - quantifierspossessivespre-determinersquantifiers 1 - determiners,a few,few,a little,littlequantifiers 2 - many,much,more,most etc.quantifiers 3 - how,much,many,few,lot etc.quantifiers 4 - numbersquantifiers 5 - some and anyquantifiers 6 - something,somebody,someone etc.quantifiers 7 - enoughquestion words - which,what,whosethe definite articlethe indefinite articlethe,a,anDirect and Indirect Speechchanges of time and place referenceintroduction - reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speakreporting hopes and intentionsreporting orders, requests, suggestionsreporting questionssummary of reporting verbstense changes-ING Formas present participlegerund or infinitive?gerund/infinitive - difference in meaninggerundsintroduction - present participle, gerundverbs followed by gerundIrregular Verbscommon irregular verbs - group 1common irregular verbs - group 2common irregular verbs - group 3introduction - irregular verbslist of common irregular verbNounscompound nounscountable & uncountablemenu - nounsnationalitiesnoun genderpluralsuse of capital lettersPassive
9. active/passive equivalentsform -pastfunctionget/have something done, x needs doingPossessive with s and possessiveRelative Clausesdefining relative clausesintroduction - defining relative clauses, non-defining relativeclausesnon-defining relative clausesprepositions in relative clausesThe Infinitiveform, with or without tofunctioninfinitive after question wordsnegative infinitiveother forms of infinitiveverbs + infinitive with/without nounverbs followed by infinitiveverbs followed by noun + infinitivezero infinitiveTo Getexamplesget,got,gettingVerbs and Verb Tensesfuture continuousfuture forms - introductionfuture forms - simple futurefuture perfectfuture perfect continuousfuture with going toif sentences with conditional perfect continuousif sentences with if + past,would,present condtionalif sentences with if,condtional tensesif sentences with if+not,unless,verbsif sentences with mixed conditionalsif sentences with perfect conditional,if + past perfectif sentences with wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if onlyif setences with present continuous conditionalmenu / introductionother forms of futurepast continuouspast perfectpast perfect continuouspresent continuous
14. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERCYour search for items starting with the letter C has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivesirregular comparatives & superlatives Keywords: irregularcomparatives, superlatives, adjectivescomparatives & superlatives Keywords: comparatives, superlatives,adjectivescomparative + than Keywords: comparative , than, adjectivecomparisons of quantity - showing difference Keywords: quantity,comparison, adjective, differencecomparisons of quantity - showing no difference Keywords:quantity, comparison, adjective, differencecomparisons of quantity - menu Keywords: quantity, comparison,adjectiveAdverbscomparative form Keywords: comparative, adverbscertainty Keywords: certainly, definitely, probably, surelyviewpoint, commenting Keywords: adverbs, viewpoint, commentingDeterminersquantifiers 6 - something,somebody,someone etc. Keywords:something, somebody, someone, somewhere, anything, anybody, anyone,anywhere, nothing, nobody, noone, nowhere,menu - function and class Keywords: determiners, function, class, pre-determinersquantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions,decimals, units, years, zeroquantifiers 3 - how,much,many,few,lot etc. Keywords: how,much, many, few, lot, number, several, countable, uncountableDirect and Indirect Speechchanges of time and place reference Keywords: time reference,place referenceIrregular Verbscommon irregular verbs - group 3 Keywords: irregular verbscommon irregular verbs - group 1 Keywords: irregular verbscommon irregular verbs - group 2 Keywords: irregular verbs
19. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERFYour search for items starting with the letter F has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivesform - adjectives Keywords: gender, position, form, adjectivefunction Keywords: order, adjectives, functionAdverbsfunction Keywords: adverb, functionform - adverb Keywords: adverb, formcomparative form Keywords: comparative, adverbsDeterminersquantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions,decimals, units, years, zeroquantifiers 2 - many,much,more,most etc. Keywords: many,much, more, most, little, less, least, few, fewer, fewestmenu - function and class Keywords: determiners, function, class, pre-determinersquantifiers 1 - determiners,a few,few,a little,little Keywords:determiners, a few, few, a little, little-ING Formintroduction - present participle, gerund Keywords: presentparticiple, gerundNounsnoun gender Keywords: gender, masculine, feminine, nounPassiveform -past Keywords: be + past participlefunction Keywords: unknown agent, subject, by formal/scientific textsThe Infinitiveverbs followed by infinitive Keywords: verbs + infinitive without anounform, with or without to Keywords: to-infinitive, zero infinitivefunction Keywords: function, infinitive of purpose, infinitive as subject,
23. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERIYour search for items starting with the letter I has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivesirregular comparatives & superlatives Keywords: irregularcomparatives, superlatives, adjectivesAdverbsinterrogative - why, where, how, when Keywords: why, where,how, whenDeterminersthe,a,an Keywords: the, a, an, indefinite article, exceptionsthe indefinite article Keywords: the, indefinite article, a, anDirect and Indirect Speechsummary of reporting verbs Keywords: summary, reporting verbs, to-infintive, that-clausereporting hopes and intentions Keywords: hopes, intentions, to-infinitive, that-clausereporting orders, requests, suggestions Keywords: orders, requests,suggestions, should - omission, that-clausechanges of time and place reference Keywords: time reference,place referencetense changes Keywords: reported speech, tense changesintroduction - reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speakKeywords: reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speak-ING Formverbs followed by gerund Keywords: verb + gerundintroduction - present participle, gerund Keywords: presentparticiple, gerundgerunds Keywords: gerund, as subject, after prepositions, after phrasalverbs, in compound nouns, cant stand.cant helpgerund or infinitive? Keywords: gerund/infinitive-, no difference inmeaninggerund/infinitive - difference in meaning Keywords:gerund/infinitive, difference in meaningas present participle Keywords: present participle , with verbs ofmovement with verbs of perception, as adjective with spend, with waste,with catch, with find, replacing time clause, replacing reason clause
32. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERPYour search for items starting with the letter P has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adverbsplace, adverbs of place Keywords: adverbs, placeDeterminersmenu - function and class Keywords: determiners, function, class, pre-determinerspre-determiners Keywords: such, what, rather, quitepossessives Keywords: possessive adjectives, possessive pronouns, my,mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, our, ours, their, theirs-ING Formas present participle Keywords: present participle , with verbs ofmovement with verbs of perception, as adjective with spend, with waste,with catch, with find, replacing time clause, replacing reason clauseintroduction - present participle, gerund Keywords: presentparticiple, gerundNounsplurals Keywords: singular plural, irregular plural, nounPassiveform -past Keywords: be + past participlefunction Keywords: unknown agent, subject, by formal/scientific textsget/have something done, x needs doing Keywords: get, needactive/passive equivalents Keywords: active, passive equivalentPossessive with s and possessive Keywords: possessive, time expressions, apostrophe, names,possessiveRelative Clausesprepositions in relative clauses Keywords: prepositions, relativeclausesdefining relative clauses Keywords: defining relative clauses
37. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERTYour search for items starting with the letter T has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivesthe + superlative Keywords: the, superlative, adjectivescomparative + than Keywords: comparative , than, adjectiveAdverbstime, adverbs of Keywords: adverbs, timeDeterminersthe indefinite article Keywords: the, indefinite article, a, andemonstratives - this,that,these,those etc Keywords: this, that,these, those, determinersthe,a,an Keywords: the, a, an, indefinite article, exceptionsthe definite article Keywords: the, definite articleDirect and Indirect Speechchanges of time and place reference Keywords: time reference,place referencetense changes Keywords: reported speech, tense changesThe Infinitiveverbs + infinitive with/without noun Keywords: verb with orwithout noun + infinitiveinfinitive after question words Keywords: infinitive, question wordsnegative infinitive Keywords: negative infinitivezero infinitive Keywords: zero infinitiveother forms of infinitive Keywords: perfect infinitive, continuousinfinitive, passive infinitive, perfect continuous infinitiveform, with or without to Keywords: to-infinitive, zero infinitiveverbs followed by infinitive Keywords: verbs + infinitive without anounverbs followed by noun + infinitive Keywords: verb + noun +infinitivefunction Keywords: function, infinitive of purpose, infinitive as subject,infinitive after adjectives, infinitive with too/enoughTo Get
40. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERVYour search for items starting with the letter V has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adverbsviewpoint, commenting Keywords: adverbs, viewpoint, commentingDirect and Indirect Speechsummary of reporting verbs Keywords: summary, reporting verbs, to-infintive, that-clause-ING Formverbs followed by gerund Keywords: verb + gerundIrregular Verbscommon irregular verbs - group 2 Keywords: irregular verbscommon irregular verbs - group 1 Keywords: irregular verbslist of common irregular verb Keywords: irregular, verbsintroduction - irregular verbs Keywords: verbs, irregularcommon irregular verbs - group 3 Keywords: irregular verbsThe Infinitiveverbs followed by noun + infinitive Keywords: verb + noun +infinitiveverbs + infinitive with/without noun Keywords: verb with orwithout noun + infinitiveverbs followed by infinitive Keywords: verbs + infinitive without anounVerbs and Verb Tensespresent continuous Keywords: -ing, verbs, tenses, present participle,verbs not used in continuous formsimple past Keywords: simple past, form, function, irregular verbs,irregular verbs, auxiliary did, agofuture forms - introduction Keywords: future, attitudepast perfect continuous Keywords: past perfect continuous, process,reported speechpast perfect Keywords: past perfect, justfuture forms - simple future Keywords: will/shall, prediction,decision, future facts, certainty
46. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE QUANTIFIERSNUMBERSThe cardinal numbers (one, two, three, etc.) are adjectives referring toquantity, and the ordinal numbers (first, second, third, etc.) refer todistribution.Number Ordinal Cardinal1 one first2 two second3 three third4 four fourth5 five fifth6 six sixth7 seven seventh8 eight eighth9 nine ninth10 ten tenth11 eleven eleventh12 twelve twelfth13 thirteen thirteenth14 fourteen fourteenth15 fifteen fifteenth16 sixteen sixteenth17 seventeen seventeenth18 eighteen eighteenth19 nineteen nineteenth20 twenty twentieth21 twenty-one twenty-first22 twenty-two twenty-second23 twenty-three twenty-third24 twenty-four twenty-fourth25 twenty-five twenty-fifth26 twenty-six twenty-sixth27 twenty-seven twenty-seventh28 twenty-eight twenty-eighth29 twenty-nine twenty-ninth30 thirty thirtieth31 thirty-one thirty-first40 forty fortieth50 fifty fiftieth60 sixty sixtieth70 seventy seventieth80 eighty eightieth90 ninety ninetieth100 one hundred hundredth500 five hundred five hundredth1,000 one thousand thousandth100,000 one hundred thousand hundred thousandth1,000,000 one million millionth
47. Examples:q There are twenty-five people in the room.q He was the fourteenth person to win the award since 1934.q Six hundred thousand people were left homeless after theearthquake.q I must have asked you twenty times to be quiet.q He went to Israel for the third time this year.Fractions and decimalsSaid Written Saidhalf 0.5 point fivea quarter 0.25 point two fivethree quarters 0.75 point seven fivePercentagesWritten Said25% twenty five percent50% fifty percent75% seventy five percent100% a/one hundred percentUnitsWritten Said$1,200 one thousand two hundreddollars£16,486 sixteen thousand four hundredand eighty-six pounds545kms five hundred and forty-fivekilometres$25.35 twenty-five dollars thirty-fiveYearsWritten Said1988 Nineteen eighty-eight1864 Eighteen sixty-four1999 Nineteen ninety-nineHow to say 0nought used in mathematical expressions anddecimals:nought times three equals nought0.3 = nought point three (or point three)0.03 = point nought three
52. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |DEFINITE ARTICLETHEArticles in English are invariable. That is, they do not change according tothe gender or number of the noun they refer to, e.g. the boy, the woman,the childrenThe is used:1. to refer to something which has already been mentioned.Example: An elephant and a mouse fell in love.The mouse loved the elephants long trunk,and the elephant loved the mouses tiny nose.2. when both the speaker and listener know what is being talked about, evenif it has not been mentioned before.Example: Wheres the bathroom?Its on the first floor.3. in sentences or clauses where we define or identify a particular person orobject:Examples: The man who wrote this book is famous.Which car did you scratch? The red one.My house is the one with a blue door.4. to refer to objects we regard as unique:Examples: the sun, the moon, the world5. before superlatives and ordinal numbers: (see Adjectives)Examples: the highest building, the first page, the lastchapter.6. with adjectives, to refer to a whole group of people:Examples: the Japanese (see Nouns - Nationalities), the old7. with names of geographical areas and oceans:Examples: the Caribbean, the Sahara, the Atlantic8. with decades, or groups of years:Example: she grew up in the seventies
56. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESFORMING THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVENumber of syllables Comparative Superlativeone syllable + -er + -esttall taller tallestone syllable with the spelling consonant + single vowel + consonant: double thefinal consonant:fat fatter fattestbig bigger biggestsad sadder saddestNumber of syllables Comparative Superlativetwo syllables + -er OR more + adj + -est OR most + adjending in: -y, -ly, -owending in: -le, -er or -urethese common adjectives - handsome, polite, pleasant, common, quiethappy happier/ more happy happiest/ most happyyellow yellower/ more yellow yellowest/ most yellowsimple simpler/ more simple simplest/ most simpletender tenderer/ more tender tenderest/ most tenderIf you are not sure, use MORE + OR MOST +Note: Adjectives ending in -y like happy, pretty, busy, sunny, lucky etc:. replacethe -y with -ier or -iest in the comparative and superlative formbusy busier busiestNumber of syllables Comparative Superlativethree syllables or more more + adj most + adjimportant more important most importantexpensive more expensive most expensiveExamples:
59. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |FORM AND FUNCTION OF ADJECTIVESFUNCTIONAdjectives tell us more about a noun. They can:Describe feelings or qualities:He is a lonely manThey are honest peopleGive nationality or origin:Pierre is FrenchThis clock is GermanOur house is VictorianTell more about a things characteristics:A wooden table.The knife is sharp.Tell us about age:Hes a young manMy coat is very oldTell us about size and measurement:John is a tall man.This is a very long film.Tell us about colour:Paul wore a red shirt.The sunset was crimson and gold.Tell us about material/what something is made of:It was a wooden tableShe wore a cotton dressTell us about shape:A rectangular boxA square envelopeExpress a judgement or a value:A fantastic film
