English grammar by anthony hughes
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  • 1. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |ABOUT THIS VERSIONPDF Version 1.1This full PDF version of the Online English Grammar has a number ofadvantages over the version that you can find online for public viewing:q It covers more grammar topics than the online versionq You can view it on your desktop as an easy reference guideq It is easy to print out pages from this version using any standardprinterq You can access regular updates to the Online English Grammar nowthat you have purchased this copy. All that is required is that yousupply your username and password to begin the download. You willreceive regular emails when new updates are available. The updatesubscription is valid for one year from the date you purchased theitem from us.WHAT ELSE IS PLANNED?After the outstanding response to our release of the Online English Grammaras a desktop edition, we are developing a range of new English languageguides and worksheets to help both students and teachers with their Englishlanguage requirements. These guides and worksheets will all be available asdownloads from our website at http://www.English4Today.com and you willbe notified of their release as we publish them. At the moment we have thefollowing under development:q English grammar worksheets for teachers and studentsq A Writers Guide to Using Englishq Writing Lettersq A Guide to English Pronunciationq Grammar Games PackWe are also in the process of working on Version 2.0 of the PDF Version ofthe Online English Grammar - adding even more sections, sound files andexercises.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 2. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |MAIN SUBJECT INDEX1. active/passive equivalentsKeywords: active, passive equivalent2. as + adjective + asKeywords: as, adjective3. as present participleKeywords: present participle , with verbs of movement with verbs of perception, as adjective withspend, with waste, with catch, with find, replacing time clause, replacing reason clause4. certaintyKeywords: certainly, definitely, probably, surely5. changes of time and place referenceKeywords: time reference, place reference6. common irregular verbs - group 1Keywords: irregular verbs7. common irregular verbs - group 2Keywords: irregular verbs8. common irregular verbs - group 3Keywords: irregular verbs9. comparative + thanKeywords: comparative , than, adjective10. comparative formKeywords: comparative, adverbs11. comparatives & superlativesKeywords: comparatives, superlatives, adjectives12. comparisons of quantity - showing no differenceKeywords: quantity, comparison, adjective, difference13. comparisons of quantity - menuKeywords: quantity, comparison, adjective14. comparisons of quantity - showing differenceKeywords: quantity, comparison, adjective, difference15. compound nounsKeywords: compound nouns, phrasal verbs16. countable & uncountableKeywords: countable, uncountable, noun17. defining relative clausesKeywords: defining relative clauses18. defining words - which,whoseKeywords: which, whose19. degree - enough,very,too,extremely,almost etcKeywords: enough, very, too, extremely, almost, nearly, completely20. demonstratives - this,that,these,those etcKeywords: this, that, these, those, determiners21. difference words - other,anotherKeywords: other, another22. distributives - all, both, halfKeywords: all, both, half, distributives, determiners23. distributives - each, every, either, neitherKeywords: each, every, either, neither24. distributives - menuKeywords: all, both, half, each, every, either, neither25. examplesKeywords: get, got, getting26. exceptions to using the definite article
  • 3. Keywords: no definite article, determiner, exceptions27. form - adjectivesKeywords: gender, position, form, adjective28. form - adverbKeywords: adverb, form29. form -pastKeywords: be + past participle30. form, with or without toKeywords: to-infinitive, zero infinitive31. functionKeywords: order, adjectives, function32. functionKeywords: adverb, function33. functionKeywords: function, infinitive of purpose, infinitive as subject, infinitive after adjectives, infinitivewith too/enough34. functionKeywords: unknown agent, subject, by formal/scientific texts35. future continuousKeywords: future, actions in progress36. future forms - introductionKeywords: future, attitude37. future forms - simple futureKeywords: will/shall, prediction, decision, future facts, certainty38. future perfectKeywords: future, completed actions39. future perfect continuousKeywords: unfinished, future time40. future with going toKeywords: plans, intentions41. gerund or infinitive?Keywords: gerund/infinitive-, no difference in meaning42. gerund/infinitive - difference in meaningKeywords: gerund/infinitive, difference in meaning43. gerundsKeywords: gerund, as subject, after prepositions, after phrasal verbs, in compound nouns, cantstand.cant help44. get,got,gettingKeywords: get, got, getting45. get/have something done, x needs doingKeywords: get, need46. if sentences with conditional perfect continuousKeywords: conditional perfect continuous47. if sentences with if + past,would,present condtionalKeywords: if + past, would, present condtional48. if sentences with if,condtional tensesKeywords: if, condtional tenses49. if sentences with if+not,unless,verbsKeywords: if+not, unless, verbs50. if sentences with mixed conditionalsKeywords: mixed conditionals51. if sentences with perfect conditional,if + past perfectKeywords: perfect conditional, if + past perfect52. if sentences with wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if onlyKeywords: wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if only53. if setences with present continuous conditionalKeywords: present continuous conditional54. infinitive after question wordsKeywords: infinitive, question words55. interrogative - why, where, how, whenKeywords: why, where, how, when56. introduction - defining relative clauses, non-defining relative clausesKeywords: defining relative clauses, non-defining relative clauses57. introduction - irregular verbs
  • 4. Keywords: verbs, irregular58. introduction - present participle, gerundKeywords: present participle, gerund59. introduction - reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speakKeywords: reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speak60. irregular comparatives & superlativesKeywords: irregular comparatives, superlatives, adjectives61. list of common irregular verbKeywords: irregular, verbs62. main menu - adjectivesKeywords: adjectives63. main menu - adverbsKeywords: adverbs64. manner - adverbsKeywords: adverbs, manner65. menu - function and classKeywords: determiners, function, class, pre-determiners66. menu - kinds of adverbsKeywords: kinds, adverbs67. menu - nounsKeywords: nouns68. menu - quantifiersKeywords: much, many, a little, a few, some, any69. menu / introductionKeywords: menu, introduction, tenses70. nationalitiesKeywords: nationalities, country, nouns71. negative infinitiveKeywords: negative infinitive72. non-defining relative clausesKeywords: relative clauses, non-defining73. not as + adjective + asKeywords: not, as, so, not as, not so, adjective74. noun genderKeywords: gender, masculine, feminine, noun75. order of adjectivesKeywords: order, adjectives76. other forms of futureKeywords: is to, obligation, about to, immediate future77. other forms of infinitiveKeywords: perfect infinitive, continuous infinitive, passive infinitive, perfect continuous infinitive78. past continuousKeywords: past continuous, description, narrative79. past perfectKeywords: past perfect, just80. past perfect continuousKeywords: past perfect continuous, process, reported speech81. place, adverbs of placeKeywords: adverbs, place82. pluralsKeywords: singular plural, irregular plural, noun83. possessiveKeywords: possessive, time expressions, apostrophe, names, possessive84. possessivesKeywords: possessive adjectives, possessive pronouns, my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, our,ours, their, theirs85. pre-determinersKeywords: such, what, rather, quite86. prepositions in relative clausesKeywords: prepositions, relative clauses87. present continuousKeywords: -ing, verbs, tenses, present participle, verbs not used in continuous form88. present continuous for future eventsKeywords: arrangements, future
  • 5. 89. present perfect 1Keywords: present perfect, past participle, irregular verbs90. present perfect 2Keywords: present perfect, ever, never, already, yet91. present perfect 3Keywords: present perfect, simple past, time, attitude92. present perfect 4Keywords: present perfect, for, since93. present perfect continousKeywords: present perfect continous, present participle94. quantifiers 1 - determiners,a few,few,a little,littleKeywords: determiners, a few, few, a little, little95. quantifiers 2 - many,much,more,most etc.Keywords: many, much, more, most, little, less, least, few, fewer, fewest96. quantifiers 3 - how,much,many,few,lot etc.Keywords: how, much, many, few, lot, number, several, countable, uncountable97. quantifiers 4 - numbersKeywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions, decimals, units, years, zero98. quantifiers 5 - some and anyKeywords: determiners, quantifiers, some, any99. quantifiers 6 - something,somebody,someone etc.Keywords: something, somebody, someone, somewhere, anything, anybody, anyone, anywhere,nothing, nobody, noone, nowhere,100. quantifiers 7 - enoughKeywords: enough, quantifiers, determiners101. question words - which,what,whoseKeywords: which, what, whose102. relative adverbs - which,what,whoseKeywords: where, when, why103. reporting hopes and intentionsKeywords: hopes, intentions, to-infinitive, that-clause104. reporting orders, requests, suggestionsKeywords: orders, requests, suggestions, should - omission, that-clause105. reporting questionsKeywords: reporting yes/no questions, reporting questions with question words106. simple pastKeywords: simple past, form, function, irregular verbs, irregular verbs, auxiliary did, ago107. simple presentKeywords: verbs, tenses, present simple108. simple present for future eventsKeywords: future, facts, timetable, calendar109. summaryKeywords: verb tenses, present tenses, perfect tenses, conditional tenses, past tenses, future tenses110. summary of reporting verbsKeywords: summary, reporting verbs, to-infintive, that-clause111. tense changesKeywords: reported speech, tense changes112. the + superlativeKeywords: the, superlative, adjectives113. the definite articleKeywords: the, definite article114. the indefinite articleKeywords: the, indefinite article, a, an115. the,a,anKeywords: the, a, an, indefinite article, exceptions116. time, adverbs ofKeywords: adverbs, time117. type 1 conditionalKeywords: if + present + future, fact118. use of capital lettersKeywords: capital letters, names, months, days, holidays, seasons, geographical, names, streets,buildings, titles of books, nouns119. verbs + infinitive with/without nounKeywords: verb with or without noun + infinitive
  • 6. 120. verbs followed by gerundKeywords: verb + gerund121. verbs followed by infinitiveKeywords: verbs + infinitive without a noun122. verbs followed by noun + infinitiveKeywords: verb + noun + infinitive123. viewpoint, commentingKeywords: adverbs, viewpoint, commenting124. zero conditionalKeywords: if + present, general truths, instructions125. zero infinitiveKeywords: zero infinitiveThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 7. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TABLE OF CONTENTSGeneralAbout the authorWhich English?Ask our English teachers a questionVisit the members section of the English4Today websiteAdjectivesas + adjective + ascomparative + thancomparatives & superlativescomparisons of quantity - showing no differencecomparisons of quantity - menucomparisons of quantity - showing differenceform - adjectivesfunctionirregular comparatives & superlativesmain menu - adjectivesnot as + adjective + asorder of adjectivesthe + superlativeAdverbscertaintycomparative formdegree - enough,very,too,extremely,almost etcform - adverbfunctioninterrogative - why, where, how, whenmain menu - adverbsmanner - adverbsmenu - kinds of adverbsplace, adverbs of placerelative adverbs - which,what,whosetime, adverbs ofviewpoint, commentingDeterminersdefining words - which,whosedemonstratives - this,that,these,those etcdifference words - other,anotherdistributives - all, both, halfdistributives - each, every, either, neitherdistributives - menu
  • 8. exceptions to using the definite articlemenu - function and classmenu - quantifierspossessivespre-determinersquantifiers 1 - determiners,a few,few,a little,littlequantifiers 2 - many,much,more,most etc.quantifiers 3 - how,much,many,few,lot etc.quantifiers 4 - numbersquantifiers 5 - some and anyquantifiers 6 - something,somebody,someone etc.quantifiers 7 - enoughquestion words - which,what,whosethe definite articlethe indefinite articlethe,a,anDirect and Indirect Speechchanges of time and place referenceintroduction - reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speakreporting hopes and intentionsreporting orders, requests, suggestionsreporting questionssummary of reporting verbstense changes-ING Formas present participlegerund or infinitive?gerund/infinitive - difference in meaninggerundsintroduction - present participle, gerundverbs followed by gerundIrregular Verbscommon irregular verbs - group 1common irregular verbs - group 2common irregular verbs - group 3introduction - irregular verbslist of common irregular verbNounscompound nounscountable & uncountablemenu - nounsnationalitiesnoun genderpluralsuse of capital lettersPassive