60. Grammar is boring.
61. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |FORM AND FUNCTION OF ADJECTIVESFORM1. Adjectives are invariable:They do not change their form depending on the gender or number of thenoun.A hot potato Some hot potatoes2. To emphasise or strengthen the meaning of an adjective use very orreally:A very hot potato Some really hot potatoes.(BUT see also Modifiers/Adverbs)3. Position of adjectives:a) Usually in front of a noun: A beautifulgirl.b) After verbs like "to be", "to seem" , "tolook", "to taste":q The girl is beautifulq You look tiredq This meat tastes funny.c) After the noun: in some fixedexpressions:q The Princess Royalq The President electq a court martialthe adjectives involved, present, concerned:1. I want to see the people involved/concerned (= the people whohave something to do with the matter)2. Here is a list of the people present (= the people who were in thebuilding or at the meeting)Be careful! When these adjectives are used before the noun they have adifferent meaning:q An involved discussion = detailed, complexq A concerned father = worried, anxiousq The present situation = current, happening now
65. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |ADVERBS - FORM1. In most cases, an adverb is formed by adding -ly to anadjective:Adjective AdverbcheapquickslowcheaplyquicklyslowlyExamples:q Time goes quickly.q He walked slowly to the door.q She certainly had an interesting life.q He carefully picked up the sleeping child.If the adjective ends in -y, replace the y with i and add -ly:Adjective AdverbeasyangryhappyluckyeasilyangrilyhappilyluckilyIf the adjective ends in -able, -ible, or -le, replace the -e with -y:Adjective AdverbprobableterriblegentleprobablyterriblygentlyIf the adjective ends in -ic, add -ally:Adjective AdverbbasiceconomictragicbasicallyeconomicallytragicallyNote: Exception: public - publicly2. Some adverbs have the same form as the adjective:
67. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARATIVE FORMS OF ADVERBSIn general, comparative and superlative forms of adverbs are the same as foradjectives:q add -er or -est to short adverbs:Adverb Comparative Superlativehardlatefastharderlaterfasterthe hardestthe latestthe fastestExample:q Jim works harder than his brother.q Everyone in the race ran fast, but John ran the fastest of all.with adverbs ending in -ly, use more for the comparative and most for thesuperlative:Adverb Comparative Superlativequietlyslowlyseriouslymore quietlymore slowlymore seriouslymost quietlymost slowlymost seriouslyExample:q The teacher spoke more slowly to help us to understand.q Could you sing more quietly please?Some adverbs have irregular comparative forms:Adverb Comparative Superlativebadlyfarlittlewellworsefarther/furtherlessbetterworstfarthest/furthestleastbestExample:q The little boy ran further than his friends.q Youre driving worse today than yesterday !BE CAREFUL! Sometimes most can mean very:q We were most grateful for your help
70. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSADVERBS OF MANNERAdverbs of manner tell us how something happens. They are usually placedafter the main verb or after the object.Examples:q He swims well, (after the main verb)q He ran... rapidly, slowly, quickly..q She spoke... softly, loudly, aggressively..q James coughed loudly to attract her attention.q He plays the flute beautifully. (after the object)q He ate the chocolate cake greedily.BE CAREFUL! The adverb should not be put between the verb and theobject:q He ate greedily the chocolate cake [incorrect]q He ate the chocolate cake greedily [correct]If there is a preposition before the object, e.g. at, towards, we can placethe adverb either before the preposition or after the object.Example:q The child ran happily towards his mother.q The child ran towards his mother happily.Sometimes an adverb of manner is placed before a verb + object to addemphasis:q He gently woke the sleeping woman.Some writers put an adverb of manner at the beginning of the sentence tocatch our attention and make us curious:q Slowly she picked up the knife.(We want to know what happened slowly, who did it slowly, why they did itslowly)However, adverbs should always come AFTER intransitive verbs (=verbswhich have no object).Example:q The town grew quicklyq He waited patiently
72. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSADVERBS OF PLACEAdverbs of place tell us where something happens.They are usually placed after the main verb or after the object:Example:after the main verb:q I looked everywhereq John looked away, up, down, around...q Im going home, out, backq Come inafter the object:q They built a house nearbyq She took the child outsideHere and thereWith verbs of movement, here means towards or with the speaker:q Come here (= towards me)q Its in here (= come with me to see it)There means away from, or not with the speaker:q Put it there (= away from me)q Its in there (= go by yourself to see it)Here and there are combined with prepositions to make many commonadverbial phrases:down here, down there;over here, over there;under here, under there;up here, up thereHere and there are placed at the beginning of the sentence in exclamationsor when emphasis is needed.They are followed by the verb if the subject is a noun:q Here comes the bus. (followed by the verb)Or by a pronoun if this is the subject (it, she, he etc.):
74. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSADVERBS OF TIMEAdverbs of time tell us when an action happened, but also for how long, andhow often.Examples:q When: today, yesterday, later, now, last yearq For how long: all day, not long, for a while, since last yearq How often: sometimes, frequently, never, often, yearly"When" adverbs are usually placed at the end of the sentence:q Goldilocks went to the Bears house yesterday.q Im going to tidy my room tomorrow.This is a "neutral" position, but some "when" adverbs can be put in otherpositions to give a different emphasisCompare:q Later Goldilocks ate some porridge. (the time is more important)q Goldilocks later ate some porridge. (this is more formal, like apolicemans report)q Goldilocks ate some porridge later. (this is neutral, no particularemphasis)"For how long" adverbs are usually placed at the end of the sentence:q She stayed in the Bears house all day.q My mother lived in France for a year.Notice: for is always followed by an expression of duration:q for three days,q for a week,q for several years,q for two centuries.since is always followed by an expression of a point in time:q since Monday,q since 1997,q since the last war."How often" adverbs expressing the frequency of an action are usuallyplaced before the main verb but after auxiliary verbs (such as be, have, may,must):
75. q I often eat vegetarian food. (before the main verb)q He never drinks milk. (before the main verb)q You must always fasten your seat belt. (after the auxiliary must)q She is never sea-sick.(after the auxiliary is)q I have never forgotten my first kiss. (after the auxiliary have andbefore the main verb forgotten)Some other "how often" adverbs express the exact number of times anaction happens and are usually placed at the end of the sentence:q This magazine is published monthly.q He visits his mother once a week.When a frequency adverb is placed at the end of a sentence it is muchstronger.Compare:q She regularly visits France.q She visits France regularly.Adverbs that can be used in these two positions:q frequently,q generally,q normally,q occasionally,q often,q regularly,q sometimes,q usuallyYet and stillYet is used in questions and in negative sentences, and is placed at the endof the sentence or after not.q Have you finished your work yet? (= a simple request for information)No, not yet. (= simple negative answer)q They havent met him yet. (= simple negative statement)q Havent you finished yet? (= expressing slight surprise)Still expresses continuity; it is used in positive sentences and questions, andis placed before the main verb and after auxiliary verbs (such as be, have,might, will)q I am still hungry.q She is still waiting for youq Are you still here?q Do you still work for the BBC?ORDER OF ADVERBS OF TIMEIf you need to use more than one adverb of time at the end of a sentence,use them in this order:1: how long2: how often3: when (think of low)
79. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSADVERBS OF DEGREEAdverbs of degree tell us about the intensity or degree of an action, anadjective or another adverb.Common adverbs of degree:Almost, nearly, quite, just, too, enough, hardly, scarcely, completely,very, extremely.Adverbs of degree are usually placed:1. before the adjective or adverb they are modifying:e.g. The water was extremely cold.2. before the main verb:e.g. He was just leaving. She has almost finished.Examples:q She doesnt quite know what shell do after university.q They are completely exhausted from the trip.q I am too tired to go out tonight.q He hardly noticed what she was saying.Enough, very, tooEnough as an adverb meaning to the necessary degree goes after adjectivesand adverbs.Example:q Is your coffee hot enough? (adjective)q He didnt work hard enough. (adverb)It also goes before nouns, and means as much as is necessary. In this case itis not an adverb, but a determiner.Example:q We have enough bread.q They dont have enough food.Too as an adverb meaning more than is necessary or useful goes beforeadjectives and adverbs, e.g.q This coffee is too hot. (adjective)q He works too hard. (adverb)Enough and too with adjectives can be followed by for someone/something.
80. Example:q The dress was big enough for me.q Shes not experienced enough for this job.q The coffee was too hot for me.q The dress was too small for her.We can also use to + infinitive after enough and too withadjectives/adverb.Example:q The coffee was too hot to drink.q He didnt work hard enough to pass the exam.q Shes not old enough to get married.q Youre too young to have grandchildren!Very goes before an adverb or adjective to make it stronger.Example:q The girl was very beautiful. (adjective)q He worked very quickly. (adverb)If we want to make a negative form of an adjective or adverb, we can use aword of opposite meaning, or not very.Example:q The girl was ugly OR The girl was not very beautifulq He worked slowly OR He didnt work very quickly.BE CAREFUL! There is a big difference between too and very.q Very expresses a fact:He speaks very quickly.q Too suggests there is a problem:He speaks too quickly (for me to understand).Other adverbs like veryThese common adverbs are used like very and not very, and are listed inorder of strength, from positive to negative:extremely, especially, particularly, pretty, rather, quite, fairly, rather,not especially, not particularly.Note: rather can be positive or negative, depending on the adjective oradverb that follows:Positive: The teacher was rather nice.Negative: The film was rather disappointing.Note on inversion with negative adverbs:Normally the subject goes before the verb:
91. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |NOUNSNATIONALITIESa. Country: I live in England.b. Adjective: He reads English literature.c. Noun: She is an Englishwoman.COUNTRY ADJECTIVE NOUNAfrica African an AfricanAmerica American an AmericanArgentina Argentinian an ArgentinianAustria Austrian an AustrianAutralia Australian an AustralianBangladesh Bangladesh(i) a BangladeshiBelgium Belgian a BelgianBrazil Brazilian a BrazilianBritain British a Briton/BritisherCambodia Cambodian a CambodianChile Chilean a ChileanChina Chinese a ChineseColombia Colombian a ColombianCroatia Croatian a Croatthe Czech Republic Czech a CzechDenmark Danish a DaneEngland English anEnglishman/EnglishwomanFinland Finnish a FinnFrance French a Frenchman/FrenchwomanGermany German a GermanGreece Greek a GreekHolland Dutch a Dutchman/DutchwomanHungary Hungarian a HungarianIceland Icelandic an IcelanderIndia Indian an IndianIndonesia Indonesian an IndonesianIran Iranian an IranianIraq Iraqi an IraqiIreland Irish an Irishman/IrishwomanIsrael Israeli an IsraeliJamaica Jamaican a Jamaican
93. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |INDEFINITE ARTICLEA / ANUse a with nouns starting with a consonant (letters that are not vowels),an with nouns starting with a vowel (a,e,i,o,u)Examples:A boyAn appleA carAn orangeA houseAn operaNOTE:An before an h mute - an hour, an honour.A before u and eu when they sound like you: a european, a university, aunitThe indefinite article is used:q to refer to something for the first time:An elephant and a mouse fell in love.Would you like a drink?Ive finally got a good job.q to refer to a particular member of a group or classExamples:r with names of jobs:John is a doctor.Mary is training to be an engineer.He wants to be a dancer.r with nationalities and religions:John is an Englishman.Kate is a Catholic.r with musical instruments:Sherlock Holmes was playing a violin when the visitor arrived.(BUT to describe the activity we say "He plays the violin.")r with names of days:I was born on a Thursdayq to refer to a kind of, or example of something:the mouse had a tiny nosethe elephant had a long trunkit was a very strange carq with singular nouns, after the words what and such:What a shame!Shes such a beautiful girl.
95. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |EXCEPTIONS TO USING THE DEFINITE ARTICLEThere is no article:q with names of countries (if singular)Germany is an important economic power.Hes just returned from Zimbabwe.(But: Im visiting the United States next week.)q with the names of languagesFrench is spoken in Tahiti.English uses many words of Latin origin.Indonesian is a relatively new language.q with the names of meals.Lunch is at midday.Dinner is in the evening.Breakfast is the first meal of the day.q with peoples names (if singular):Johns coming to the party.George King is my uncle.(But: were having lunch with the Morgans tomorrow.)q with titles and names:Prince Charles is Queen Elizabeths son.President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.Dr. Watson was Sherlock Holmes friend.(But: the Queen of England, the Pope.)q After the s possessive case:His brothers car.Peters house.q with professions:Engineering is a useful career.Hell probably go into medicine.q with names of shops:Ill get the card at Smiths.Can you go to Boots for me?q with years:1948 was a wonderful year.Do you remember 1995?q With uncountable nouns:Rice is the main food in Asia.Milk is often added to tea in England.War is destructive.q with the names of individual mountains, lakes and islands:Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in Alaska.
100. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE QUANTIFIERSQuantifiers with countableand uncountable nounsAdjectives and adjectival phrases that describe quantity are shown below.Some can only go with countable nouns (friends, cups, people), and somecan only go with uncountable nouns (sugar, tea, money, advice). The wordsin the middle column can be used with both countable and uncountablenouns.Only withuncountable nounsWith uncountableand countable nounsOnly withcountable nounsHow much? How much? or How many? How many?a little no/none a fewa bit (of) not any a number (of)- some (any) severala great deal of a lot of a large number ofa large amount of plenty of a great number of- lots of -+ nounNote: much and many are used in negative and question forms.Example:q How much money have you got?q How many cigarettes have you smoked?q Theres not much sugar in the cupboard.q There werent many people at the concert.They are also used with too, (not) so, and (not) as :There were too manypeople at the concert - we couldnt see the band.Its a problem when there are so many people.Theres not so much work to do this week.In positive statements, we use a lot of:q Ive got a lot of work this week.q There were a lot of people at the concert.
103. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE QUANTIFIERSSome and AnySome and any are used with countable and uncountable nouns, to describean indefinite or incomplete quantity.Some is used in positive statements:q I had some rice for lunchq Hes got some books from the library.It is also used in questions where we are sure about the answer:q Did he give you some tea? (= Im sure he did.)q Is there some fruit juice in the fridge? (= I think there is)Some is used in situations where the question is not a request forinformation, but a method of making a request, encouraging or giving aninvitation:q Could I have some books, please?q Why dont you take some books home with you?q Would you like some books?Any is used in questions and with not in negative statements:q Have you got any tea?q He didnt give me any tea.q I dont think weve got any coffee left.More examples:SOME in positive sentences.a. I will have some news next week.b. She has some valuable books in her house.c. Philip wants some help with his exams.d. There is some butter in the fridge.e. We need some cheese if we want to make a fondue.SOME in questions:a. Would you like some help?b. Will you have some more roast beef?ANY in negative sentencesa. She doesnt want any kitchen appliances for Christmas.b. They dont want any help moving to their new house.c. No, thank you. I dont want any more cake.d. There isnt any reason to complain.ANY in interrogative sentencesa. Do you have any friends in London?
105. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE QUANTIFIERSCompound nouns made with SOME, ANY and NOSome +-thing -body -one -whereAny +No +Compound nouns with some- and any- are used in the same way as some andany.Positive statements:q Someone is sleeping in my bed.q He saw something in the garden.q I left my glasses somewhere in the house.Questions:q Are you looking for someone? (= Im sure you are)q Have you lost something? (= Im sure you have)q Is there anything to eat? (real question)q Did you go anywhere last night?Negative statements:q She didnt go anywhere last night.q He doesnt know anybody here.NOTICE that there is a difference in emphasis between nothing, nobody etc.and not ... anything, not ... anybody:q I dont know anything about it. (= neutral, no emphasis)q I know nothing about it (= more emphatic, maybe defensive)More examples:SOMETHING, SOMEBODY, SOMEWHEREa. I have something to tell you.b. There is something to drink in the fridge.c. He knows somebody in New Yorkd. Susie has somebody staying with her.e. They want to go somewhere hot for their holidays.f. Keith is looking for somewhere to live.ANYBODY, ANYTHING, ANYWHEREa. Is there anybody who speaks English here?b. Does anybody have the time?c. Is there anything to eat?d. Have you anything to say?e. He doesnt have anything to stay tonight.
110. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE DISTRIBUTIVESALL, BOTH, HALFThese words can be used in the following ways:ALL +1234a4b-themy, your, etc.this, thatthese, thoseUncountable nounorCountable noun in the pluralUncountable nounCountable noun in the pluralExample:1. All cheese contains proteinAll children need affection2. All the people in the room were silent.Have you eaten all the bread?3. Ive invited all my friends to the party.Ive been waiting all my life for this opportunity.4a. Whos left all this paper on my desk?4b. Look at all those balloons!BOTH +1234-themy, your, etc.these, thoseCountable noun in the pluralExample:1. Both children were born in Italy.2. He has crashed both (of) the cars.3. Both (of) my parents have fair hair.4 You can take both (of) these books back to thelibrary.See note below
117. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE INFINITIVEThe zero infinitive is used:a. after most auxiliaries (e.g. must, can, should, may, might)b. after verbs of perception, (e.g. see, hear, feel) with the pattern verb +object + zero infinitivec. after the verbs make and let, with the pattern make/let + object + zeroinfinitived. after the expression had bettere. after the expression would ratherwhen referring to the speakers own actionsExamples:After auxiliaries:q She cant speak to you.q He should give her some money.q Shall I talk to him?q Would you like a cup of coffee?q I might stay another night in the hotel.q They must leave before 10.00 a.m.After verbs of perception:q He saw her fall from the cliff.q We heard them close the door.q They saw us walk toward the lake.q She felt the spider crawl up her leg.After the verbs make and let:q Her parents let her stay out late.q Lets go to the cinema tonight.q You made me love you.q Dont make me study that boring grammar book!NOTICE that the to-infinitive is used when make is in the passive voice:q I am made to sweep the floor every day.q She was made to eat fish even though she hated it.After had better:
122. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |REPORTED SPEECHSUMMARY OF REPORTING VERBSNote that some reporting verbs may appear in more than one of the followinggroups.1. Verbs followed by if or whether + clause:askknowremembersaysee2. Verbs followed by a that-clause:addadmitagreeannounceanswerargueboastclaimcommentcomplainconfirmconsiderdenydoubtestimateexplainfearfeelinsistmentionobservepersuadeproposeremarkrememberrepeatreplyreportrevealsaystatesuggestsupposetellthinkunderstandwarn3. Verbs followed by either a that-clause or a to-infinitive:decideexpectguaranteehopepromiseswearthreaten4. Verbs followed by a that-clause containing should(but note that it may be omitted, leaving a subject + zero-infinitive):advisebegdemandinsistpreferproposerecommendrequestsuggest5. Verbs followed by a clause starting with a question word:
124. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |- ING FORMVERBS FOLLOWED BY THE GERUNDThe gerund is used after certain verbs.Example:miss: I miss living in England.The most important of these verbs are shown below.Those marked * can also be followed by a that-clauseExample:VERB GERUNDShe admitted... breaking the windowTHAT-CLAUSEShe admitted... that she had broken the window.acknowledge,*admit,*anticipate,* appreciate,*avoid,celebrate,consider, contemplate,defer,delay,deny,*detest,dislike,dread,enjoy,entail,escape,excuse,fancy (=imagine)*,finish,forgive,imagine,*involve,keep,loathe,mean,(=have as result)*mention,*mind,miss,pardon,postpone,prevent,propose,*recall,*recollect,*remember,report,*resent,resist,risk,save (=prevent the wastedeffort)stop,suggest,*understand,*Notes:Appreciate is followed by a possessive adjective and the gerund when thegerund does not refer to the subject. Compare :I appreciate having some time off work. (Im having the time...)I appreciate your giving me some time off work. (Youre giving me thetime...)
125. Excuse, forgive, pardon can be followed by an object and the gerund or for+ object and the gerund (both common in spoken English), or a possessiveadjective + gerund (more formal and less likely to be said):Excuse me interrupting.Excuse me for interrupting.Excuse my interrupting.Suggest can be used in a number of ways, but BE CAREFUL. It is importantnot to confuse these patterns:suggest/suggested (+ possessive adjective) + gerund:He suggests going to GlastonburyHe suggested going to GlastonburyHe suggested/suggests my going to Glastonburysuggest/suggested + that-clause (where both that and shouldmay be omitted):He suggests that I should go to GlastonburyHe suggested that I should go to GlastonburyHe suggested/suggests I should go to GlastonburyHe suggested/suggests I go to GlastonburyHe suggested I went to Glastonbury.suggest/suggested + question word + infinitive:He suggested where to go.Propose is followed by the gerund when it means suggest:John proposed going to the debatebut by the infinitive when it means intend:The Government proposes bringing in new laws..Stop can be followed by a gerund or infinitive, but there is a change ofmeaning - see GERUND / INFINITIVE? section.Dread is followed by the infinitive when used with think, in the expression Idread to think:I dread to think what shell do next.Prevent is followedEITHER by a possessive adjective + gerund:You cant prevent my leaving.OR by an object + from + gerund:You cant prevent me from leaving.Examples:q Normally, a mouse wouldnt contemplate marrying an elephant.q Most mice dread meeting elephants.q We cant risk getting wet - we havent got any dry clothes.q If you take that job it will mean getting home late every night.q I cant imagine living in that big house.q If you buy some petrol now, it will save you stopping on the way toLondon.q She couldnt resist eating the plum she found in the fridge.q They decided to postpone painting the house until the weatherimproved.
127. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |- ING FORMGERUND OR INFINITIVE?The two groups of verbs below can be followed either by the gerund or bythe infinitive. Usually this has no effect on the meaning, but with some verbsthere is a clear difference in meaning. Verbs marked * can also be followedby a that-clause.Example: to preferI prefer to live in an apartment.I prefer living in an apartment.A. Verbs where there is little or no difference in meaning:allowattemptbeginbotherceasecontinuedeservefear*hate*intend*likeloveneglectomitpermitprefer*recommend*startNotes:1. Allow is used in these two patterns:a. Allow + object + to-infinitive:Her parents allowed her to go to the party.b. Allow + gerund:Her parents dont allow smoking in the house.2. Deserve + gerund is not very common, but is mainly used with passiveconstructions or where there is a passive meaning:a. Your proposals deserve being considered in detail.b. These ideas deserve discussing. (= to be discussed).3. The verbs hate, love, like, prefer are usually followed by a gerund whenthe meaning is general, and by a to-infinitive when they refer to a particulartime or situation. You must always use the to-infinitive with the expressionswould love to, would hate to, etc.Compare:q I hate to tell you, but Uncle Jim is coming this weekend.q I hate looking after elderly relatives!q I love dancing.q I would love to dance with you.
129. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |irregular verbs introduction pageCOMMON GROUP 2 ENGLISH IRREGULAR VERBSTwo of the three forms are the same.Examples with catch:q Mary catches the bus to work every day.q Mary caught the bus to work yesterday.q Mary has caught the bus to work since her car broke down.Base Past Past Participle Group Notebeat beat beaten 2become became become 2behold beheld beheld 2bend bent bent 2beseech besought besought 2bet bet, betted bet, betted 2bind bound bound 2bleed bled bled 2breed bred bred 2bring brought brought 2build built built 2burn burnt, burned burnt, burned 2 regular in AEbuy bought bought 2catch caught caught 2cling clung clung 2come came come 2creep crept crept 2dare dared dared 2deal dealt dealt 2dig dug dug 2dive dived dived 2dream dreamt dreamt 2 regular in AEdwell dwelt,dwelled dwelt,dwelled 2feed fed fed 2feel felt felt 2fight fought fought 2find found found 2fit fit, fitted fit, fitted 2 regular in BEflee fled fled 2fling flung flung 2get got got, gotten 2 gotten in AEgild gilt, gilded gilt, gilded 2gird girt, girded girt, girded 2grind ground ground 2
130. hang hung hung 2have had had 2hear heard heard 2hold held held 2keep kept kept 2kneel knelt knelt 2lay laid laid 2lead led led 2leap leapt, leaped leapt, leaped 2learn learnt learnt 2 regular in AEleave left left 2lend lent lent 2light lit lit 2lose lost lost 2make made made 2mean meant meant 2meet met met 2pay paid paid 2plead pled, pleaded pled, pleaded 2rend rent rent 2run ran run 2say said said 2seek sought sought 2sell sold sold 2send sent sent 2shine shone shone 2sit sat sat 2sleep slept slept 2slide slid slid 2sling slung slung 2slink slunk slunk 2smell smelt smelt 2 regular in AEsneak snuck, sneaked snuck, sneaked 2speed sped, speeded sped, speeded 2spell spelt spelt 2 regular in AEspend spent spent 2spill spilt spilt 2 regular in AEspin spun spun 2spit spat spat 2spoil spoilt, spoiled spoilt, spoiled 2stand stood stood 2stick stuck stuck 2sting stung stung 2strike struck struck 2sweep swept swept 2swing swung swung 2teach taught taught 2tell told told 2
134. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |irregular verbs introduction pageCOMMON GROUP 3 ENGLISH IRREGULAR VERBSAll of the three forms are different.Examples with begin:q I begin my day with a glass of organge juice.q I began to study French when I was living in Paris.q I have begun to understand my parents since I have had children of my own.Base Past Past Participle Group Notearise arose arisen 3awake awoke, awaked awoken 3be was been 3bear bore borne 3befall befell befallen 3beget begot begotten 3begin began begun 3bereave bereaved bereft 3bestride bestrode bestridden 3bid bade bidden 3bite bit bitten 3blow blew blown 3blow blew blown 3break broke broken 3broadcast broadcast broadcast 3burst burst burst 3cast cast cast 3choose chose chosen 3cost cost cost 3dive dove dived 3 regular in BEdo did done 3draw drew drawn 3drink drank drunk 3drive drove driven 3eat ate eaten 3fall fell fallen 3fly flew flown 3forbear forbore forborne 3forbid forbade forbidden 3forget forgot forgotten 3forgive forgave forgiven 3forsake forsook forsaken 3
140. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE INFINITIVEVERBS NORMALLY FOLLOWED BY THE INFINITIVEB. These are the most common of the verbs that are normally followed by anoun + infinitive. The verbs marked * may also be followed by a that-clause.Example:VERB NOUN INFINITIVEHe reminded me to buy some eggs.THAT-CLAUSEHe reminded me that I had to buy some eggs.accustomaidappointassistcausechallengecommand*defydirect*driveempowerenableencourageenticeentitleentreatforcegetimplore*inciteinduceinspireinstruct*inviteleadleave (make someone responsible)obligeorder*persuade*presspromptprovokeremind*require*stimulatesummonteachtelltempttrust*warn*Notes:command, direct, entreat, implore, order, require, trust:there is no noun between these verbs and a that-clause:q The general commanded his men to surrender.q The general commanded that his men should surrender.persuade and remind:there is always a noun between these verbs and a that-clause:q You cant persuade people to buy small cars.q You cant persuade people that small cars are better.instruct, teach, warn:the noun is optional between these verbs and a that-clause:q She taught her students to appreciate poetry.q She taught her students that poetry was valuable.q She taught that poetry was valuable.
143. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESPRESENT CONTINUOUS1. Present continuous, formThe present continuous of any verb is composed of two parts - the presenttense of the verb to be + the present participle of the main verb.(The form of the present participle is: base+ing, e.g. talking, playing,moving, smiling)AffirmativeSubject + to be + base+ingshe is talkingNegativeSubject + to be + not + base+ingshe is not (isnt) talkingInterrogativeto be + subject + base+ingis she talking?Example: to go, present continuousAffirmative Negative InterrogativeI am going I am not going Am I going?You are going You arent going. Are you going?He, she, it is going He, she, it isnt going Is he, she, it going?We are going We arent going Are we going?You are going You arent going Are you going?They are going They arent going Are they going?Note: alternative negative contractions: Im not going, youre not going, hesnot going etc.2. Present continuous, functionAs with all tenses in English, the speakers attitude is as important as thetime of the action or event. When someone uses the present continuous,they are thinking about something that is unfinished or incomplete.The present continuous is used:
144. q to describe an action that is going on at this moment e.g. You are using theInternet. You are studying English grammar.q to describe an action that is going on during this period of time or a trend, e.g.Are you still working for the same company? More and more people are becomingvegetarian.q to describe an action or event in the future, which has already been planned orprepared (See also Ways of expressing the future) e.g. Were going on holidaytomorrow. Im meeting my boyfriend tonight. Are they visiting you next winter?q to describe a temporary event or situation, e.g. He usually plays the drums, buthes playing bass guitar tonight. The weather forecast was good, but its raining atthe moment.q with always, forever, constantly, to describe and emphasise a continuing series ofrepeated actions, e.g. Harry and Sally are always arguing! Youre forevercomplaining about your mother-in-law!BE CAREFUL! Some verbs are not used in the continuous form - see below.3. Verbs that are not normally used in the continuous formThe verbs in the list below are normally used in the simple form, becausethey refer to states, rather than actions or processes:List of common verbs normally used in simple form:Senses / Perceptionfeel*, hear, see*, smell, tasteOpinionassume, believe, consider, doubt, feel (= think), find (= consider),suppose, think*Mental statesforget, imagine, know, mean, notice, recognise, remember, understandEmotions / desiresenvy, fear, dislike, hate, hope, like, love, mind, prefer, regret, want,wishMeasurementcontain, cost, hold, measure, weighOtherslook (=resemble), seem, be (in most cases), have (when it means topossess)*Notes:1. Perception verbs (see, hear, feel, taste, smell) are often used with can:e.g. I can see...2. * These verbs may be used in the continuous form but with a differentmeaning, compare:a. This coat feels nice and warm. (= your perception of the coats qualities)b. Johns feeling much better now (= his health is improving)a. She has three dogs and a cat. (=possession)b. Shes having supper. (= Shes eating)
146. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESSIMPLE PASTBE CAREFUL! The simple past in English may look like a tense in your ownlanguage, but the meaning may be different.1. Simple past, formRegular verbs: base+ede.g. walked, showed, watched, played, smiled, stoppedIrregular verbs: see list in verbsSimple past, be, have, do:SubjectVerbBe Have DoI was had didYou were had didHe, she, it was had didWe were had didYou were had didThey were had didAffirmativea. I was in Japan last yearb. She had a headache yesterday.c. We did our homework last night.Negative and interrogativeNote: For the negative and interrogative simple past form of "do" as anordinary verb, use the auxiliary "do", e.g. We didnt do our homework lastnight. The negative of "have" in the simple past is usually formed using theauxiliary "do", but sometimes by simply adding not or the contraction "nt".The interrogative form of "have" in the simple past normally uses theauxiliary "do".q They werent in Rio last summer.q We hadnt any money.q We didnt have time to visit the Eiffel Tower.q We didnt do our exercises this morning.q Were they in Iceland last January?q Did you have a bicycle when you were a boy?q Did you do much climbing in Switzerland?Simple past, regular verbsAffirmative
147. Subject verb + edI washedNegativeSubject did not infinitive without toThey didnt visit ...InterrogativeDid subject infinitive without toDid she arrive...?Interrogative negativeDid not subject infinitive without toDidnt you like..?Example: to walk, simple past.Affirmative Negative InterrogativeI walked I didnt walk Did I walk?You walked You didnt walk Did you walk?He,she,it walked He didnt walk Did he walk?We walked We didnt walk Did we walk?You walked You didnt walk Did you walk?They walked They didnt walk Did they walk?Note: For the negative and interrogative form of all verbs in the simple past,always use the auxiliary did.Examples: Simple past, irregular verbsto goa. He went to a club last night.b. Did he go to the cinema last night?c. He didnt go to bed early last night.to gived. We gave her a doll for her birthday.e. They didnt give John their new address.f. Did Barry give you my passport?to comeg. My parents came to visit me last July.h. We didnt come because it was raining.i. Did he come to your party last week?2. Simple past, functionThe simple past is used to talk about a completed action in a time beforenow. Duration is not important. The time of the action can be in the recentpast or the distant past.q John Cabot sailed to America in 1498.q My father died last year.q He lived in Fiji in 1976.q We crossed the Channel yesterday.You always use the simple past when you say when something happened, soit is associated with certain past time expressions
150. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESPAST PERFECT CONTINUOUSPast perfect continuous, formThe past perfect continuous is composed of two elements - the past perfectof the verb to be (=had been) + the present participle (base+ing).Examples:Subject had been verb-ingI had been walkingAffirmativeShe had been tryingNegativeWe hadnt been sleepingInterrogativeHad you been eatingInterrogative negativeHadnt they been livingExample: to buy, past perfect continuousAffirmative Negative InterrogativeI had been buying I hadnt been buying Had I been buying?You had been buying You hadnt been buying Had you been buyingHe,she,it had been buying He hadnt been buying Had she been buying?We had been buying We hadnt been buying Had we been buying?You had been buying You hadnt been buying Had you been buyingThey had been buying They hadnt been buying Had they been buyingPast perfect continuous, functionThe past perfect continuous corresponds to the present perfect continuous,but with reference to a time earlier than before now. Again, we are moreinterested in the process.Examples:a. Had you been waiting long before the taxi arrived?b. We had been trying to open the door for five minutes when Jane foundher key.c. It had been raining hard for several hours and the streets were very wet.d. Her friends had been thinking of calling the police when she walked in.This form is also used in reported speech. It is the equivalent of the past
152. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESPAST PERFECTPast perfect, formThe Past Perfect tense in English is composed of two parts: the past tense ofthe verb to have (had) + the past participle of the main verb.Subject had past participleWe had decided...AffirmativeShe had given.NegativeWe hadnt asked.InterrogativeHad they arrived?Interrogative negativeHadnt you finished?Example: to decide, Past perfectAffirmative Negative InterrogativeI had decided I hadnt decided Had I decided?You had decided You hadnt decided Had you decided?He, she, it had decided He hadnt decided Had she decided?We had decided We hadnt decided Had we decided?You had decided You hadnt decided Had you decided?They had decided They hadnt decided Had they decided?Past perfect, functionThe past perfect refers to a time earlier than before now. It is used to makeit clear that one event happened before another in the past. It does notmatter which event is mentioned first - the tense makes it clear which onehappened first.In these examples, Event A is the first or earliest event, Event B is thesecond or latest event:a.John had gone out when I arrived in the office.Event A Event Bb.I had saved my document before the computer crashed.Event A Event Bc.When they arrived we had already started cookingEvent B Event A
154. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESSIMPLE FUTURESimple future, formThe simple future is composed of two parts: will / shall + the infinitivewithout toSubject will infinitive without toHe will leave...AffirmativeI will goI shall goNegativeThey will not seeThey wont seeInterrogativeWill she ask?InterrogativenegativeWont she take?Contractions:I will Ill We will wellYou will youll You will youllHe,she, will hell, shell They will theyllNOTE: The form it will is not normally shortened.Example: to see, simple futureAffirmative Negative InterrogativeIll see I wont see/ Will I see?/*I will/shall see I shant see Shall I see?Youll see You wont see Will you see?He, she, it will see He wont see Will she see?Well see We wont see/ Will we see?/*We will/shall see We shant see Shall we see?You will see You wont see Will you see?Theyll see They wont see Will they see?
156. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESPAST CONTINUOUS1. Past continuous - form.The past continuous of any verb is composed of two parts : the past tense ofthe verb to be (was/were), and the base of the main verb +ing.Subject was/were base-ingThey were watchingAffirmativeShe was readingNegativeShe wasnt readingInterrogativeWas she reading?Interrogative negativeWasnt she reading?Example: to play, past continuousAffirmative Negative InterrogativeI was playing I was not playing Was I playing?You were playing You were not playing Were you playing?He, she, it was playing She wasnt playing Was she playing?We were playing We werent playing Were we playing?You were playing You werent playing Were you playing?They were playing They werent playing Were they playing?2. Past continuous, functionThe past continuous describes actions or events in a time before now, whichbegan in the past and was still going on at the time of speaking. In otherwords, it expresses an unfinished or incomplete action in the past.It is used:q often, to describe the background in a story written in the past tense,e.g. "The sun was shining and the birds were singing as the elephantcame out of the jungle. The other animals were relaxing in theshade of the trees, but the elephant moved very quickly. She waslooking for her baby, and she didnt notice the hunter who waswatching her through his binoculars. When the shot rang out, she wasrunning towards the river..."q to describe an unfinished action that was interrupted by anotherevent or action: "I was having a beautiful dream when the alarm
158. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESPRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUSPresent perfect continuous, formThe present perfect continuous is made up of two elements: (a) the presentperfect of the verb to be (have/has been), and (b) the present participle ofthe main verb (base+ing).Subject has/have been base+ingShe has been swimmingAffirmativeShe has been / Shes been runningNegativeShe hasnt been runningInterrogativeHas she been running?Interrogative negativeHasnt she been running?Example: to live, present perfect continuousAffirmative Negative InterrogativeI have been living I havent been living Have I been living?You have been living You havent been living Have you been living?He, she, it has been living He hasnt been living Has she been living?We have been living We havent been living Have we been living?You have been living You havent been living Have you been living?They have been living They havent been living Have they been living?Present perfect continuous, functionThe present perfect continuous refers to an unspecified time betweenbefore now and now. The speaker is thinking about something that startedbut perhaps did not finish in that period of time. He/she is interested in theprocess as well as the result, and this process may still be going on, or mayhave just finished.Examples:1. Actions that started in the past and continue in the present.a. She has been waiting for you all day (=and shes still waiting now).b. Ive been working on this report since eight oclock this morning (=and Istill havent finished it).
163. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESPRESENT PERFECT1. Present perfect - formThe present perfect of any verb is composed of two elements : theappropriate form of the auxiliary verb to have (present tense), plus the pastparticiple of the main verb. The past participle of a regular verb is base+ed,e.g. played, arrived, looked. For irregular verbs, see the Table of irregularverbs in the section called Verbs.AffirmativeSubject to have past participleShe has visitedNegativeSubject to have + not past participleShe hasnt visitedInterrogativeto have subject past participleHas she visited..?Interrogative negativeto have + not subject past participleHasnt she visited...?Example: to walk, present perfectAffirmative Negative InterrogativeI have walked I havent walked Have I walked?You have walked You havent walked Have you walked?He, she, it has walked He, she, it hasnt walked Has he,she,it walkedWe have walked We havent walked Have we walked?You have walked You havent walked Have you walked?They have walked They havent walked Have they walked?2. Present perfect, functionThe Present Perfect is used to indicate a link between the present and thepast. The time of the action is before now but not specified, and we areoften more interested in the result than in the action itself.BE CAREFUL! There may be a verb tense in your language with a similarform, but the meaning is probably NOT the same.The present perfect is used to describe:1.An action or situation that started in the past and continues in the present.Example: I have lived in Bristol since 1984 (= and I still do.)
165. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |IF SENTENCES AND THE UNREAL PASTIn this section you will find information on sentences containing the word if,the use of conditional tenses, and the unreal past, that is, when we use apast tense but we are not actually referring to past time.IF AND THE CONDITIONALThere are four main types of if sentences in English:1. The zero conditional, where the tense in both parts of the sentence isthe simple present:IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSEIf + simple presentIf you heat iceIf it rainssimple presentit melts.you get wetIn these sentences, the time is now or always and the situation is real andpossible. They are often used to refer to general truths.2. The Type 1 conditional, where the tense in the if clause is the simplepresent, and the tense in the main clause is the simple futureIF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSEIf + simple presentIf it rainsIf you dont hurrySimple futureyou will get wetwe will miss the train.In these sentences, the time is the present or future and the situation isreal. They refer to a possible condition and its probable result.3. The Type 2 conditional, where the tense in the if clause is the simplepast, and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional:IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSEIf + simple pastIf it rainedIf you went to bed earlierPresent conditionalyou would get wetyou wouldnt be so tired.In these sentences, the time is now or any time, and the situation is unreal.They are not based on fact, and they refer to an unlikely or hypotheticalcondition and its probable result.4. The Type 3 conditional, where the tense in the if clause is the pastperfect, and the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional:
168. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TYPE 2 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES1. FormIn a Type 2 conditional sentence, the tense in the if clause is the simplepast, and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional:IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSEIf + simple pastIf it rainedIf you went to bed earlierPresent conditionalyou would get wetyou wouldnt be so tired.Present conditional, formThe present conditional of any verb is composed of two parts - the modalauxiliary would + the infinitive of the main verb (without to.)Subject would infinitive without toShe would learnAffirmativeI would goNegativeI wouldnt askInterrogativeWould she come?Interrogative negativeWouldnt they accept?Would: Contractions of wouldIn spoken English, would is contracted to d.Id Wedyoud youdhed, shed theydThe negative contraction = wouldnt.Example: to accept, Present conditionalAffirmative Negative InterrogativeI would accept I wouldnt accept Would I accept?
170. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TYPE 3 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES1. FormIn a Type 3 conditional sentence, the tense in the if clause is the pastperfect, and the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional:IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSEIf + past perfectIf it had rainedIf you had worked harderPerfect conditionalyou would have got wetyou would have passed theexam.Perfect conditional - formThe perfect conditional of any verb is composed of two elements: would +the perfect infinitive of the main verb (=have + past participle):Subject would perfect infinitiveHeTheywouldwouldhave gone...have stayed...AffirmativeI would have believed ...NegativeShe wouldnt have given...InterrogativeWould you have left...?InterrogativenegativeWouldnt he have been...?Example: to go, Past conditionalAffirmative Negative InterrogativeI would have gone I wouldnt have gone Would I have gone?You would have gone You wouldnt have gone Would you have gone?He would have gone She wouldnt have gone Would it have gone?We would have gone We wouldnt have gone Would we have gone?You would have gone You wouldnt have gone Would you have gone?They would have gone They wouldnt have gone Would they have gone?In these sentences, the time is past, and the situation is contrary toreality. The facts they are based on are the opposite of what is expressed.Type 3 conditional sentences, are truly hypothetical or unreal, because it isnow too late for the condition or its result to exist. There is always anunspoken "but..." phrase:q If I had worked harder I would have passed the exam(but I didnt work hard, and I didnt pass the exam).
172. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESSIMPLE PRESENT(See also Verbs -Regular verbs in the simple present)Simple present, third person singularNote:1. he, she, it: in the third person singular the verb always ends in -s:he wants, she needs, he gives, she thinks.2. Negative and question forms use DOES (=the third person of theauxiliaryDO) + the infinitive of the verb.He wants. Does he want? He does not want.3. Verbs ending in -y : the third person changes the -y to -ies:fly flies, cry criesException: if there is a vowel before the -y:play plays, pray prays4. Add -es to verbs ending in:-ss, -x, -sh, -ch:he passes, she catches, he fixes, it pushesSee also Verbs -Regular verbs in the simple present, and Be, do & haveExamples:1. Third person singular with s or -esa. He goes to school every morning.b. She understands English.c. It mixes the sand and the water.d. He tries very hard.e. She enjoys playing the piano.2. Simple present, formExample: to think, present simpleAffirmative Interrogative NegativeI think Do I think ? I do not think.You think Do you think? You dont think.he, she, it thinks Does he, she, it think? He, she, it doesnt think.we think Do we think? We dont think.you think Do you think? You dont think.The simple present is used:
175. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESFUTURE PERFECTFuture perfect, formThe future perfect is composed of two elements: the simple future of theverb to have (will have) + the past participle of the main verb:Subject will have past participleHe will have finishedAffirmativeI will have leftNegativeThey wont have goneInterrogativeWill we have seen?Interrogative negativeWont he have arrived?Example: to arrive, future perfectAffirmative Negative InterrogativeIll have arrived I wont have arrived Will I have arrived?Youll have arrived You wont have arrived Will you have arrived?Hell have arrived She wont have arrived Will it have arrived?Well have arrived We wont have arrived Will we have arrived?Youll have arrived You wont have arrived Will you have arrived?Theyll have arrived They wont have arrived Will they have arrived?Future perfect, functionThe future perfect refers to a completed action in the future. When we usethis tense we are projecting ourselves forward into the future and lookingback at an action that will be completed some time later than now.It is often used with a time expression using by + a point in future time.Examples:a. Ill have been here for six months on June 23rd.b. By the time you read this Ill have left.c. You will have finished your work by this time next week.
177. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESFUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUSFuture perfect continuous, formThis form is composed of two elements: the future perfect of the verb to be(will have been) + the present participle of the main verb (base+ing):Subject will have been base+ingWe will have been livingAffirmativeI will have been workingNegativeI wont have been workingInterrogativeWill I have been working?Interrogative negativeWont I have been working?Example: to live, Future Perfect continuousAffirmative Negative InterrogativeIll have been living I wont have been living Will I have been living?Youll have beenlivingYou wont have been living Will you have beenliving?Hell have been living He wont have been living Will she have beenliving?Well have beenlivingWe wont have been living Will we have beenliving?Youll have beenlivingYou wont have been living Will you have beenliving?Theyll have beenlivingThey wont have beenlivingWill they have beenliving?Future perfect continuous, functionLike the future perfect simple, this form is used to project ourselves forwardin time and to look back. It refers to events or actions in a time betweennow and some future time, that may be unfinished.Examples:a. I will have been waiting here for three hours by six oclock.b. By 2001 I will have been living here for sixteen years.c. By the time I finish this course, I will have been learning English for twentyyears.d. Next year I will have been working here for four years.
179. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESFUTURE CONTINUOUSFuture continuous, formThe future continuous is made up of two elements: the simple future of theverb to be + the present participle (base+ing)Subject simple future, to be base+ingYou will be watchingAffirmativeI will be askingNegativeShe wont be leavingInterrogativeWill they be retiring?Interrogative negativeWont we be staying?Example: to stay, future continuousAffirmative Negative InterrogativeI will be staying I wont be staying Will I be staying?You will be staying You wont be staying Will you be staying?He, she, it will be staying He wont be staying Will she be staying?We will be staying We wont be staying Will we be staying?You will be staying You wont be staying Will you be staying?They will be staying They wont be staying Will they be staying?Future continuous, functionThe future continuous refers to an unfinished action or event that will be inprogress at a time later than now. It is used:a. to project ourselves into the future and see something happening: Thistime next week I will be sun-bathing in Bali.b. to refer to actions/events that will happen in the normal course of events:Ill be seeing Jim at the conference next week.c. in the interrogative form, especially with you, to distinguish between asimple request for information and an invitation: Will you be coming to theparty tonight? (= request for information) Will you come to the party? (=invitation)d. to predict or guess about someones actions or feelings, now or in the
181. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESPRESENT PERFECT + ever, never, already, yetThe adverbs ever and never express the idea of an unidentified time beforenow e.g. Have you ever visited Berlin?Ever is useda. in questions. e.g.Have you ever been to England?Has she ever met the Prime Minister?b. in negative questions e.g.Havent they ever been to Europe?Havent you ever eaten Chinese food?c. and in negative statements using the patternnothing.......ever, nobody.......ever e.g.Nobody has ever said that to me before.Nothing like this has ever happened to us.d. Ever is also used with The first time.... e.g.Its the first time (that) Ive ever eaten snails.This is the first time Ive ever been to England.Never means at no time before now, and is the same as not ..... ever:I have never visited BerlinBE CAREFUL!You must not use never and not together:I havent never been to Italy.I have never been to Italy.Position: Ever and never are always placed before themain verb (past participle).Already and yet:Already refers to an action that has happened at an unspecified time beforenow. It suggests that there is no need for repetition, e.g.a. Ive already drunk three coffees this morning. (and youre offering meanother one!)b. Dont write to John, Ive already done it.It is also used in questions:a. Have you already written to John?b. Has she finished her homework already?Position: already can be placed before the main verb (pastparticiple) or at the end of the sentence:
184. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |UNREAL PASTThe past tense is sometimes used in English to refer to an unreal situation.So, although the tense is the past, we are usually talking about the present,e.g. in a Type 2 conditional sentence:If an elephant and a mouse fell in love, they would have many problems.Although fell is in the past tense, we are talking about a hypotheticalsituation that might exist now or at any time, but we are not referring to thepast. We call this use the unreal past.Other situations where this occurs are:q after other words and expressions like if (supposing, if only, whatif);q after the verb to wish;q after the expression Id rather..Expressions like ifThe following expressions can be used to introduce hypothetical situations:- supposing, if only, what if. They are followed by a past tense to indicatethat the condition they introduce is unreal:q Supposing an elephant and a mouse fell in love? (= but we know this is unlikely orimpossible)q What if we painted the room purple? (= that would be very surprising)q If only I had more money. (= but I havent).These expressions can also introduce hypothetical situations in the past andthen they are followed by the past perfect.Examples:q If only I hadnt kissed the frog (= I did and it was a mistake becausehe turned into a horrible prince, but I cant change it now.)q What if the elephant had trodden on the mouse? (She didnt, but wecan imagine the result!)q Supposing I had given that man my money! (I didnt, so Ive still gotmy money now.)The verb to wishThe verb to wish is followed by an unreal past tense when we want to talkabout situations in the present that we are not happy about but cannotchange:q I wish I had more money (=but I havent)q She wishes she was beautiful (= but shes not)q We wish we could come to your party (but we cant)
187. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |MIXED CONDITIONAL SENTENCESIt is possible for the two parts of a conditional sentence to refer to differenttimes, and the resulting sentence is a "mixed conditional" sentence. Thereare two types of mixed conditional sentence:A. Present result of past condition:1. FormThe tense in the if clause is the past perfect, and the tense in the mainclause is the present conditional:IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSEIf + past perfectIf I had worked harder atschoolIf we had looked at the mapPresent conditionalI would have a better job now.we wouldnt be lost.2. FunctionIn these sentences, the time is past in the if clause, and present in themain clause. They refer to an unreal past condition and its probable resultin the present. They express a situation which is contrary to reality both inthe past and in the present:If I had worked harder at school is contrary to past fact - I didnt work hardat school, and I would have a better job now is contrary to present fact - Ihavent got a good job.If we had looked at the map (we didnt), we wouldnt be lost (we are lost).Examples:q I would be a millionaire now if I had taken that job.q If youd caught that plane youd be dead now.q If you hadnt spent all your money on CDs, you wouldnt be broke.B. Past result of present or continuing condition.1. FormThe tense in the If-clause is the simple past, and the tense in the mainclause is the perfect conditional:IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSEIf + simple pastIf I wasnt afraid ofspidersIf we didnt trust himPerfect conditionalI would have picked it up.we would have sacked him monthsago.2. FunctionIn these sentences the time in the If-clause is now or always, and the timein the main clause is before now. They refer to an unreal present situationand its probable (but unreal) past result:
189. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |PERFECT CONDITIONAL, CONTINUOUS1. Perfect conditional, continuous - FormThis tense is composed of two elements: the perfect condtional of the verbto be (would have been) + the present participle (base+ing).Subject would have been base+ingIWewould have beenwould have beensittingswimmingAffirmativeI would have been studying.NegativeYou wouldnt have been living.InterrogativeWould we have been travelling?Interrogative negativeWouldnt it have been working?Examples: to work, Past continuous conditionalAffirmative NegativeI would have been working I wouldnt have been workingYou would have been working You wouldnt have been working.He would have been working She wouldnt have been workingWe would have been working We wouldnt have been workingYou would have been working You wouldnt have been workingThey would have been working They wouldnt have been workingInterrogative Interrogative negativeWould I have been working? Wouldnt I have been working?Would you have been working? Wouldnt you have been working?Would he have been working? Wouldnt she have been working?Would we have been working? Wouldnt we have been working?Would you have been working? Wouldnt you have been working?Would they have been working? Wouldnt they have been working?2. FunctionThis tense can be used in Type 3 conditional sentences. It refers to theunfulfilled result of the action in the if-clause, and expresses this result asan unfinished or continuous action. Again, there is always an unspoken"but.." phrase:q If the weather had been better (but it wasnt), Id have been sittingin the garden when he arrived (but I wasnt and so I didnt see him).q If she hadnt got a job in London (but she did), she would have beenworking in Paris (but she wasnt).
191. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |Join the G-Club!Well keep you up-to-datewith new info about theOnline Grammar, TestCentre, Grammar Tips andother DEN facilities.PRESENT CONTINUOUSCONDITIONALIn type 2 conditional sentences, thecontinuous form of the presentconditional may be used:If I were a millionaire, I wouldnt bedoing this job!1. Present continuous conditional -form.This form is composed of two elements:the present conditional of the verb to be(would be) + the present participle of themain verb (base+ing).Subject would be base+ingHeTheywould bewould begoinglivingAffirmativeWe would be comingNegativeYou wouldntbeworkingInterrogativeWould you be sharing?Interrogative negativeWouldnt they be playing?Example: to live, Present continuousconditional.Affirmative Negative InterrogativeI would belivingI wouldnt belivingWould I beliving?You wouldbe livingYou wouldntbe livingWould you beliving?He would belivingShe wouldntbe livingWould he beliving?We wouldbe livingWe wouldntbe livingWould we beliving?You wouldbe livingYou wouldntbe livingWould you beliving?They wouldbe livingTheywouldnt belivingWould theybe living?
194. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESOTHER WAYS OF TALKING ABOUT THE FUTURE1. IS TO + INFINITIVEForm:This form is composed of two elements: the appropriate form of the verb tobe + to (am to, are to, is to), and the infinitive of the main verb withoutto..Subject to be to infinitive without toWe are to leaveAffirmativeShe is to travelNegativeYou are not (arent) to travelInterrogativeAm I to travel?Interrogative negativeArent they to travel?Function:This form refers to an obligation to do something at a time later than now.It is similar to must, but there is a suggestion that something has beenarranged or organised for us. It is not normally used in spoken English, butmight be found in spy stories, e.g."You are to leave this room at once, and you are to travel bytrain to London. In London you are to pick up your ticketfrom Mr Smith, and you are to fly to your destination alone.When you arrive, you are to meet our agent, Mr X, who willgive you further information. You are to destroy this messagenow."2. BE + ABOUT TO + INFINITIVEForm:This form is composed of three elements : the appropriate form of the verbto be, present tense, + about to + the infinitive of the main verb withoutto:Subject be about to infinitive without toI am about to leave
196. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESFUTURE WITH GOING TO1. Future with Going to - formThis form is composed of three elements: the appropriate form of the verbto be + going to + the infinitive of the main verb:Subject to be going to infinitiveShe is going to leave2. Future with Going to - functionThe use of going to to refer to future events suggests a very strongassociation with the present. The time is not important - it is later than now,but the attitude is that the event depends on a present situation, that weknow about. So it is used:a) to refer to our plans and intentions:Were going to move to London next year. (= the plan is in our minds now.)b) to make predictions based on present evidence:Look at those clouds - its going to pour with rain! (= Its clear from what Ican see now.)Note: In everyday speech, going to is often shortened to gonna, especiallyin American English.More examples:Plans and intentions:a. Is Freddy going to buy a new car soon?b. Are John and Pam going to visit Milan when they are in Italy?c. I think Nigel and Mary are going to have a party next week.Predictions based on present evidence:a. Theres going to be a terrible accident!b. Hes going to be a brilliant politician.c. Im going to have terrible indigestion.NOTE: It is unusual to say Im going to go to...Instead, we use going to + a place or event:Examples:We are going to the beach tomorrow.She is going to the ballet tonight.Are you going to the party tomorrow night?
198. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |NOUNSUSE OF CAPITAL LETTERS WITH NOUNSCapital letters are used with:Names and titles of peoplea. Winston Churchillb. Marilyn Monroec. the Queen of Englandd. the President of the United Statese. the Headmaster of Etonf. Doctor Mathewsg. Professor Samuels.Note: The personal pronoun I is always written with acapital letter.Titles of works, books etc.a. War and Peaceb. The Merchant of Venicec. Crime and Punishmentd. Tristan and IsoldeMonths of the yearJanuary JulyFebruary AugustMarch SeptemberApril OctoberMay NovemberJune DecemberDays of the weekMonday FridayTuesday SaturdayWednesday SundayThursdaySeasonsSpringSummerAutumnWinterHolidays
200. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |NOUNSCOUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNSCountable nouns are for things we can countExample: dog, horse, man, shop, idea.They usually have a singular and plural form.Example: two dogs, ten horses, a man, six men, the shops, a few ideas.Uncountable nouns are for the things that we cannot countExample: tea, sugar, water, air, rice.They are often the names for abstract ideas or qualities.Example: knowledge, beauty, anger, fear, love.They are used with a singular verb. They usually do not have a plural form.We cannot say sugars, angers, knowledges.Examples of common uncountable nouns:money, furniture, happiness, sadness, research, evidence, safety,beauty, knowledge.We cannot use a/an with these nouns. To express a quantity of one of thesenouns, use a word or expression like:some, a lot of, a piece of, a bit of, a great deal of...Examples:q There has been a lot of research into the causes of this disease.q He gave me a great deal of advice before my interview.q Theyve got a lot of furniture.q Can you give me some information about uncountable nouns?Some nouns are countable in other languages but uncountable in English.Some of the most common of these are:
202. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |REPORTED SPEECHCHANGE OF TIME AND PLACE REFERENCETime/place references are also changed in reported speechExamples:"I will see you here tomorrow", she said. She said that she would seeme there the next day.The most common of these changes are shown below:Today that day"I saw him today", she said. She said that she had seen him that day.Yesterday the day before"I saw him yesterday", she said. She said that she had seen him the daybefore.The day before yesterday two days before"I met her the day before yesterday", hesaid.He said that he had met her two daysbefore.Tomorrow the next/following day"Ill see you tomorrow", he said He said that he would see me the next day.The day after tomorrow in two days time/ two days later"Well come the day after tomorrow",they said.They said that they would come in two daystime/ two days later.Next week/month/year the following week/month/year"I have an appointment next week", shesaid.She said that she had an appointment thefollowing week.Last week/month/year the previous/week/month/year"I was on holiday last week", he told us. He told us that he had been on holiday theprevious week.ago before"I saw her a week ago," he said. He said he had seen her a week before.this (for time) that"Im getting a new car this week", shesaid.She said she was getting a new car thatweek.this/that (adjectives) the"Do you like this shirt?" he asked He asked if I liked the shirt.here thereHe said, "I live here". He told me he lived there.Other changes:In general, personal pronouns change to the third person singular or plural,except when the speaker reports his own words:I/me/my/mine, you/your/yours him/his/her/herswe/us/our/ours, you/your/yours they/their/theirs:
204. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |REPORTED SPEECHTENSE CHANGESNormally, the tense in reported speech is one tense back in time from thetense in direct speech:She said, "I am tired." She said that she was tired.The changes are shown below:Simple present Simple past"I always drink coffee", she said She said that she always drank coffee.Present continuous Past continuous"I am reading a book", he explained. He explained that he was reading abookSimple past Past perfect"Bill arrived on Saturday", he said. He said that Bill had arrived onSaturdayPresent perfect Past perfect"I have been to Spain", he told me. He told me that he had been to SpainPast perfect Past perfect"I had just turned out the light," heexplained.He explained that he had just turnedout the light.Present perfect continuous Past perfect continuousThey complained, "We have been waitingfor hours".They complained that they had beenwaiting for hours.Past continuous Past perfect continuous"We were living in Paris", they told me. They told me that they had been livingin Paris.Future Present conditional"I will be in Geneva on Monday", he said He said that he would be in Geneva onMonday.Future continuous Conditional continuousShe said, "Ill be using the car nextFriday".She said that she would be using the carnext Friday.NOTE:1. You do not need to change the tense if the reporting verb is in thepresent, or if the original statement was about something that is still true,e.g.He says he has missed the train but hell catch the next one.We explained that it is very difficult to find our house.2. These modal verbs do not change in reported speech:
208. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE INFINITIVEOTHER FORMSThe infinitive can have the following forms:q The perfect infinitiveq The continuous infinitiveq The perfect continuous infinitiveq The passive infinitiveNOTE: as with the present infinitive, there are situations where the to isomitted, e.g. after most modal auxiliaries.The perfect infinitive:to have + past participle, e.g. to have broken, to haveseen, to have saved.This form is most commonly found in Type 3 conditionalsentences, using the conditional perfect, e.g. If I had knownyou were coming I would have baked a cake.Examples:q Someone must have broken the window and climbedin.q I would like to have seen the Taj Mahal when I was inIndia.q He pretended to have seen the film.q If Id seen the ball I would have caught it.The continuous infinitive:to be + present participle, e.g.to be swimming, to bejoking, to be waitingExamples:q Id really like to be swimming in a nice cool pool rightnow.q You must be joking!q I happened to be waiting for the bus when theaccident happened.The perfect continuous infinitive:
210. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE INFINITIVEFUNCTIONThe most common uses of the infinitive are:To indicate the purpose or intention of an action(where the to has the same meaning as in order to orso as to):q Shes gone to collect her pay cheque.q The three bears went into the forest to findfirewood.As the subject of the sentence:q To be or not to be, that is the question.q To know her is to love her.(Note: this is more common in written English thanspoken)With nouns or pronouns, to indicate what somethingcan be used for, or what is to be done with it:q Would you like something to drink?q I havent anything to wear.q The children need a garden to play in.After adjectives in these patterns:q It is + adjective +to-infinitiveIt is good to talkq It is + adjective + infinitive + for someone + to-infinitive.It is hard for elephants to see miceq It is + adjective + infintive + of someone + to-infinitive.It is unkind of her to say that.After an adjective + noun when a comment orjudgement is being made:q It was a stupid place to park the car.q This is the right thing to do.q It was an astonishing way to behave.With too and enough in these patterns:too much/many (+ noun) + to-infinitiveTheres too much sugar to put in this bowl.I had too many books to carry.
212. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TO GETTO GET + direct object = to obtain, to receive, to buy:To obtainq She got her driving license last week.q They got permission to live in Switzerland.To receiveq I got a letter from my friend in Nigeria.q He gets £1,000 a year from his father.To buyq She got a new coat from Zappaloni in Rome.q We got a new television for the sitting room.TO GET + place expression = reach, arrive at a place:q We got to London around 6 p.m.q What time will we get there?q When did you get back from New York?TO GET + adjective = to become, show a change of state:q Its getting hotter.q By the time they reached the house they were getting hungry.q Im getting tired of all this nonsense.q My mothers getting old and needs looking after.q It gets dark very early in the winter.q Dont touch the stove until is gets cool.TO GET + preposition / adverb is used in many phrasal verbs. Here are someof the most common ones:Phrasal Verb Meaningget at try to expressget away with escape punishment for a crime or bad actionget by manage (financially)get down descend; depress
218. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |REPORTED SPEECHORDERS, REQUESTS, SUGGESTIONS1. When we want to report an order or request, we can use a verb like tellwith a to-clause.Examples:He told me to go away.The pattern is verb + indirect object + to-clause.(The indirect object is the person spoken to.)Other verbs used to report orders and requests in this way are: command,order, warn, ask, advise, invite, beg, teach, forbid.Examples:a. The doctor said to me, "Stop smoking!".The doctor told me to stop smoking.b. "Get out of the car!" said the policeman.The policeman ordered him to get out of the car.c. "Could you please be quiet," she said.She asked me to be quiet.d. The man with the gun said to us, "Dont move!"The man with the gun warned us not to move.(See also section on Verbs followed by infinitive and Verbs followed bygerund)2. Requests for objects are reported using the patternask + for + object: Examples:a. "Can I have an apple?", she asked. She asked for an apple.b. "Can I have the newspaper, please?"He asked for the newspaper.c. "May I have a glass of water?" he said.He asked for a glass of water.d. "Sugar, please."She asked for the sugar.e. "Could I have three kilos of onions?"He asked for three kilos of onions.3. Suggestions are usually reported with a that-clause. That and should areoptional in these clauses:She said: "Why dont you get a mechanic to look at the car?" Shesuggested that I should get a mechanic to look at the car. OR She suggested Iget a mechanic to look at the car.Other reporting verbs used in this way are: insist, recommend, demand,
220. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |- ING FORMVERBS FOLLOWED BY THE GERUNDThe gerund is used after certain verbs.Example:miss: I miss living in England.The most important of these verbs are shown below.Those marked * can also be followed by a that-clauseExample:VERB GERUNDShe admitted... breaking the windowTHAT-CLAUSEShe admitted... that she had broken the window.acknowledge,*admit,*anticipate,* appreciate,*avoid,celebrate,consider, contemplate,defer,delay,deny,*detest,dislike,dread,enjoy,entail,escape,excuse,fancy (=imagine)*,finish,forgive,imagine,*involve,keep,loathe,mean,(=have as result)*mention,*mind,miss,pardon,postpone,prevent,propose,*recall,*recollect,*remember,report,*resent,resist,risk,save (=prevent the wastedeffort)stop,suggest,*understand,*Notes:Appreciate is followed by a possessive adjective and the gerund when thegerund does not refer to the subject. Compare :I appreciate having some time off work. (Im having the time...)I appreciate your giving me some time off work. (Youre giving me thetime...)
221. Excuse, forgive, pardon can be followed by an object and the gerund or for+ object and the gerund (both common in spoken English), or a possessiveadjective + gerund (more formal and less likely to be said):Excuse me interrupting.Excuse me for interrupting.Excuse my interrupting.Suggest can be used in a number of ways, but BE CAREFUL. It is importantnot to confuse these patterns:suggest/suggested (+ possessive adjective) + gerund:He suggests going to GlastonburyHe suggested going to GlastonburyHe suggested/suggests my going to Glastonburysuggest/suggested + that-clause (where both that and shouldmay be omitted):He suggests that I should go to GlastonburyHe suggested that I should go to GlastonburyHe suggested/suggests I should go to GlastonburyHe suggested/suggests I go to GlastonburyHe suggested I went to Glastonbury.suggest/suggested + question word + infinitive:He suggested where to go.Propose is followed by the gerund when it means suggest:John proposed going to the debatebut by the infinitive when it means intend:The Government proposes bringing in new laws..Stop can be followed by a gerund or infinitive, but there is a change ofmeaning - see GERUND / INFINITIVE? section.Dread is followed by the infinitive when used with think, in the expression Idread to think:I dread to think what shell do next.Prevent is followedEITHER by a possessive adjective + gerund:You cant prevent my leaving.OR by an object + from + gerund:You cant prevent me from leaving.Examples:q Normally, a mouse wouldnt contemplate marrying an elephant.q Most mice dread meeting elephants.q We cant risk getting wet - we havent got any dry clothes.q If you take that job it will mean getting home late every night.q I cant imagine living in that big house.q If you buy some petrol now, it will save you stopping on the way toLondon.q She couldnt resist eating the plum she found in the fridge.q They decided to postpone painting the house until the weatherimproved.
223. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |REPORTED SPEECHQUESTIONS1. Normal word order is used in reported questions, that is, the subjectcomes before the verb, and it is not necessary to use do or did:"Where does Peter live?" She asked him where Peterlived.2. Yes / no questions: This type of question is reported by using ask + if /whether + clause:a. "Do you speak English?" He asked me if I spoke English.b. "Are you British or American?" He asked me whether Iwas British or American.c. "Is it raining?" She asked if it was raining.d. "Have you got a computer?" He wanted to knowwhether I had a computer.e. "Can you type?" She asked if I could type.f. "Did you come by train?" He enquired whether I hadcome by train.g. "Have you been to Bristol before?" She asked if I hadbeen to Bristol before.3. Question words:This type of question is reported by using ask (or another verb like ask) +question word + clause. The clause contains the question, in normal wordorder and with the necessary tense change.Examples:a. "What is your name?" he asked me. He asked me whatmy name was.b. "How old is your mother?", he asked. He asked how oldher mother was.c. The mouse said to the elephant, "Where do you live?"The mouse asked the elephant where she lived.d. "What time does the train arrive?" she asked. Sheasked what time the train arrived.e. "When can we have dinner?" she asked. She askedwhen they could have dinner.f. The elephant said to the mouse, "Why are you so small?"The elephant asked the mouse why she was so small.
225. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |RELATIVE CLAUSESNON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSESThe information in these clauses is not essential. It tells us more aboutsomeone or something, but it does not help us to identify them or it.Compare:1. Elephants that love mice are very unusual. (This tells us which elephantswe are talking about).2. Elephants, which are large and grey, can sometimes be found in zoos.(This gives us some extra information about elephants - we are talking aboutall elephants, not just one type or group).3. Johns mother, who lives in Scotland, has 6 grandchildren. (We know whoJohns mother is, and he only has one. The important information is thenumber of grandchildren, but the fact that she lives in Scotland might befollowed with the words "by the way" - it is additional information).PunctuationNon-defining relative clauses are always separated from the rest of thesentence by commas. The commas have a similar function to brackets:My friend John has just written a best-selling novel. (He went to the sameschool as me) > My friend John, who went to the same school as me, hasjust written a best-selling novel.Relative pronouns in non-defining clausesPerson Thing PlaceSubject who whichObject who/whom which wherePossessive whoseNotes:1. In non-defining clauses, you cannot use ‘that’ instead of who, whom orwhich.2. You cannot leave out the relative pronoun, even when it is the object ofthe verb in the relative clause:He gave me the letter, which was in a blue envelope.He gave me the letter, which I read immediately3. The preposition in these clauses can go at the end of the clause, e.g. Thisis Stratford-on-Avon, which you have all heard about.This pattern is often used in spoken English, but in written or formal Englishyou can also put the preposition before the pronoun: e.g. Stratford-on-Avon,about which many people have written is Shakespeare’s birthplace.
228. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |RELATIVE CLAUSESDEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSESAs the name suggests, these clauses give essential information to define oridentify the person or thing we are talking about. Obviously, this is onlynecessary if there is more than one person or thing involved.Example:Elephants who marry mice are very unusual.In this sentence we understand that there are many elephants, but it is clearthat we are only talking the ones who marry mice.PunctuationCommas are not used in defining relative clauses.Relative pronounsThe following relative pronouns are used in defining relative clauses:Person Thing Place Time ReasonSubject who/that which/thatObject who/whom/that/ø which/that/ø where when whyPossessive whose whoseNotes:1. The relative pronoun stands in place of a noun.This noun usually appears earlier in the sentence:The woman who/that spoke at the meeting was very knowledgeable.Noun,subject ofmain clauserelativepronounreferring tothe woman,subject ofspokeverb + rest of relativeclauseverb + rest of main clause2. Who, whom and which can be replaced by that. This is very common inspoken English.3. The relative pronoun can be omitted (ø) when it is the object of theclause:The mouse that the elephant loved was very beautiful.OR The mouse the elephant loved was very beautiful.Both of these sentences are correct, though the second one is more commonin spoken English.The mouse that/ø the elephant loved was very beautiful.
231. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |- ING FORMTHE PRESENT PARTICIPLEThe present participle of most verbs has the form base+ing and is used in thefollowing ways:a. as part of the continuous form of a verb(See continuous tenses in VERB TENSES)Example:I am working,he was singing,they have been walking.b. after verbs of movement/position in the pattern: verb +present participleExample:q She went shoppingq He lay looking up at the cloudsq She came running towards meThis construction is particularly useful with the verb to go, as in thesecommon expressions :to go shoppingto go ski-ingto go fishingto go surfingto go walkingto go swimmingto go runningto go dancingc. after verbs of perception in the pattern:verb + object + present participleExample:I heard someone singing.He saw his friend walking along the road.I can smell something burning!NOTE: There is a difference in meaning when such a sentence contains azero-infinitive rather than a participle. The infinitive refers to a completeaction, but the participle refers to an incomplete action, or part of anaction.Compare:
232. q I heard Joanna singing (= she had started before I heard her, andprobably went on afterwards)q I heard Joanna sing (= I heard her complete performance)d. as an adjectiveExamples:amazing, worrying, exciting, boring.q It was an amazing film.q Its a bit worrying when the police stop youq Dark billowing clouds often precede a storm.q Racing cars can go as fast as 400kph.q He was trapped inside the burning house.q Many of his paintings depict the setting sun.e. with the verbs spend and waste, in the pattern:verb + time/money expression + present participleExample:q My boss spends two hours a day travelling to work.q Dont waste time playing computer games!q Theyve spent the whole day shopping.f. with the verbs catch and find, in the pattern:verb + object + present participle:With catch, the participle always refers to an action which causes annoyanceor anger:q If I catch you stealing my apples again, therell be trouble!q Dont let him catch you reading his letters.This is not the case with find, which is unemotional:q We found some money lying on the ground.q They found their mother sitting in the garden.g. to replace a sentence or part of a sentence:When two actions occur at the same time, and are done by the same personor thing, we can use a present participle to describe one of them:q They went out into the snow. They laughed as they went. Theywent laughing out into the snow.q He whistled to himself. He walked down the road. Whistling tohimself, he walked down the road.When one action follows very quickly after another done by the same personor thing, we can express the first action with a present participle:q He put on his coat and left the house. Putting on his coat, heleft the house.q She dropped the gun and put her hands in the air. Dropping the
235. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |NOUNSTHE PLURAL OF NOUNSMost nouns form the plural by adding -s or -es.Singular Pluralboat boatshat hatshouse housesriver riversA noun ending in -y preceded by a consonant makes the plural with -ies.Singular Plurala cry criesa fly fliesa nappy nappiesa poppy poppiesa city citiesa lady ladiesa baby babiesThere are some irregular formations for noun plurals. Some of the mostcommon ones are listed below.Examples of irregular plurals:Singular Pluralwoman womenman menchild childrentooth teethfoot feetperson peopleleaf leaveshalf halvesknife kniveswife wiveslife livesloaf loavespotato potatoes
238. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE PASSIVE VOICEPASSIVE, FORMThe passive voice in English is composed of two elements : the appropriateform of the verb to be + the past participle of the verb in question:Subject verb to be past participleThe house was built ...Example: to cleanSubject verb to be past participleSimple present:The house is cleaned every day.Present continuous:The house is being cleaned at the moment.Simple past:The house was cleaned yesterday.Past continuous:The house was being cleaned last week.Present perfect:The house has been cleaned since you left.Past perfect:The house had been cleaned before their arrival.Future:The house will be cleaned next week.Future continuous:The house will be being cleaned tomorrow.Present conditional:The house would be cleaned if they had visitors.Past conditional:The house would have been cleaned if it had been dirty.NOTE: to be born is a passive form and is most commonly used in the pasttense:I was born in 1976. When were you born?BUT: Around 100 babies are born in this hospital every week.Infinitive form: infinitive of to be + past participle: (to) be cleanedThis form is used after modal verbs and other verbs normally followed by aninfinitive, e.g.
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244. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |NOUNSCOMPOUND NOUNSFormationWords can be combined to form compound nouns. These are very common,and new combinations are invented almost daily. They normally have twoparts. The second part identifies the object or person in question (man,friend, tank, table, room). The first part tells us what kind of object orperson it is, or what its purpose is (police, boy, water, dining, bed):What type / what purpose What or whopolice manboy friendwater tankdining tablebed roomThe two parts may be written in a number of ways :1. as one word.Example: policeman, boyfriend2. as two words joined with a hyphen.Example: dining-table3. as two separate words.Example: fish tank.There are no clear rules about this - so write the common compounds thatyou know well as one word, and the others as two words.The two parts may be: Examples:noun + nounbedroomwater tankmotorcycleprinter cartridgenoun + verbrainfallhaircuttrain-spottingnoun + adverbhanger-onpasser-byverb + nounwashing machinedriving licenceswimming pool
246. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |NOUNSNouns answer the questions "What is it?" and "Who is it?" They give names tothings, people and qualities.Examples: dog, bicycle, man, girl, beauty, truth, world.NOUN GENDERIn general there is no distinction between masculine, feminine and neuter inEnglish nouns. However, gender is sometimes shown by different forms ordifferent words.Examples:Different words:Masculine FemininemanfatheruncleboyhusbandwomanmotherauntgirlwifeDifferent forms:Masculine FeminineactorprinceherowaiterwidoweractressprincessheroinewaitresswidowSome nouns can be used for either a masculine or a feminine subject:Examples:cousin teenager teacher doctorcook student parent friendrelation colleague partner leaderq Mary is a doctor. She is a doctorq Peter is a doctor. He is a doctor.q Arthur is my cousin. He is my cousin.q Jane is my cousin. She is my cousin.It is possible to make the distinction by adding the words male or female.
249. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |- ING FORMTHE GERUNDThis looks exactly the same as a present participle, and for this reason it isnow common to call both forms the -ing form. However it is useful tounderstand the difference between the two. The gerund always has the samefunction as a noun (although it looks like a verb), so it can be used:a. as the subject of the sentence:q Eating people is wrong.q Hunting elephants is dangerous.q Flying makes me nervous.b. as the complement of the verb to be:q One of his duties is attending meetings.q The hardest thing about learning English is understanding thegerund.q One of lifes pleasures is having breakfast in bed.c. after prepositions. The gerund must be used when a verbcomes after a preposition:q Can you sneeze without opening your mouth?q She is good at painting.q Theyre keen on windsurfing.q She avoided him by walking on the opposite side of the road.q We arrived in Madrid after driving all night.q My father decided against postponing his trip to Hungary.This is also true of certain expressions ending in a preposition, e.g. in spiteof, theres no point in..:q Theres no point in waiting.q In spite of missing the train, we arrived on time.d. after a number of phrasal verbs which are composed of averb + preposition/adverbExample:to look forward to, to give up, to be for/against, to take to, to put off, tokeep on:q I look forward to hearing from you soon. (at the end of a letter)q When are you going to give up smoking?q She always puts off going to the dentist.q He kept on asking for money.NOTE: There are some phrasal verbs and other expressions that include the
250. word to as a preposition, not as part of a to-infinitive: - to look forwardto, to take to, to be accustomed to, to be used to. It is important torecognise that to is a preposition in these cases, as it must be followed by agerund:q We are looking forward to seeing you.q I am used to waiting for buses.q She didnt really take to studying English.It is possible to check whether to’ is a preposition or part of a to-infinitive:if you can put a noun or the pronoun it after it, then it is a preposition andmust be followed by a gerund:q I am accustomed to it (the cold).q I am accustomed to being cold.e. in compound nounsExample:q a driving lesson, a swimming pool, bird-watching, train-spottingIt is clear that the meaning is that of a noun, not of a continuous verb.Example:q the pool is not swimming, it is a pool for swimming in.f. after the expressions:cant help, cant stand, its no use/good, and the adjective worth:q The elephant couldnt help falling in love with the mouse.q I cant stand being stuck in traffic jams.q Its no use/good trying to escape.q It might be worth phoning the station to check the time of the train.
251. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |- ING FORMGERUND OR INFINITIVE?B. Verbs where there is a clear difference in meaning:Verbs marked with an asterisk* can also be followed by a that-clause.comeforget*go onmean*regret*remember*stoptryNOTES:Come:Come + gerund is like other verbs of movement followed bythe gerund, and means that the subject is doing somethingas they move:q She came running across the field.Come + to-infinitive means that something happens ordevelops, perhaps outside the subjects control:q At first I thought he was crazy, but Ive come toappreciate his sense of humour.q How did you come to be outside the wrong house?q This word has come to mean something quitedifferent.Forget, regret and remember:When these verbs are followed by a gerund, the gerundrefers to an action that happened earlier:q I remember locking the door (= I remember now, Ilocked the door earlier)q He regretted speaking so rudely. (= he regretted atsome time in the past, he had spoken rudely at someearlier time in the past.)Forget is frequently used with never in the simple futureform:q Ill never forget meeting the Queen.When these verbs are followed by a to-infinitive, theinfinitive refers to an action happening at the same time, orlater:q I remembered to lock the door (= I thought about it,
252. then I did it.)q Dont forget to buy some eggs! (= Please think aboutit and then do it.)q We regret to announce the late arrival of the 12.45from Paddington. (= We feel sorry before we tell youthis bad news.)Go on:Go on + gerund means to continue with an action:q He went on speaking for two hours.q I cant go on working like this - Im exhausted.Go on + to-infinitive means to do the next action, which isoften the next stage in a process:q After introducing her proposal, she went on toexplain the benefits for the company.q John Smith worked in local government for fiveyears, then went on to become a Member ofParliament.Mean:Mean + gerund expresses what the result of an action willbe, or what will be necessary:q If you take that job in London it will mean travellingfor two hours every day.q We could take the ferry to France, but that willmean spending a night in a hotel.Mean + to-infinitive expresses an intention or a plan:q Did you mean to dial this number?q I mean to finish this job by the end of the week!q Sorry - I didnt mean to hurt you.Stop:Stop + gerund means to finish an action in progress:q I stopped working for them because the wages wereso low.Stop tickling me!Stop + to-infinitive means to interrupt an activity in orderto do something else, so the infinitive is used to express apurpose:q I stopped to have lunch. (= I was working, ortravelling, and I interrupted what I was doing in orderto eat.)q Its difficult to concentrate on what you are doing ifyou have to stop to answer the phone every fiveminutes.Try:
255. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |WHICH ENGLISH?Trash or Rubbish? - Sorting out our EnglishColour or color? Socks or sox? Organisations or Organizations?Underground or subway? Gas or petrol? Fall or Autumn? Candy orsweets? Cookie or biscuit? Centre or Center, Trash or rubbish?I often get emails from users berating me for my terrible spelling.While I admit to a few glaring typos from time to time the emailsare often concerned with spellings that have more to do withgeography than with poor literacy skills.Just to confuse the issue a little more, I was born in England, wentto Australia when I was five, was entirely educated in Australia,spent several years in the USA and Canada and then ten years inFrance, and now live in England married to a Colombian wife wherethe common language at home is French, where my wife speaksSpanish to the children, I speak English to them and they spendundue amounts of time listening to American TV shows like SesameStreet, Buffy the Vampire Killer and the Simpsons or listening toAmerican rappers, English Spice Girls or, when forced, heroes fromthe seventies such as Van Morrison and James Taylor. And theysuck vocabulary, expressions, idioms and grammar out of all of thisand plonk it into their own English. In my home, as in many othersaround the world, English isnt something that you can pin down asyou would a prize butterfly and say There it is! That is English.There is no longer, if there ever was, a standard English to whichall speakers should pay homage. Now we recognise as legitimatevariations American English, Australian English, British English,Indian English, there is even a variety called Singlish fromSingapore. You only have to have used an electronic spell checkerto know that you can select from some of these English varietieswhen correcting your spelling in a word processor.Although it is true that we have a wonderfully rich global mappingof English which makes it possible for English speakers to almostimmediately fix a fellow English speaker to a geographical area, itis also true that there is more that is similar among these Englishvarieties than is dissimilar. If there wasnt, English speakers fromdifferent parts of the world would have absolutely no hope ofunderstanding each other! In most cases it is pronunciation and notusage, vocabulary or grammar that makes a fellow English speakerfrom another part of the world, or sometimes even another part ofthe country, difficult to understand.In the Online English Grammar I try to remain open to theinternational and evolving character of English and, at the risk offalling into the sea, try to keep one foot each in British andAmerican English - if I had more feet I would attempt to coversome of the other main English variations as well, but a shortage offeet is one of the many drawbacks of being a lowly biped. What thismeans is that I try to point out grammatical rules that may varyslightly depending on where you are, the same with spelling. As faras spelling goes for the actual explanations and examples I tend touse the Australian/British spellings. For example I useorganisation rather than organization and colour rather thancolor and prefer program to programme. Australia has always
259. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE QUESTION AND ANSWER OPTIONI would like to purchase the Question and Answer option for the fee of$25.00 (USD) / £17.50 UK sterling* per 10 questions.Your credit card will be debited for £17.50 UK sterling, at todays exchange rate this isslightly less than $25.00 US. The debit will show as being made to ZEP Media Ltd. the parentcompany of English4Today.comFirst name:Family Name :Street Address :City or Town :Country :Zip / Postal Code :Email :Credit Card :Card Number :Expiry Date :You can ask your first question immediately or email us the first questionany time after we confirm your payment.I would like ask the following question:Ensure that you are online and that all details are correct. Click the sendform button once and wait for the Internet server to respond. Dependingon where you are this may take a few seconds. Do not click more thanonce as this may send multiple copies of your order through.Choose a Country(Select One)Month 2001send form