  • 9. active/passive equivalentsform -pastfunctionget/have something done, x needs doingPossessive with s and possessiveRelative Clausesdefining relative clausesintroduction - defining relative clauses, non-defining relativeclausesnon-defining relative clausesprepositions in relative clausesThe Infinitiveform, with or without tofunctioninfinitive after question wordsnegative infinitiveother forms of infinitiveverbs + infinitive with/without nounverbs followed by infinitiveverbs followed by noun + infinitivezero infinitiveTo Getexamplesget,got,gettingVerbs and Verb Tensesfuture continuousfuture forms - introductionfuture forms - simple futurefuture perfectfuture perfect continuousfuture with going toif sentences with conditional perfect continuousif sentences with if + past,would,present condtionalif sentences with if,condtional tensesif sentences with if+not,unless,verbsif sentences with mixed conditionalsif sentences with perfect conditional,if + past perfectif sentences with wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if onlyif setences with present continuous conditionalmenu / introductionother forms of futurepast continuouspast perfectpast perfect continuouspresent continuous
  • 10. present continuous for future eventspresent perfect 1present perfect 2present perfect 3present perfect 4present perfect continoussimple pastsimple presentsimple present for future eventssummarytype 1 conditionalzero conditionalThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 11. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERAYour search for items starting with the letter A has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivesirregular comparatives & superlatives Keywords: irregularcomparatives, superlatives, adjectivesmain menu - adjectives Keywords: adjectivescomparisons of quantity - menu Keywords: quantity, comparison,adjectivenot as + adjective + as Keywords: not, as, so, not as, not so, adjectiveas + adjective + as Keywords: as, adjectivethe + superlative Keywords: the, superlative, adjectivescomparisons of quantity - showing difference Keywords: quantity,comparison, adjective, differencecomparisons of quantity - showing no difference Keywords:quantity, comparison, adjective, differencecomparatives & superlatives Keywords: comparatives, superlatives,adjectivesorder of adjectives Keywords: order, adjectivesfunction Keywords: order, adjectives, functionform - adjectives Keywords: gender, position, form, adjectivecomparative + than Keywords: comparative , than, adjectiveAdverbscomparative form Keywords: comparative, adverbsmanner - adverbs Keywords: adverbs, mannerform - adverb Keywords: adverb, formcertainty Keywords: certainly, definitely, probably, surelytime, adverbs of Keywords: adverbs, timerelative adverbs - which,what,whose Keywords: where, when, whyinterrogative - why, where, how, when Keywords: why, where,how, whenfunction Keywords: adverb, functionviewpoint, commenting Keywords: adverbs, viewpoint, commentingplace, adverbs of place Keywords: adverbs, placedegree - enough,very,too,extremely,almost etc Keywords:enough, very, too, extremely, almost, nearly, completelymenu - kinds of adverbs Keywords: kinds, adverbsmain menu - adverbs Keywords: adverbsDeterminerspossessives Keywords: possessive adjectives, possessive pronouns, my,mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, our, ours, their, theirs
  • 12. exceptions to using the definite article Keywords: no definitearticle, determiner, exceptionsthe,a,an Keywords: the, a, an, indefinite article, exceptionsdistributives - menu Keywords: all, both, half, each, every, either,neitherdifference words - other,another Keywords: other, anotherdistributives - all, both, half Keywords: all, both, half, distributives,determinersthe indefinite article Keywords: the, indefinite article, a, anquantifiers 5 - some and any Keywords: determiners, quantifiers,some, anyquantifiers 6 - something,somebody,someone etc. Keywords:something, somebody, someone, somewhere, anything, anybody, anyone,anywhere, nothing, nobody, noone, nowhere,the definite article Keywords: the, definite article-ING Formas present participle Keywords: present participle , with verbs ofmovement with verbs of perception, as adjective with spend, with waste,with catch, with find, replacing time clause, replacing reason clausePassiveactive/passive equivalents Keywords: active, passive equivalentThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 13. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERBYour search for items starting with the letter B has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Determinersdistributives - all, both, half Keywords: all, both, half, distributives,determinersdistributives - menu Keywords: all, both, half, each, every, either,neitherPassiveform -past Keywords: be + past participleThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 14. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERCYour search for items starting with the letter C has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivesirregular comparatives & superlatives Keywords: irregularcomparatives, superlatives, adjectivescomparatives & superlatives Keywords: comparatives, superlatives,adjectivescomparative + than Keywords: comparative , than, adjectivecomparisons of quantity - showing difference Keywords: quantity,comparison, adjective, differencecomparisons of quantity - showing no difference Keywords:quantity, comparison, adjective, differencecomparisons of quantity - menu Keywords: quantity, comparison,adjectiveAdverbscomparative form Keywords: comparative, adverbscertainty Keywords: certainly, definitely, probably, surelyviewpoint, commenting Keywords: adverbs, viewpoint, commentingDeterminersquantifiers 6 - something,somebody,someone etc. Keywords:something, somebody, someone, somewhere, anything, anybody, anyone,anywhere, nothing, nobody, noone, nowhere,menu - function and class Keywords: determiners, function, class, pre-determinersquantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions,decimals, units, years, zeroquantifiers 3 - how,much,many,few,lot etc. Keywords: how,much, many, few, lot, number, several, countable, uncountableDirect and Indirect Speechchanges of time and place reference Keywords: time reference,place referenceIrregular Verbscommon irregular verbs - group 3 Keywords: irregular verbscommon irregular verbs - group 1 Keywords: irregular verbscommon irregular verbs - group 2 Keywords: irregular verbs
  • 15. Nounsnationalities Keywords: nationalities, country, nounsuse of capital letters Keywords: capital letters, names, months, days,holidays, seasons, geographical, names, streets, buildings, titles of books,nounscountable & uncountable Keywords: countable, uncountable, nouncompound nouns Keywords: compound nouns, phrasal verbsRelative Clausesintroduction - defining relative clauses, non-defining relativeclauses Keywords: defining relative clauses, non-defining relative clausesprepositions in relative clauses Keywords: prepositions, relativeclausesnon-defining relative clauses Keywords: relative clauses, non-definingVerbs and Verb Tensestype 1 conditional Keywords: if + present + future, factpresent continuous Keywords: -ing, verbs, tenses, present participle,verbs not used in continuous formfuture continuous Keywords: future, actions in progresszero conditional Keywords: if + present, general truths, instructionsif sentences with if + past,would,present condtional Keywords:if + past, would, present condtionalif setences with present continuous conditional Keywords:present continuous conditionalif sentences with perfect conditional,if + past perfect Keywords:perfect conditional, if + past perfectif sentences with conditional perfect continuous Keywords:conditional perfect continuousif sentences with mixed conditionals Keywords: mixed conditionalsif sentences with if,condtional tenses Keywords: if, condtionaltensesThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 16. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERDYour search for items starting with the letter D has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adverbsdegree - enough,very,too,extremely,almost etc Keywords:enough, very, too, extremely, almost, nearly, completelyDeterminersquantifiers 2 - many,much,more,most etc. Keywords: many,much, more, most, little, less, least, few, fewer, fewestdefining words - which,whose Keywords: which, whosequestion words - which,what,whose Keywords: which, what, whosedifference words - other,another Keywords: other, anotherdistributives - each, every, either, neither Keywords: each, every,either, neitherdistributives - menu Keywords: all, both, half, each, every, either,neithermenu - function and class Keywords: determiners, function, class, pre-determinersquantifiers 7 - enough Keywords: enough, quantifiers, determinersmenu - quantifiers Keywords: much, many, a little, a few, some, anypossessives Keywords: possessive adjectives, possessive pronouns, my,mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, our, ours, their, theirsdemonstratives - this,that,these,those etc Keywords: this, that,these, those, determinersexceptions to using the definite article Keywords: no definitearticle, determiner, exceptionsthe,a,an Keywords: the, a, an, indefinite article, exceptionsthe definite article Keywords: the, definite articlequantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions,decimals, units, years, zerodistributives - all, both, half Keywords: all, both, half, distributives,determinersquantifiers 6 - something,somebody,someone etc. Keywords:something, somebody, someone, somewhere, anything, anybody, anyone,anywhere, nothing, nobody, noone, nowhere,quantifiers 5 - some and any Keywords: determiners, quantifiers,some, anyquantifiers 1 - determiners,a few,few,a little,little Keywords:determiners, a few, few, a little, littlequantifiers 3 - how,much,many,few,lot etc. Keywords: how,much, many, few, lot, number, several, countable, uncountablethe indefinite article Keywords: the, indefinite article, a, anpre-determiners Keywords: such, what, rather, quite
  • 17. Direct and Indirect Speechreporting hopes and intentions Keywords: hopes, intentions, to-infinitive, that-clausesummary of reporting verbs Keywords: summary, reporting verbs, to-infintive, that-clausereporting orders, requests, suggestions Keywords: orders, requests,suggestions, should - omission, that-clausereporting questions Keywords: reporting yes/no questions, reportingquestions with question wordschanges of time and place reference Keywords: time reference,place referencetense changes Keywords: reported speech, tense changesintroduction - reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speakKeywords: reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speakPassiveget/have something done, x needs doing Keywords: get, needRelative Clausesnon-defining relative clauses Keywords: relative clauses, non-definingdefining relative clauses Keywords: defining relative clausesThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 18. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTEREYour search for items starting with the letter E has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adverbsdegree - enough,very,too,extremely,almost etc Keywords:enough, very, too, extremely, almost, nearly, completelyDeterminersdistributives - each, every, either, neither Keywords: each, every,either, neitherquantifiers 7 - enough Keywords: enough, quantifiers, determinersexceptions to using the definite article Keywords: no definitearticle, determiner, exceptionsthe,a,an Keywords: the, a, an, indefinite article, exceptionsTo Getexamples Keywords: get, got, gettingThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 19. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERFYour search for items starting with the letter F has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivesform - adjectives Keywords: gender, position, form, adjectivefunction Keywords: order, adjectives, functionAdverbsfunction Keywords: adverb, functionform - adverb Keywords: adverb, formcomparative form Keywords: comparative, adverbsDeterminersquantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions,decimals, units, years, zeroquantifiers 2 - many,much,more,most etc. Keywords: many,much, more, most, little, less, least, few, fewer, fewestmenu - function and class Keywords: determiners, function, class, pre-determinersquantifiers 1 - determiners,a few,few,a little,little Keywords:determiners, a few, few, a little, little-ING Formintroduction - present participle, gerund Keywords: presentparticiple, gerundNounsnoun gender Keywords: gender, masculine, feminine, nounPassiveform -past Keywords: be + past participlefunction Keywords: unknown agent, subject, by formal/scientific textsThe Infinitiveverbs followed by infinitive Keywords: verbs + infinitive without anounform, with or without to Keywords: to-infinitive, zero infinitivefunction Keywords: function, infinitive of purpose, infinitive as subject,
  • 20. infinitive after adjectives, infinitive with too/enoughother forms of infinitive Keywords: perfect infinitive, continuousinfinitive, passive infinitive, perfect continuous infinitiveVerbs and Verb Tensesfuture continuous Keywords: future, actions in progressfuture forms - introduction Keywords: future, attitudefuture with going to Keywords: plans, intentionsfuture perfect Keywords: future, completed actionsfuture perfect continuous Keywords: unfinished, future timeother forms of future Keywords: is to, obligation, about to, immediatefuturefuture forms - simple future Keywords: will/shall, prediction,decision, future facts, certaintyThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 21. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERGYour search for items starting with the letter G has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivesform - adjectives Keywords: gender, position, form, adjective-ING Formgerund/infinitive - difference in meaning Keywords:gerund/infinitive, difference in meaninggerund or infinitive? Keywords: gerund/infinitive-, no difference inmeaningverbs followed by gerund Keywords: verb + gerundgerunds Keywords: gerund, as subject, after prepositions, after phrasalverbs, in compound nouns, cant stand.cant helpNounsnoun gender Keywords: gender, masculine, feminine, nounPassiveget/have something done, x needs doing Keywords: get, needTo Getexamples Keywords: get, got, gettingget,got,getting Keywords: get, got, gettingThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 22. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERHYour search for items starting with the letter H has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Determinersdistributives - all, both, half Keywords: all, both, half, distributives,determinersdistributives - menu Keywords: all, both, half, each, every, either,neitherDirect and Indirect Speechreporting hopes and intentions Keywords: hopes, intentions, to-infinitive, that-clauseThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 23. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERIYour search for items starting with the letter I has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivesirregular comparatives & superlatives Keywords: irregularcomparatives, superlatives, adjectivesAdverbsinterrogative - why, where, how, when Keywords: why, where,how, whenDeterminersthe,a,an Keywords: the, a, an, indefinite article, exceptionsthe indefinite article Keywords: the, indefinite article, a, anDirect and Indirect Speechsummary of reporting verbs Keywords: summary, reporting verbs, to-infintive, that-clausereporting hopes and intentions Keywords: hopes, intentions, to-infinitive, that-clausereporting orders, requests, suggestions Keywords: orders, requests,suggestions, should - omission, that-clausechanges of time and place reference Keywords: time reference,place referencetense changes Keywords: reported speech, tense changesintroduction - reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speakKeywords: reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speak-ING Formverbs followed by gerund Keywords: verb + gerundintroduction - present participle, gerund Keywords: presentparticiple, gerundgerunds Keywords: gerund, as subject, after prepositions, after phrasalverbs, in compound nouns, cant stand.cant helpgerund or infinitive? Keywords: gerund/infinitive-, no difference inmeaninggerund/infinitive - difference in meaning Keywords:gerund/infinitive, difference in meaningas present participle Keywords: present participle , with verbs ofmovement with verbs of perception, as adjective with spend, with waste,with catch, with find, replacing time clause, replacing reason clause
  • 24. Irregular Verbsintroduction - irregular verbs Keywords: verbs, irregularlist of common irregular verb Keywords: irregular, verbscommon irregular verbs - group 1 Keywords: irregular verbscommon irregular verbs - group 3 Keywords: irregular verbscommon irregular verbs - group 2 Keywords: irregular verbsRelative Clausesintroduction - defining relative clauses, non-defining relativeclauses Keywords: defining relative clauses, non-defining relative clausesThe Infinitivenegative infinitive Keywords: negative infinitiveinfinitive after question words Keywords: infinitive, question wordsfunction Keywords: function, infinitive of purpose, infinitive as subject,infinitive after adjectives, infinitive with too/enoughother forms of infinitive Keywords: perfect infinitive, continuousinfinitive, passive infinitive, perfect continuous infinitiveverbs followed by infinitive Keywords: verbs + infinitive without anounverbs followed by noun + infinitive Keywords: verb + noun +infinitiveverbs + infinitive with/without noun Keywords: verb with orwithout noun + infinitivezero infinitive Keywords: zero infinitiveform, with or without to Keywords: to-infinitive, zero infinitiveVerbs and Verb Tensesif sentences with mixed conditionals Keywords: mixed conditionalsmenu / introduction Keywords: menu, introduction, tensesif sentences with if,condtional tenses Keywords: if, condtionaltenseszero conditional Keywords: if + present, general truths, instructionstype 1 conditional Keywords: if + present + future, factif sentences with if + past,would,present condtional Keywords:if + past, would, present condtionalif setences with present continuous conditional Keywords:present continuous conditionalif sentences with conditional perfect continuous Keywords:conditional perfect continuousif sentences with if+not,unless,verbs Keywords: if+not, unless,verbsif sentences with wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if onlyKeywords: wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if onlyif sentences with perfect conditional,if + past perfect Keywords:perfect conditional, if + past perfectThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 25. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERJYour search for items starting with the letter J has not returned any relateditems. You may have better luck with a keyword search using the keywordsearch box.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 26. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERKYour search for items starting with the letter K has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adverbsmenu - kinds of adverbs Keywords: kinds, adverbsThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 27. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERLYour search for items starting with the letter L has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Determinersquantifiers 1 - determiners,a few,few,a little,little Keywords:determiners, a few, few, a little, littlequantifiers 2 - many,much,more,most etc. Keywords: many,much, more, most, little, less, least, few, fewer, fewestIrregular Verbslist of common irregular verb Keywords: irregular, verbsThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 28. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERMYour search for items starting with the letter M has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivesmain menu - adjectives Keywords: adjectivesAdverbsmenu - kinds of adverbs Keywords: kinds, adverbsmain menu - adverbs Keywords: adverbsmanner - adverbs Keywords: adverbs, mannerDeterminersdistributives - menu Keywords: all, both, half, each, every, either,neitherquantifiers 2 - many,much,more,most etc. Keywords: many,much, more, most, little, less, least, few, fewer, fewestmenu - quantifiers Keywords: much, many, a little, a few, some, anymenu - function and class Keywords: determiners, function, class, pre-determinersNounsmenu - nouns Keywords: nounsnoun gender Keywords: gender, masculine, feminine, nounVerbs and Verb Tensesmenu / introduction Keywords: menu, introduction, tensesif sentences with mixed conditionals Keywords: mixed conditionalsThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 29. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERNYour search for items starting with the letter N has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivesnot as + adjective + as Keywords: not, as, so, not as, not so, adjectiveDeterminersquantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions,decimals, units, years, zeroquantifiers 3 - how,much,many,few,lot etc. Keywords: how,much, many, few, lot, number, several, countable, uncountabledistributives - each, every, either, neither Keywords: each, every,either, neitherquantifiers 6 - something,somebody,someone etc. Keywords:something, somebody, someone, somewhere, anything, anybody, anyone,anywhere, nothing, nobody, noone, nowhere,Nounsplurals Keywords: singular plural, irregular plural, nouncountable & uncountable Keywords: countable, uncountable, nouncompound nouns Keywords: compound nouns, phrasal verbsuse of capital letters Keywords: capital letters, names, months, days,holidays, seasons, geographical, names, streets, buildings, titles of books,nounsnoun gender Keywords: gender, masculine, feminine, nounmenu - nouns Keywords: nounsnationalities Keywords: nationalities, country, nounsRelative Clausesnon-defining relative clauses Keywords: relative clauses, non-definingThe Infinitivenegative infinitive Keywords: negative infinitiveverbs followed by noun + infinitive Keywords: verb + noun +infinitiveverbs + infinitive with/without noun Keywords: verb with orwithout noun + infinitiveThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony Hughes
  • 30. The English4Today Members Website
  • 31. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTEROYour search for items starting with the letter O has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivesorder of adjectives Keywords: order, adjectivesfunction Keywords: order, adjectives, functionDeterminersdifference words - other,another Keywords: other, anotherquantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions,decimals, units, years, zeroDirect and Indirect Speechreporting orders, requests, suggestions Keywords: orders, requests,suggestions, should - omission, that-clauseThe Infinitiveother forms of infinitive Keywords: perfect infinitive, continuousinfinitive, passive infinitive, perfect continuous infinitiveVerbs and Verb Tensesother forms of future Keywords: is to, obligation, about to, immediatefutureThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 32. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERPYour search for items starting with the letter P has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adverbsplace, adverbs of place Keywords: adverbs, placeDeterminersmenu - function and class Keywords: determiners, function, class, pre-determinerspre-determiners Keywords: such, what, rather, quitepossessives Keywords: possessive adjectives, possessive pronouns, my,mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, our, ours, their, theirs-ING Formas present participle Keywords: present participle , with verbs ofmovement with verbs of perception, as adjective with spend, with waste,with catch, with find, replacing time clause, replacing reason clauseintroduction - present participle, gerund Keywords: presentparticiple, gerundNounsplurals Keywords: singular plural, irregular plural, nounPassiveform -past Keywords: be + past participlefunction Keywords: unknown agent, subject, by formal/scientific textsget/have something done, x needs doing Keywords: get, needactive/passive equivalents Keywords: active, passive equivalentPossessive with s and possessive Keywords: possessive, time expressions, apostrophe, names,possessiveRelative Clausesprepositions in relative clauses Keywords: prepositions, relativeclausesdefining relative clauses Keywords: defining relative clauses
  • 33. Verbs and Verb Tensespast perfect Keywords: past perfect, justpresent perfect 1 Keywords: present perfect, past participle, irregularverbspresent continuous Keywords: -ing, verbs, tenses, present participle,verbs not used in continuous formpresent perfect 2 Keywords: present perfect, ever, never, already, yetpresent perfect 3 Keywords: present perfect, simple past, time,attitudepresent perfect 4 Keywords: present perfect, for, sincepast continuous Keywords: past continuous, description, narrativepast perfect continuous Keywords: past perfect continuous, process,reported speechpresent continuous for future events Keywords: arrangements,futureif sentences with wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if onlyKeywords: wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if onlypresent perfect continous Keywords: present perfect continous,present participleThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 34. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERQYour search for items starting with the letter Q has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivescomparisons of quantity - showing no difference Keywords:quantity, comparison, adjective, differencecomparisons of quantity - showing difference Keywords: quantity,comparison, adjective, differencecomparisons of quantity - menu Keywords: quantity, comparison,adjectiveDeterminersquantifiers 6 - something,somebody,someone etc. Keywords:something, somebody, someone, somewhere, anything, anybody, anyone,anywhere, nothing, nobody, noone, nowhere,quantifiers 5 - some and any Keywords: determiners, quantifiers,some, anyquantifiers 1 - determiners,a few,few,a little,little Keywords:determiners, a few, few, a little, littlequantifiers 3 - how,much,many,few,lot etc. Keywords: how,much, many, few, lot, number, several, countable, uncountablepre-determiners Keywords: such, what, rather, quitequestion words - which,what,whose Keywords: which, what, whosequantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions,decimals, units, years, zeroquantifiers 7 - enough Keywords: enough, quantifiers, determinersquantifiers 2 - many,much,more,most etc. Keywords: many,much, more, most, little, less, least, few, fewer, fewestmenu - quantifiers Keywords: much, many, a little, a few, some, anyDirect and Indirect Speechreporting questions Keywords: reporting yes/no questions, reportingquestions with question wordsThe Infinitiveinfinitive after question words Keywords: infinitive, question wordsThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 35. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERRYour search for items starting with the letter R has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adverbsrelative adverbs - which,what,whose Keywords: where, when, whyDeterminerspre-determiners Keywords: such, what, rather, quiteDirect and Indirect Speechsummary of reporting verbs Keywords: summary, reporting verbs, to-infintive, that-clausereporting hopes and intentions Keywords: hopes, intentions, to-infinitive, that-clausereporting orders, requests, suggestions Keywords: orders, requests,suggestions, should - omission, that-clausereporting questions Keywords: reporting yes/no questions, reportingquestions with question wordschanges of time and place reference Keywords: time reference,place referencetense changes Keywords: reported speech, tense changesintroduction - reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speakKeywords: reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speakRelative Clausesnon-defining relative clauses Keywords: relative clauses, non-definingprepositions in relative clauses Keywords: prepositions, relativeclausesdefining relative clauses Keywords: defining relative clausesintroduction - defining relative clauses, non-defining relativeclauses Keywords: defining relative clauses, non-defining relative clausesThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 36. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERSYour search for items starting with the letter S has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivesthe + superlative Keywords: the, superlative, adjectivescomparatives & superlatives Keywords: comparatives, superlatives,adjectivesDeterminersquantifiers 6 - something,somebody,someone etc. Keywords:something, somebody, someone, somewhere, anything, anybody, anyone,anywhere, nothing, nobody, noone, nowhere,quantifiers 5 - some and any Keywords: determiners, quantifiers,some, anypre-determiners Keywords: such, what, rather, quiteDirect and Indirect Speechsummary of reporting verbs Keywords: summary, reporting verbs, to-infintive, that-clauseintroduction - reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speakKeywords: reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speakVerbs and Verb Tensessimple present for future events Keywords: future, facts, timetable,calendarsimple past Keywords: simple past, form, function, irregular verbs,irregular verbs, auxiliary did, agosimple present Keywords: verbs, tenses, present simplesummary Keywords: verb tenses, present tenses, perfect tenses,conditional tenses, past tenses, future tensesThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 37. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERTYour search for items starting with the letter T has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivesthe + superlative Keywords: the, superlative, adjectivescomparative + than Keywords: comparative , than, adjectiveAdverbstime, adverbs of Keywords: adverbs, timeDeterminersthe indefinite article Keywords: the, indefinite article, a, andemonstratives - this,that,these,those etc Keywords: this, that,these, those, determinersthe,a,an Keywords: the, a, an, indefinite article, exceptionsthe definite article Keywords: the, definite articleDirect and Indirect Speechchanges of time and place reference Keywords: time reference,place referencetense changes Keywords: reported speech, tense changesThe Infinitiveverbs + infinitive with/without noun Keywords: verb with orwithout noun + infinitiveinfinitive after question words Keywords: infinitive, question wordsnegative infinitive Keywords: negative infinitivezero infinitive Keywords: zero infinitiveother forms of infinitive Keywords: perfect infinitive, continuousinfinitive, passive infinitive, perfect continuous infinitiveform, with or without to Keywords: to-infinitive, zero infinitiveverbs followed by infinitive Keywords: verbs + infinitive without anounverbs followed by noun + infinitive Keywords: verb + noun +infinitivefunction Keywords: function, infinitive of purpose, infinitive as subject,infinitive after adjectives, infinitive with too/enoughTo Get
  • 38. examples Keywords: get, got, gettingget,got,getting Keywords: get, got, gettingVerbs and Verb Tensespresent perfect continous Keywords: present perfect continous,present participlesimple present Keywords: verbs, tenses, present simplefuture continuous Keywords: future, actions in progresspresent continuous Keywords: -ing, verbs, tenses, present participle,verbs not used in continuous formpresent perfect 1 Keywords: present perfect, past participle, irregularverbspresent perfect 2 Keywords: present perfect, ever, never, already, yetpresent perfect 3 Keywords: present perfect, simple past, time,attitudepresent perfect 4 Keywords: present perfect, for, sincesummary Keywords: verb tenses, present tenses, perfect tenses,conditional tenses, past tenses, future tensessimple past Keywords: simple past, form, function, irregular verbs,irregular verbs, auxiliary did, agopast continuous Keywords: past continuous, description, narrativepast perfect Keywords: past perfect, justpast perfect continuous Keywords: past perfect continuous, process,reported speechfuture forms - introduction Keywords: future, attitudefuture forms - simple future Keywords: will/shall, prediction,decision, future facts, certaintypresent continuous for future events Keywords: arrangements,futurefuture with going to Keywords: plans, intentionsmenu / introduction Keywords: menu, introduction, tensesfuture perfect Keywords: future, completed actionsfuture perfect continuous Keywords: unfinished, future timeother forms of future Keywords: is to, obligation, about to, immediatefuturetype 1 conditional Keywords: if + present + future, factsimple present for future events Keywords: future, facts, timetable,calendarThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 39. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERUYour search for items starting with the letter U has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Determinersquantifiers 3 - how,much,many,few,lot etc. Keywords: how,much, many, few, lot, number, several, countable, uncountablequantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions,decimals, units, years, zeroNounsuse of capital letters Keywords: capital letters, names, months, days,holidays, seasons, geographical, names, streets, buildings, titles of books,nounscountable & uncountable Keywords: countable, uncountable, nounVerbs and Verb Tensesif sentences with wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if onlyKeywords: wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if onlyThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 40. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERVYour search for items starting with the letter V has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adverbsviewpoint, commenting Keywords: adverbs, viewpoint, commentingDirect and Indirect Speechsummary of reporting verbs Keywords: summary, reporting verbs, to-infintive, that-clause-ING Formverbs followed by gerund Keywords: verb + gerundIrregular Verbscommon irregular verbs - group 2 Keywords: irregular verbscommon irregular verbs - group 1 Keywords: irregular verbslist of common irregular verb Keywords: irregular, verbsintroduction - irregular verbs Keywords: verbs, irregularcommon irregular verbs - group 3 Keywords: irregular verbsThe Infinitiveverbs followed by noun + infinitive Keywords: verb + noun +infinitiveverbs + infinitive with/without noun Keywords: verb with orwithout noun + infinitiveverbs followed by infinitive Keywords: verbs + infinitive without anounVerbs and Verb Tensespresent continuous Keywords: -ing, verbs, tenses, present participle,verbs not used in continuous formsimple past Keywords: simple past, form, function, irregular verbs,irregular verbs, auxiliary did, agofuture forms - introduction Keywords: future, attitudepast perfect continuous Keywords: past perfect continuous, process,reported speechpast perfect Keywords: past perfect, justfuture forms - simple future Keywords: will/shall, prediction,decision, future facts, certainty
  • 41. past continuous Keywords: past continuous, description, narrativepresent perfect continous Keywords: present perfect continous,present participlepresent perfect 4 Keywords: present perfect, for, sincepresent perfect 3 Keywords: present perfect, simple past, time,attitudepresent continuous for future events Keywords: arrangements,futurepresent perfect 1 Keywords: present perfect, past participle, irregularverbsif sentences with if,condtional tenses Keywords: if, condtionaltensessimple present Keywords: verbs, tenses, present simplesummary Keywords: verb tenses, present tenses, perfect tenses,conditional tenses, past tenses, future tensespresent perfect 2 Keywords: present perfect, ever, never, already, yetif sentences with if + past,would,present condtional Keywords:if + past, would, present condtionalmenu / introduction Keywords: menu, introduction, tensesif sentences with wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if onlyKeywords: wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if onlyif sentences with if+not,unless,verbs Keywords: if+not, unless,verbsif sentences with mixed conditionals Keywords: mixed conditionalsif sentences with conditional perfect continuous Keywords:conditional perfect continuousfuture perfect continuous Keywords: unfinished, future timeif setences with present continuous conditional Keywords:present continuous conditionalsimple present for future events Keywords: future, facts, timetable,calendartype 1 conditional Keywords: if + present + future, factzero conditional Keywords: if + present, general truths, instructionsother forms of future Keywords: is to, obligation, about to, immediatefuturefuture perfect Keywords: future, completed actionsfuture continuous Keywords: future, actions in progressfuture with going to Keywords: plans, intentionsif sentences with perfect conditional,if + past perfect Keywords:perfect conditional, if + past perfectThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 42. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERWYour search for items starting with the letter W has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adverbsrelative adverbs - which,what,whose Keywords: where, when, whyinterrogative - why, where, how, when Keywords: why, where,how, whenDeterminerspre-determiners Keywords: such, what, rather, quitedefining words - which,whose Keywords: which, whosequestion words - which,what,whose Keywords: which, what, whoseThe Infinitiveverbs + infinitive with/without noun Keywords: verb with orwithout noun + infinitiveform, with or without to Keywords: to-infinitive, zero infinitiveThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 43. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERXYour search for items starting with the letter X has not returned anyrelated items. You may have better luck with a keyword search using thekeyword search box.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 44. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERYYour search for items starting with the letter Y has not returned anyrelated items. You may have better luck with a keyword search using thekeyword search box.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 45. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERZYour search for items starting with the letter Z has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Determinersquantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions,decimals, units, years, zeroThe Infinitivezero infinitive Keywords: zero infinitiveform, with or without to Keywords: to-infinitive, zero infinitiveVerbs and Verb Tenseszero conditional Keywords: if + present, general truths, instructionsThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 46. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE QUANTIFIERSNUMBERSThe cardinal numbers (one, two, three, etc.) are adjectives referring toquantity, and the ordinal numbers (first, second, third, etc.) refer todistribution.Number Ordinal Cardinal1 one first2 two second3 three third4 four fourth5 five fifth6 six sixth7 seven seventh8 eight eighth9 nine ninth10 ten tenth11 eleven eleventh12 twelve twelfth13 thirteen thirteenth14 fourteen fourteenth15 fifteen fifteenth16 sixteen sixteenth17 seventeen seventeenth18 eighteen eighteenth19 nineteen nineteenth20 twenty twentieth21 twenty-one twenty-first22 twenty-two twenty-second23 twenty-three twenty-third24 twenty-four twenty-fourth25 twenty-five twenty-fifth26 twenty-six twenty-sixth27 twenty-seven twenty-seventh28 twenty-eight twenty-eighth29 twenty-nine twenty-ninth30 thirty thirtieth31 thirty-one thirty-first40 forty fortieth50 fifty fiftieth60 sixty sixtieth70 seventy seventieth80 eighty eightieth90 ninety ninetieth100 one hundred hundredth500 five hundred five hundredth1,000 one thousand thousandth100,000 one hundred thousand hundred thousandth1,000,000 one million millionth
  • 47. Examples:q There are twenty-five people in the room.q He was the fourteenth person to win the award since 1934.q Six hundred thousand people were left homeless after theearthquake.q I must have asked you twenty times to be quiet.q He went to Israel for the third time this year.Fractions and decimalsSaid Written Saidhalf 0.5 point fivea quarter 0.25 point two fivethree quarters 0.75 point seven fivePercentagesWritten Said25% twenty five percent50% fifty percent75% seventy five percent100% a/one hundred percentUnitsWritten Said$1,200 one thousand two hundreddollars£16,486 sixteen thousand four hundredand eighty-six pounds545kms five hundred and forty-fivekilometres$25.35 twenty-five dollars thirty-fiveYearsWritten Said1988 Nineteen eighty-eight1864 Eighteen sixty-four1999 Nineteen ninety-nineHow to say 0nought used in mathematical expressions anddecimals:nought times three equals nought0.3 = nought point three (or point three)0.03 = point nought three
  • 48. zero used in scientific expressions, especiallytemperatures:20oC = minus twenty degrees ortwenty degrees below zeroalso used to mean the lowest point:The heavy rain reduced visibility to zeroo (the letter) used in telephone numbers:0171 390 0062 = o one seven one threenine o double o six twonil/nothing used to express the score in games suchas football:2 - 0 = two nil or two nothingThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 49. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |DETERMINERSFUNCTION AND CLASSES OF DETERMINERSFunctionDeterminers are words placed in front of a noun to make it clear what thenoun refers to. The word people by itself is a general reference to somegroup of human beings. If someone says these people, we know which groupthey are talking about, and if they say a lot of people we know how big thegroup is.Classes of DeterminersThere are several classes of determiners:Definite and Indefinite articlesthe, a, anDemonstrativesthis, that, these, thosePossessivesmy, your, his, her, its, our, theirQuantifiersa few, a little, much, many, a lot of, most, some, any, enough, etc.Numbersone, ten, thirty, etc.Distributivesall, both, half, either, neither, each, everyDifference wordsother, anotherQuestion wordsWhich, what, whoseDefining wordswhich, whoseThe following words are pre-determiners. They go before determiners, suchas articles: such and what, half, rather, quiteThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony Hughes
  • 50. The English4Today Members Website
  • 51. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |DEFINITE AND INDEFINITE ARTICLESTHE, A, ANDefinite article: THEIndefinite article: A/ANExceptions to using the definite articleThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 52. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |DEFINITE ARTICLETHEArticles in English are invariable. That is, they do not change according tothe gender or number of the noun they refer to, e.g. the boy, the woman,the childrenThe is used:1. to refer to something which has already been mentioned.Example: An elephant and a mouse fell in love.The mouse loved the elephants long trunk,and the elephant loved the mouses tiny nose.2. when both the speaker and listener know what is being talked about, evenif it has not been mentioned before.Example: Wheres the bathroom?Its on the first floor.3. in sentences or clauses where we define or identify a particular person orobject:Examples: The man who wrote this book is famous.Which car did you scratch? The red one.My house is the one with a blue door.4. to refer to objects we regard as unique:Examples: the sun, the moon, the world5. before superlatives and ordinal numbers: (see Adjectives)Examples: the highest building, the first page, the lastchapter.6. with adjectives, to refer to a whole group of people:Examples: the Japanese (see Nouns - Nationalities), the old7. with names of geographical areas and oceans:Examples: the Caribbean, the Sahara, the Atlantic8. with decades, or groups of years:Example: she grew up in the seventies
  • 53. The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 54. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESTHE + SUPERLATIVEthe is placed before the superlative:For example: He is the richest man in the world.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 55. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESIRREGULAR COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVESThese adjectives have completely irregular comparative and superlativeforms:Adjective Comparative Superlativegood better bestbad worse worstlittle less leastmuch more mostfar further / farther furthest / farthestThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 56. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESFORMING THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVENumber of syllables Comparative Superlativeone syllable + -er + -esttall taller tallestone syllable with the spelling consonant + single vowel + consonant: double thefinal consonant:fat fatter fattestbig bigger biggestsad sadder saddestNumber of syllables Comparative Superlativetwo syllables + -er OR more + adj + -est OR most + adjending in: -y, -ly, -owending in: -le, -er or -urethese common adjectives - handsome, polite, pleasant, common, quiethappy happier/ more happy happiest/ most happyyellow yellower/ more yellow yellowest/ most yellowsimple simpler/ more simple simplest/ most simpletender tenderer/ more tender tenderest/ most tenderIf you are not sure, use MORE + OR MOST +Note: Adjectives ending in -y like happy, pretty, busy, sunny, lucky etc:. replacethe -y with -ier or -iest in the comparative and superlative formbusy busier busiestNumber of syllables Comparative Superlativethree syllables or more more + adj most + adjimportant more important most importantexpensive more expensive most expensiveExamples:
  • 57. a. A cat is fast, a tiger is faster but a cheetah is the fastestb. A car is heavy, a truck is heavier, but a train is the heaviestc. A park bench is comfortable, a restaurant chair is more comfortable, but a sofais the most comfortableThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 58. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |FORM AND FUNCTION OF ADJECTIVESORDERWhere a number of adjectives are used together, the order depends on thefunction of the adjective. The usual order is:Value/opinion, Size, Age/Temperature, Shape, Colour, Origin, MaterialValue/opinion delicious, lovely, charmingSize small, huge, tinyAge/Temperature old, hot, youngShape round, square, rectangularColour red, blonde, blackOrigin Swedish, Victorian, ChineseMaterial plastic, wooden, silverExamples:q a lovely old red post-boxq some small round plastic tablesq some charming small silver ornamentsThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 59. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |FORM AND FUNCTION OF ADJECTIVESFUNCTIONAdjectives tell us more about a noun. They can:Describe feelings or qualities:He is a lonely manThey are honest peopleGive nationality or origin:Pierre is FrenchThis clock is GermanOur house is VictorianTell more about a things characteristics:A wooden table.The knife is sharp.Tell us about age:Hes a young manMy coat is very oldTell us about size and measurement:John is a tall man.This is a very long film.Tell us about colour:Paul wore a red shirt.The sunset was crimson and gold.Tell us about material/what something is made of:It was a wooden tableShe wore a cotton dressTell us about shape:A rectangular boxA square envelopeExpress a judgement or a value:A fantastic film
  • 60. Grammar is boring.
  • 61. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |FORM AND FUNCTION OF ADJECTIVESFORM1. Adjectives are invariable:They do not change their form depending on the gender or number of thenoun.A hot potato Some hot potatoes2. To emphasise or strengthen the meaning of an adjective use very orreally:A very hot potato Some really hot potatoes.(BUT see also Modifiers/Adverbs)3. Position of adjectives:a) Usually in front of a noun: A beautifulgirl.b) After verbs like "to be", "to seem" , "tolook", "to taste":q The girl is beautifulq You look tiredq This meat tastes funny.c) After the noun: in some fixedexpressions:q The Princess Royalq The President electq a court martialthe adjectives involved, present, concerned:1. I want to see the people involved/concerned (= the people whohave something to do with the matter)2. Here is a list of the people present (= the people who were in thebuilding or at the meeting)Be careful! When these adjectives are used before the noun they have adifferent meaning:q An involved discussion = detailed, complexq A concerned father = worried, anxiousq The present situation = current, happening now
  • 62. The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 63. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |ADVERBS - FUNCTIONAdverbs modify, or tell us more about other words, usually verbs:q The bus moved slowly.q The bears ate greedily.Sometimes they tell us more about adjectives:q You look absolutely fabulous!They can also modify other adverbs:q She played the violin extremely well.q Youre speaking too quietly.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 64. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |ADVERBS - MENUq Functionq Formq Comparative formsq Kinds of adverbsThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 65. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |ADVERBS - FORM1. In most cases, an adverb is formed by adding -ly to anadjective:Adjective AdverbcheapquickslowcheaplyquicklyslowlyExamples:q Time goes quickly.q He walked slowly to the door.q She certainly had an interesting life.q He carefully picked up the sleeping child.If the adjective ends in -y, replace the y with i and add -ly:Adjective AdverbeasyangryhappyluckyeasilyangrilyhappilyluckilyIf the adjective ends in -able, -ible, or -le, replace the -e with -y:Adjective AdverbprobableterriblegentleprobablyterriblygentlyIf the adjective ends in -ic, add -ally:Adjective AdverbbasiceconomictragicbasicallyeconomicallytragicallyNote: Exception: public - publicly2. Some adverbs have the same form as the adjective:
  • 66. Adjective / AdverbearlyfasthardhighlatenearstraightwrongCompare:q It is a fast car.q He drives very fast.q This is a hard exercise.q He works hard.q We saw many high buildings.q The bird flew high in the sky.3. Well and goodWell is the adverb that corresponds to the adjective good.Examples:q He is a good student.q He studies well.q She is a good pianist.q She plays the piano well.q They are good swimmers.q They swim well.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 67. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARATIVE FORMS OF ADVERBSIn general, comparative and superlative forms of adverbs are the same as foradjectives:q add -er or -est to short adverbs:Adverb Comparative Superlativehardlatefastharderlaterfasterthe hardestthe latestthe fastestExample:q Jim works harder than his brother.q Everyone in the race ran fast, but John ran the fastest of all.with adverbs ending in -ly, use more for the comparative and most for thesuperlative:Adverb Comparative Superlativequietlyslowlyseriouslymore quietlymore slowlymore seriouslymost quietlymost slowlymost seriouslyExample:q The teacher spoke more slowly to help us to understand.q Could you sing more quietly please?Some adverbs have irregular comparative forms:Adverb Comparative Superlativebadlyfarlittlewellworsefarther/furtherlessbetterworstfarthest/furthestleastbestExample:q The little boy ran further than his friends.q Youre driving worse today than yesterday !BE CAREFUL! Sometimes most can mean very:q We were most grateful for your help
  • 68. q I am most impressed by this application.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 69. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSThere are several classes or kinds of adverbs that we use for specificfunctions:1. Adverbs of manner2. Adverbs of place3. Adverbs of time4. Adverbs of certainty5. Adverbs of degree6. Interrogative adverbs7. Relative adverbs8. Viewpoint and commenting adverbsThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 70. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSADVERBS OF MANNERAdverbs of manner tell us how something happens. They are usually placedafter the main verb or after the object.Examples:q He swims well, (after the main verb)q He ran... rapidly, slowly, quickly..q She spoke... softly, loudly, aggressively..q James coughed loudly to attract her attention.q He plays the flute beautifully. (after the object)q He ate the chocolate cake greedily.BE CAREFUL! The adverb should not be put between the verb and theobject:q He ate greedily the chocolate cake [incorrect]q He ate the chocolate cake greedily [correct]If there is a preposition before the object, e.g. at, towards, we can placethe adverb either before the preposition or after the object.Example:q The child ran happily towards his mother.q The child ran towards his mother happily.Sometimes an adverb of manner is placed before a verb + object to addemphasis:q He gently woke the sleeping woman.Some writers put an adverb of manner at the beginning of the sentence tocatch our attention and make us curious:q Slowly she picked up the knife.(We want to know what happened slowly, who did it slowly, why they did itslowly)However, adverbs should always come AFTER intransitive verbs (=verbswhich have no object).Example:q The town grew quicklyq He waited patiently
  • 71. Also, these common adverbs are almost always placed AFTER the verb:q wellq badlyq hardq fastThe position of the adverb is important when there is more than one verb ina sentence. If the adverb is placed after a clause, then it modifies the wholeaction described by the clause.Notice the difference in meaning between the following pairs of sentences:q She quickly agreed to re-type the letter (= her agreement was quick)q She agreed to re-type the letter quickly (= the re-typing was quick)q He quietly asked me to leave the house (= his request was quiet)q He asked me to leave the house quietly (= the leaving was quiet)The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 72. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSADVERBS OF PLACEAdverbs of place tell us where something happens.They are usually placed after the main verb or after the object:Example:after the main verb:q I looked everywhereq John looked away, up, down, around...q Im going home, out, backq Come inafter the object:q They built a house nearbyq She took the child outsideHere and thereWith verbs of movement, here means towards or with the speaker:q Come here (= towards me)q Its in here (= come with me to see it)There means away from, or not with the speaker:q Put it there (= away from me)q Its in there (= go by yourself to see it)Here and there are combined with prepositions to make many commonadverbial phrases:down here, down there;over here, over there;under here, under there;up here, up thereHere and there are placed at the beginning of the sentence in exclamationsor when emphasis is needed.They are followed by the verb if the subject is a noun:q Here comes the bus. (followed by the verb)Or by a pronoun if this is the subject (it, she, he etc.):
  • 73. q Here it is! (followed by the pronoun)q There she goes! (followed by the pronoun)NOTE: most common adverbs of place also function as prepositions.Examples:about, across, along, around, behind, by, down, in, off, on, over, round,through, under, up.Go to Prepositions or Phrasal VerbsOther adverbs of place: ending in -wards, expressing movement in aparticular direction:backwardsforwardsdownwardsupwardsinwardsoutwardsnorthwardssouthwardseastwardswestwardshomewardsonwardsExample:q Cats dont usually walk backwards.q The ship sailed westwards.BE CAREFUL! Towards is a preposition, not an adverb, so it is alwaysfollowed by a noun or a pronoun:q He walked towards the car.q She ran towards me.expressing both movement and location:ahead, abroad, overseas, uphill, downhill, sideways, indoors, outdoorsExample:q The child went indoors.q He lived and worked abroad.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 74. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSADVERBS OF TIMEAdverbs of time tell us when an action happened, but also for how long, andhow often.Examples:q When: today, yesterday, later, now, last yearq For how long: all day, not long, for a while, since last yearq How often: sometimes, frequently, never, often, yearly"When" adverbs are usually placed at the end of the sentence:q Goldilocks went to the Bears house yesterday.q Im going to tidy my room tomorrow.This is a "neutral" position, but some "when" adverbs can be put in otherpositions to give a different emphasisCompare:q Later Goldilocks ate some porridge. (the time is more important)q Goldilocks later ate some porridge. (this is more formal, like apolicemans report)q Goldilocks ate some porridge later. (this is neutral, no particularemphasis)"For how long" adverbs are usually placed at the end of the sentence:q She stayed in the Bears house all day.q My mother lived in France for a year.Notice: for is always followed by an expression of duration:q for three days,q for a week,q for several years,q for two centuries.since is always followed by an expression of a point in time:q since Monday,q since 1997,q since the last war."How often" adverbs expressing the frequency of an action are usuallyplaced before the main verb but after auxiliary verbs (such as be, have, may,must):
  • 75. q I often eat vegetarian food. (before the main verb)q He never drinks milk. (before the main verb)q You must always fasten your seat belt. (after the auxiliary must)q She is never sea-sick.(after the auxiliary is)q I have never forgotten my first kiss. (after the auxiliary have andbefore the main verb forgotten)Some other "how often" adverbs express the exact number of times anaction happens and are usually placed at the end of the sentence:q This magazine is published monthly.q He visits his mother once a week.When a frequency adverb is placed at the end of a sentence it is muchstronger.Compare:q She regularly visits France.q She visits France regularly.Adverbs that can be used in these two positions:q frequently,q generally,q normally,q occasionally,q often,q regularly,q sometimes,q usuallyYet and stillYet is used in questions and in negative sentences, and is placed at the endof the sentence or after not.q Have you finished your work yet? (= a simple request for information)No, not yet. (= simple negative answer)q They havent met him yet. (= simple negative statement)q Havent you finished yet? (= expressing slight surprise)Still expresses continuity; it is used in positive sentences and questions, andis placed before the main verb and after auxiliary verbs (such as be, have,might, will)q I am still hungry.q She is still waiting for youq Are you still here?q Do you still work for the BBC?ORDER OF ADVERBS OF TIMEIf you need to use more than one adverb of time at the end of a sentence,use them in this order:1: how long2: how often3: when (think of low)
  • 76. Example:q 1 + 2 : I work (1) for five hours (2) every dayq 2 + 3 : The magazine was published (2) weekly (3) last year.q 1 + 3 : I was abroad (1) for two months (3) last year.q 1 + 2 + 3 : She worked in a hospital (1) for two days (2) every week(3) last year.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 77. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSADVERBS OF CERTAINTYThese adverbs express how certain or sure we feel about an action or event.Common adverbs of certainty:certainly, definitely, probably, undoubtedly, surelyAdverbs of certainty go before the main verb but after the verb to be:q He definitely left the house this morning.q He is probably in the park.With other auxiliary verb, these adverbs go between the auxiliary and themain verb:q He has certainly forgotten the meeting.q He will probably remember tomorrow.Sometimes these adverbs can be placed at the beginning of the sentence:q Undoubtedly, Winston Churchill was a great politician.BE CAREFUL! with surely. When it is placed at the beginning of the sentence,it means the speaker thinks something is true, but is looking forconfirmation:Example:q Surely youve got a bicycle?See also ADVERBS OF ATTITUDEThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 78. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSVIEWPOINT AND COMMENTING ADVERBSThere are some adverbs and adverbial expressions which tell us about thespeakers viewpoint or opinion about an action, or make some comment onthe action.ViewpointFrankly, I think he is a liar. (= this is my frank, honest opinion)Theoretically, you should pay a fine. (= from a theoretical point of view butthere may be another way of looking at the situation)These adverbs are placed at the beginning of the sentence and areseparated from the rest of the sentence by a comma.Some common Viewpoint adverbs:honestly, seriously, confidentially, personally, surprisingly, ideally,economically, officially, obviously, clearly, surely, undoubtedly.Examples:q Personally, Id rather go by train.q Surprisingly, this car is cheaper than the smaller model.q Geographically, Britain is rather cut off from the rest of Europe.Commentingq She is certainly the best person for the job.q You obviously enjoyed your meal.These are very similar to viewpoint adverbs, and often the same words, butthey go in a different position - after the verb to be and before the mainverb.Some common Commenting adverbs:definitely, certainly, obviously, simply.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 79. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSADVERBS OF DEGREEAdverbs of degree tell us about the intensity or degree of an action, anadjective or another adverb.Common adverbs of degree:Almost, nearly, quite, just, too, enough, hardly, scarcely, completely,very, extremely.Adverbs of degree are usually placed:1. before the adjective or adverb they are modifying:e.g. The water was extremely cold.2. before the main verb:e.g. He was just leaving. She has almost finished.Examples:q She doesnt quite know what shell do after university.q They are completely exhausted from the trip.q I am too tired to go out tonight.q He hardly noticed what she was saying.Enough, very, tooEnough as an adverb meaning to the necessary degree goes after adjectivesand adverbs.Example:q Is your coffee hot enough? (adjective)q He didnt work hard enough. (adverb)It also goes before nouns, and means as much as is necessary. In this case itis not an adverb, but a determiner.Example:q We have enough bread.q They dont have enough food.Too as an adverb meaning more than is necessary or useful goes beforeadjectives and adverbs, e.g.q This coffee is too hot. (adjective)q He works too hard. (adverb)Enough and too with adjectives can be followed by for someone/something.
  • 80. Example:q The dress was big enough for me.q Shes not experienced enough for this job.q The coffee was too hot for me.q The dress was too small for her.We can also use to + infinitive after enough and too withadjectives/adverb.Example:q The coffee was too hot to drink.q He didnt work hard enough to pass the exam.q Shes not old enough to get married.q Youre too young to have grandchildren!Very goes before an adverb or adjective to make it stronger.Example:q The girl was very beautiful. (adjective)q He worked very quickly. (adverb)If we want to make a negative form of an adjective or adverb, we can use aword of opposite meaning, or not very.Example:q The girl was ugly OR The girl was not very beautifulq He worked slowly OR He didnt work very quickly.BE CAREFUL! There is a big difference between too and very.q Very expresses a fact:He speaks very quickly.q Too suggests there is a problem:He speaks too quickly (for me to understand).Other adverbs like veryThese common adverbs are used like very and not very, and are listed inorder of strength, from positive to negative:extremely, especially, particularly, pretty, rather, quite, fairly, rather,not especially, not particularly.Note: rather can be positive or negative, depending on the adjective oradverb that follows:Positive: The teacher was rather nice.Negative: The film was rather disappointing.Note on inversion with negative adverbs:Normally the subject goes before the verb:
  • 81. SUBJECT VERBISheleftgoesHowever, some negative adverbs can cause an inversion - the order isreversed and the verb goes before the subjectExample:I have never seen such courage. Never have I seen such courage.She rarely left the house. Rarely did she leave the house.Negative inversion is used in writing, not in speaking.Other adverbs and adverbial expressions that can be used like this:seldom, scarcely, hardly, not only .....but also, no sooner .....than, not until, under no circumstances.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 82. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSINTERROGATIVE ADVERBSThese are:why, where, how, whenThey are usually placed at the beginning of a question.Examples:q Why are you so late?q Where is my passport?q How are you?q How much is that coat?q When does the train arrive?Notice that how can be used in four different ways:1. meaning in what way?:How did you make this sauce?How do you start the car?2. with adjectives:How tall are you?How old is your house?3. with much and many:How much are these tomatoes?How many people are coming to the party?4. with other adverbs:How quickly can you read this?How often do you go to London?The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 83. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSRELATIVE ADVERBSThe following adverbs can be used to join sentences or clauses. They replacethe more formal structure of preposition + which in a relative clause:where, when, whyExamples:q Thats the restaurant where we met for the first time.(where = at/in which)q I remember the day when we first met.(when = on which)q There was a very hot summer the year when he was born.(when = in which)q Tell me (the reason) why you were late home.(why = for which, but could replace the whole phrase the reason forwhich)The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 84. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |ADJECTIVESSection MenuFORM AND FUNCTION OF ADJECTIVESs Forms Functions OrderCOMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESs Forming the Comparative and Superlatives Irregular Comparatives and Superlativess the + Superlatives The Comparative + thans As + adjective + ass Not as + adjective + ass Comparisons of quantityThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 85. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESCOMPARATIVE + THANTo compare the difference between two people, things or events.Examples:q Mt. Everest is higher than Mt. Blanc.q Thailand is sunnier than Norway.q A car is more expensive than a bicycle.q Albert is more intelligent than Arthur.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 86. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESAS + ADJECTIVE + ASTo compare people, places, events or things, when there is no difference,use as + adjective + as:q Peter is 24 years old. John is 24 years old. Peter is as old as John.More examples:q Moscow is as cold as St. Petersburg in the winter.q Ramona is as happy as Raphael.q Einstein is as famous as Darwin.q A tiger is as dangerous as a lion.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 87. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESNOT AS + ADJECTIVE + ASDifference can also be shown by using not so/as ...as:q Mont Blanc is not as high as Mount Everestq Norway is not as sunny as Thailandq A bicycle is not as expensive as a carq Arthur is not as intelligent as AlbertThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 88. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESCOMPARISONS OF QUANTITYTo show difference: more, less, fewer + thanTo show no difference: as much as , as many as, as few as, as little asThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 89. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESCOMPARISONS OF QUANTITYTo show difference: more, less, fewer + thanExamples:With countable nouns: more / fewerq Eloise has more children than Chantal.q Chantal has fewer children than Eloise.q There are fewer dogs in Cardiff than in Bristolq I have visited fewer countries than my friend has.q He has read fewer books than she has.With uncountable nouns: more / lessq Eloise has more money than Chantal.q Chantal has less money than Eloise.q I spend less time on homework than you do.q Cats drink less water than dogs.q This new dictionary gives more information than the old one.So, the rule is:MORE + nouns that are countable or uncountableFEWER + countable nounsLESS + uncountable nounsTo show no difference see next page.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 90. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESCOMPARISONS OF QUANTITYTo show no difference: as much as , as many as, as few as, as little asq as many as / as few as + countable nounsq as much as / as little as + uncountable nounsExamples:With countable nouns:q They have as many children as us.q We have as many customers as them.q Tom has as few books as Jane.q There are as few houses in his village as in mine.q You know as many people as I do.q I have visited the States as many times as he has.With uncountable nouns:q John eats as much food as Peter.q Jim has as little food as Sam.q Youve heard as much news as I have.q Hes had as much success as his brother has.q Theyve got as little water as we have.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 91. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |NOUNSNATIONALITIESa. Country: I live in England.b. Adjective: He reads English literature.c. Noun: She is an Englishwoman.COUNTRY ADJECTIVE NOUNAfrica African an AfricanAmerica American an AmericanArgentina Argentinian an ArgentinianAustria Austrian an AustrianAutralia Australian an AustralianBangladesh Bangladesh(i) a BangladeshiBelgium Belgian a BelgianBrazil Brazilian a BrazilianBritain British a Briton/BritisherCambodia Cambodian a CambodianChile Chilean a ChileanChina Chinese a ChineseColombia Colombian a ColombianCroatia Croatian a Croatthe Czech Republic Czech a CzechDenmark Danish a DaneEngland English anEnglishman/EnglishwomanFinland Finnish a FinnFrance French a Frenchman/FrenchwomanGermany German a GermanGreece Greek a GreekHolland Dutch a Dutchman/DutchwomanHungary Hungarian a HungarianIceland Icelandic an IcelanderIndia Indian an IndianIndonesia Indonesian an IndonesianIran Iranian an IranianIraq Iraqi an IraqiIreland Irish an Irishman/IrishwomanIsrael Israeli an IsraeliJamaica Jamaican a Jamaican
  • 92. Japan Japanese a JapaneseMexico Mexican a MexicanMorocco Moroccan a MoroccanNorway Norwegian a NorwegianPeru Peruvian a Peruvianthe Philippines Philippine a FilipinoPoland Polish a PolePortugal Portuguese a PortugueseRumania Rumanian a RumanianRussia Russian a RussianSaudi Arabia Saudi, Saudi Arabian a Saudi, a Saudi ArabianScotland Scottish a ScotSerbia Serbian a Serbthe Slovak Republic Slovak a SlovakSweden Swedish a SwedeSwitzerland Swiss a SwissThailand Thai a ThaiThe USA American an AmericanTunisia Tunisian a TunisianTurkey Turkish a TurkVietnam Vietnamese a VietnameseWales Welsh a Welshman/WelshwomanYugoslavia Yugoslav a YugoslavNote: We use the + nationality adjective ending in -ese or -ish with aplural verb, to refer to all people of that nationality:The Chinese are very hard-working.The Spanish often go to sleep in the afternoon.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 93. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |INDEFINITE ARTICLEA / ANUse a with nouns starting with a consonant (letters that are not vowels),an with nouns starting with a vowel (a,e,i,o,u)Examples:A boyAn appleA carAn orangeA houseAn operaNOTE:An before an h mute - an hour, an honour.A before u and eu when they sound like you: a european, a university, aunitThe indefinite article is used:q to refer to something for the first time:An elephant and a mouse fell in love.Would you like a drink?Ive finally got a good job.q to refer to a particular member of a group or classExamples:r with names of jobs:John is a doctor.Mary is training to be an engineer.He wants to be a dancer.r with nationalities and religions:John is an Englishman.Kate is a Catholic.r with musical instruments:Sherlock Holmes was playing a violin when the visitor arrived.(BUT to describe the activity we say "He plays the violin.")r with names of days:I was born on a Thursdayq to refer to a kind of, or example of something:the mouse had a tiny nosethe elephant had a long trunkit was a very strange carq with singular nouns, after the words what and such:What a shame!Shes such a beautiful girl.
  • 94. q meaning one, referring to a single object or person:Id like an orange and two lemons please.The burglar took a diamond necklace and a valuable painting.Notice also that we usually say a hundred, a thousand, a million.NOTE: that we use one to add emphasis or to contrast with other numbers:I dont know one person who likes eating elephant meat.Weve got six computers but only one printer.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 95. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |EXCEPTIONS TO USING THE DEFINITE ARTICLEThere is no article:q with names of countries (if singular)Germany is an important economic power.Hes just returned from Zimbabwe.(But: Im visiting the United States next week.)q with the names of languagesFrench is spoken in Tahiti.English uses many words of Latin origin.Indonesian is a relatively new language.q with the names of meals.Lunch is at midday.Dinner is in the evening.Breakfast is the first meal of the day.q with peoples names (if singular):Johns coming to the party.George King is my uncle.(But: were having lunch with the Morgans tomorrow.)q with titles and names:Prince Charles is Queen Elizabeths son.President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.Dr. Watson was Sherlock Holmes friend.(But: the Queen of England, the Pope.)q After the s possessive case:His brothers car.Peters house.q with professions:Engineering is a useful career.Hell probably go into medicine.q with names of shops:Ill get the card at Smiths.Can you go to Boots for me?q with years:1948 was a wonderful year.Do you remember 1995?q With uncountable nouns:Rice is the main food in Asia.Milk is often added to tea in England.War is destructive.q with the names of individual mountains, lakes and islands:Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in Alaska.
  • 96. She lives near Lake Windermere.Have you visited Long Island?q with most names of towns, streets, stations and airports:Victoria Station is in the centre of London.Can you direct me to Bond Street?She lives in Florence.Theyre flying from Heathrow.q in some fixed expressions, for example:by carby trainby airon footon holidayon air (inbroadcasting)at schoolat workat Universityin churchin prisonin bedThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 97. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE DEMONSTRATIVESTHIS, THAT, THESE, THOSE1. FunctionThe demonstratives this, that, these, those ,show where an object orperson is in relation to the speaker.This (singular) and these (plural) refer to an object or person near thespeaker. That (singular) and those (plural) refer to an object or personfurther away. It can be a physical closeness or distance as in:Who owns that house? (distant)Is this Johns house? (near)Or it can be a psychological distance as in:Thats nothing to do with me.. (distant)This is a nice surprise! (near)2. Positiona) Before the noun.b) Before the word one.c) Before an adjective + noun.d) Alone when the noun is understood.Examples:This car looks cleaner than that one.This old world keeps turning roundDo you remember that wonderful day in June?Ill never forget this.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 98. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE POSSESSIVESPossessive pronouns and possessive adjectives show who the thing belongs to.PERSON ADJECTIVES PRONOUNS1st (I) my mine2nd (you) your yours3rd (he) his his(she) her hers(it) it itsPlural1st (we) our ours2nd (you) your yours3rd (they) their theirsNOTE: In English, possessive adjectives and pronouns refer to the possessor,not the object or person that is possessed.Example:Janes brother is married to Johns sister.Her brother is married to his sister.Examples:a. Peter and his sister.b. Jane and her father.c. Do you know where your books are?d. Is this their picnic? No, it is ours.e. I think this is your passport. Yes, it is mine.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 99. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE QUANTIFIERSQuantifiers are adjectives and adjectival phrases that give approximateanswers to the questions "How much?" and "How many?"Example:Ive got a little money.Ive got a lot of friends.r Quantifiers with countable and uncountable nounsr A few and few, a little and littler Some and anyr Compound nouns made with SOME, ANY and NOr Graded Quantifiersr Enough + NounThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 100. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE QUANTIFIERSQuantifiers with countableand uncountable nounsAdjectives and adjectival phrases that describe quantity are shown below.Some can only go with countable nouns (friends, cups, people), and somecan only go with uncountable nouns (sugar, tea, money, advice). The wordsin the middle column can be used with both countable and uncountablenouns.Only withuncountable nounsWith uncountableand countable nounsOnly withcountable nounsHow much? How much? or How many? How many?a little no/none a fewa bit (of) not any a number (of)- some (any) severala great deal of a lot of a large number ofa large amount of plenty of a great number of- lots of -+ nounNote: much and many are used in negative and question forms.Example:q How much money have you got?q How many cigarettes have you smoked?q Theres not much sugar in the cupboard.q There werent many people at the concert.They are also used with too, (not) so, and (not) as :There were too manypeople at the concert - we couldnt see the band.Its a problem when there are so many people.Theres not so much work to do this week.In positive statements, we use a lot of:q Ive got a lot of work this week.q There were a lot of people at the concert.
  • 101. The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 102. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE QUANTIFIERSA few and few, a little and littleThese expressions show the speakers attitude towards the quantity he/she isreferring to.A few (for countable nouns) and a little (for uncountable nouns) describethe quantity in a positive way:q "Ive got a few friends" (= maybe not many, but enough)q "Ive got a little money" (= Ive got enough to live on)Few and little describe the quantity in a negative way:q Few people visited him in hospital (= he had almost no visitors)q He had little money (= almost no money)The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 103. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE QUANTIFIERSSome and AnySome and any are used with countable and uncountable nouns, to describean indefinite or incomplete quantity.Some is used in positive statements:q I had some rice for lunchq Hes got some books from the library.It is also used in questions where we are sure about the answer:q Did he give you some tea? (= Im sure he did.)q Is there some fruit juice in the fridge? (= I think there is)Some is used in situations where the question is not a request forinformation, but a method of making a request, encouraging or giving aninvitation:q Could I have some books, please?q Why dont you take some books home with you?q Would you like some books?Any is used in questions and with not in negative statements:q Have you got any tea?q He didnt give me any tea.q I dont think weve got any coffee left.More examples:SOME in positive sentences.a. I will have some news next week.b. She has some valuable books in her house.c. Philip wants some help with his exams.d. There is some butter in the fridge.e. We need some cheese if we want to make a fondue.SOME in questions:a. Would you like some help?b. Will you have some more roast beef?ANY in negative sentencesa. She doesnt want any kitchen appliances for Christmas.b. They dont want any help moving to their new house.c. No, thank you. I dont want any more cake.d. There isnt any reason to complain.ANY in interrogative sentencesa. Do you have any friends in London?
  • 104. b. Have they got any children?c. Do you want any groceries from the shop?d. Are there any problems with your work?The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 105. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE QUANTIFIERSCompound nouns made with SOME, ANY and NOSome +-thing -body -one -whereAny +No +Compound nouns with some- and any- are used in the same way as some andany.Positive statements:q Someone is sleeping in my bed.q He saw something in the garden.q I left my glasses somewhere in the house.Questions:q Are you looking for someone? (= Im sure you are)q Have you lost something? (= Im sure you have)q Is there anything to eat? (real question)q Did you go anywhere last night?Negative statements:q She didnt go anywhere last night.q He doesnt know anybody here.NOTICE that there is a difference in emphasis between nothing, nobody etc.and not ... anything, not ... anybody:q I dont know anything about it. (= neutral, no emphasis)q I know nothing about it (= more emphatic, maybe defensive)More examples:SOMETHING, SOMEBODY, SOMEWHEREa. I have something to tell you.b. There is something to drink in the fridge.c. He knows somebody in New Yorkd. Susie has somebody staying with her.e. They want to go somewhere hot for their holidays.f. Keith is looking for somewhere to live.ANYBODY, ANYTHING, ANYWHEREa. Is there anybody who speaks English here?b. Does anybody have the time?c. Is there anything to eat?d. Have you anything to say?e. He doesnt have anything to stay tonight.
  • 106. f. I wouldnt eat anything except at Maxims.NOBODY, NOTHING, NOWHEREa. There is nobody in the house at the momentb. When I arrived there was nobody to meet me.c. I have learnt nothing since I began the course.d. There is nothing to eat.e. There is nowhere as beautiful as Paris in the Spring.f. Homeless people have nowhere to go at night.ANY can also be used in positive statements to mean no matter which, nomatter who, no matter what:Examples:a. You can borrow any of my books.b. They can choose anything from the menu.c. You may invite anybody to dinner, I dont mind.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 107. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE QUANTIFIERSGraded QuantifiersThey function like comparatives and hold a relativeposition on a scale of increase or decrease.INCREASE From 0% to 100%With plural countable nouns:many more mostWith uncountable nouns:much more mostDECREASE From 100% to 0%With plural countable nouns:few fewer fewestWith uncountable nouns:little less leastExamples:q There are many people in England, more in India,but the most people live in China.q Much time and money is spent on education, moreon health services but the most is spent onnational defence.q Few rivers in Europe are not polluted.q Fewer people die young now than in theseventeenth century.q The country with the fewest people per squarekilometre must be Australia.q Scientists have little hope of finding a completecure for cancer before the year 2,000.q She had less time to study than Paul but had betterresults.q Give that dog the least opportunity and it will biteyou.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 108. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE QUANTIFIERSEnough + NounEnough is placed before the noun, to indicate the quantity required ornecessary:q There is enough bread for lunch.q She has enough money.Enough is also used with adjectives and adverbs - see these sections.q We didnt have enough time to visit London Bridge.q Are there enough eggs to make an omelette?q Richard has enough talent to become a singing star.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 109. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE DISTRIBUTIVESALL, BOTH, HALFEACH, EVERY, EITHER, NEITHERThese words refer to a group of people or things, and to individual members of thegroup. They show different ways of looking at the individuals within a group, andthey express how something is distributed, shared or divided.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 110. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE DISTRIBUTIVESALL, BOTH, HALFThese words can be used in the following ways:ALL +1234a4b-themy, your, etc.this, thatthese, thoseUncountable nounorCountable noun in the pluralUncountable nounCountable noun in the pluralExample:1. All cheese contains proteinAll children need affection2. All the people in the room were silent.Have you eaten all the bread?3. Ive invited all my friends to the party.Ive been waiting all my life for this opportunity.4a. Whos left all this paper on my desk?4b. Look at all those balloons!BOTH +1234-themy, your, etc.these, thoseCountable noun in the pluralExample:1. Both children were born in Italy.2. He has crashed both (of) the cars.3. Both (of) my parents have fair hair.4 You can take both (of) these books back to thelibrary.See note below
  • 111. HALF +1234athemy, your, etc.this, that,these, thoseUncountableorcountable nounExample:1. I bought half a kilo of apples yesterday.2. You can have half (of) the cake.She gave me half (of) the apples.3. Ive already given you half (of) my money.Half (of) his books were in French.4 Half (of) these snakes are harmlessYou can take half (of) this sugar.NOTE: All, both, half + OF: OF must be added when followed by a pronoun:All of you; both of us; half of themIt is also quite common to add it in most of the above situations except whenthere is no article (No.1 in all the tables above.).The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 112. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE DISTRIBUTIVESEACH, EVERY, EITHER, NEITHERThese distributive words are normally used with singular nouns, and areplaced before the noun.Each, either and neither can be used with plural nouns but must befollowed by of:Each is a way of seeing the members of a group as individuals:q Each child received a present.q Each of the children received a present.Every is a way of seeing a group as a series of members:q Every child in the world deserves affection.It can also express different points in a series, especially with timeexpressions:q Every third morning John goes jogging.q This magazine is published every other week.Either and Neither are concerned with distribution between two things -either is positive, neither is negative:q Which chair do you want? Either chair will do.q I can stay at either hotel, they are both goodq There are two chairs here. You can take either of them.q Neither chair is any good, theyre both too small.q Which chair do you want? Neither of them - theyre both too small..The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 113. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |DIFFERENCE WORDSOTHER, ANOTHERThese words refer to something different, remaining, or additional.They are placed before the noun.Another is used with singular nouns, other with singular or plural.q There are other jobs you could try.q Wheres the other packet of cereals?q Is there any other bread?q Have another cup of tea.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 114. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |QUESTION WORDSWHICH, WHAT, WHOSEIn questions, these words ask which thing or person is being referred to. Theyare placed before the noun.q Which dress are you going to wear tonight?q What colour is your dress?q Whose car are you going to use?The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 115. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |DEFINING WORDSWHICH AND WHOSEIn a statement, these words define or explain which thing or person isreferred to:Example:q He went back to the house. (Which house?) The house which stood onthe corner. = He went back to the house which stood on the corner.q I saw the man. (Which man?) The man whose car you damaged. = Isaw the man whose car you damaged.More examples:q He couldnt remember which film he had seen.q Thats the man whose wife works in my office.q Tell me which coffee you like.q The woman whose dog bit you is at the door.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 116. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |PRE-DETERMINERSSUCH, WHAT, RATHER, QUITEThese words are normally placed before the indefinite article.Such and what are often used to express surprise or other emotions:Examples:a. What a lovely day!b. Shes such a lovely woman!c. What an incredible film!d. Hes such a fantastic guitarist!Rather and quite are commenting words, referring to the degree of aparticular quality. They can express disappointment, pleasure, or otheremotions, and are used before a/an + adjective + noun:Examples:a. Its rather a small car. (= Im a bit disappointed because its small)b. It was quite a nice day.(= I was agreeably surprised.)c. Hes had quite a bad accident. (= Im worried)d. Ive just met rather a nice man. (= Im pleased)The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 117. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE INFINITIVEThe zero infinitive is used:a. after most auxiliaries (e.g. must, can, should, may, might)b. after verbs of perception, (e.g. see, hear, feel) with the pattern verb +object + zero infinitivec. after the verbs make and let, with the pattern make/let + object + zeroinfinitived. after the expression had bettere. after the expression would ratherwhen referring to the speakers own actionsExamples:After auxiliaries:q She cant speak to you.q He should give her some money.q Shall I talk to him?q Would you like a cup of coffee?q I might stay another night in the hotel.q They must leave before 10.00 a.m.After verbs of perception:q He saw her fall from the cliff.q We heard them close the door.q They saw us walk toward the lake.q She felt the spider crawl up her leg.After the verbs make and let:q Her parents let her stay out late.q Lets go to the cinema tonight.q You made me love you.q Dont make me study that boring grammar book!NOTICE that the to-infinitive is used when make is in the passive voice:q I am made to sweep the floor every day.q She was made to eat fish even though she hated it.After had better:
  • 118. We had better take some warm clothing.She had better ask him not to come.Youd better not smile at a crocodile!We had better reserve a room in the hotel.Youd better give me your address.They had better work harder on their grammar!After would rather:Note: this is ONLY when referring to the speakers own actions - see wouldrather in section on Unreal past.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 119. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE INFINITIVE1. FormThe infinitive is the base form of a verb. It may be preceded by to (the to-infinitive) or stand alone (the base or zero infinitive).2. Infinitive with or without toThe to-infinitive is used:a. after certain verbs. e.g. want, wish, agree, fail, mean, decide, learnb. after the auxiliaries to be to, to have to, and ought toc. in the pattern it is + adjective + to-infinitiveExamples:with toq The elephant decided to marry the mouseq The mouse agreed to marry the elephantq You will have to ask herq You are to leave immediatelyq He ought to relaxq She has to go to Berlin next weekq Its easy to speak Englishq It is hard to change jobs after twenty yearsq Its stupid to believe everything you hearwithout toq I would rather visit Rome.q She would rather live in Italy.q Would you rather eat steak or fish?q He would rather work in a bank.q Id rather be a forest than a tree.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 120. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE ZERO CONDITIONAL1. FormIn zero conditional sentences, the tense in both parts of the sentence is thesimple present:IF CLAUSE (CONDITION) MAIN CLAUSE (RESULT)If + simple presentIf you heat iceIf it rainssimple presentit melts.you get wetNOTE: The order of the clauses is not fixed - the if clause can be first orsecond:q Ice melts if you heat it.q You get wet if it rains.2. FunctionIn these sentences, the time is now or always and the situation is real andpossible. They are used to make statements about the real world, and oftenrefer to general truths, such as scientific facts.Examples:a. If you freeze water, it becomes a solid.b. Plants die if they dont get enough water.c. If my husband has a cold, I usually catch it.d. If public transport is efficient, people stop using their cars.e. If you mix red and blue, you get purple.This structure is often used to give instructions, using the imperative in themain clause:q If Bill phones, tell him to meet me at the cinema.q Ask Pete if youre not sure what to do.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 121. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE INFINITIVEVERBS NORMALLY FOLLOWED BY THE INFINITIVEC. These are the most common of the verbs followed by a to-infinitive, withor without a noun.Example:q I asked him to show me the book.q I asked to see the book.ask*beg*choosedaredesire*electexpect*helpmean* (=intend)request*wantwish*The verbs marked * can also be followed by a that-clauseNote:dare: In negative and interrogative sentences the infinitive with or withoutto is possible, though it is more common to omit the to:q I never dared tell him what happened.q Dare you tell him the news?q Would you dare (to) jump out of a plane?Examples:q Weve chosen John to represent the company at the conference.q The elephant didnt mean to tread on the mouse.q We expect you to do your best in the exam.q Do you want to go to the beach?q Do you want me to go with you to the beach?q You are requested to be quiet in this library.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 122. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |REPORTED SPEECHSUMMARY OF REPORTING VERBSNote that some reporting verbs may appear in more than one of the followinggroups.1. Verbs followed by if or whether + clause:askknowremembersaysee2. Verbs followed by a that-clause:addadmitagreeannounceanswerargueboastclaimcommentcomplainconfirmconsiderdenydoubtestimateexplainfearfeelinsistmentionobservepersuadeproposeremarkrememberrepeatreplyreportrevealsaystatesuggestsupposetellthinkunderstandwarn3. Verbs followed by either a that-clause or a to-infinitive:decideexpectguaranteehopepromiseswearthreaten4. Verbs followed by a that-clause containing should(but note that it may be omitted, leaving a subject + zero-infinitive):advisebegdemandinsistpreferproposerecommendrequestsuggest5. Verbs followed by a clause starting with a question word:
  • 123. decidedescribediscoverdiscussexplainforgetguessimagineknowlearnrealiserememberrevealsayseesuggestteachtellthinkunderstandwonder6. Verbs followed by object + to-infinitiveadviseaskbegcommandforbidinstructinviteteachtellwarnThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 124. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |- ING FORMVERBS FOLLOWED BY THE GERUNDThe gerund is used after certain verbs.Example:miss: I miss living in England.The most important of these verbs are shown below.Those marked * can also be followed by a that-clauseExample:VERB GERUNDShe admitted... breaking the windowTHAT-CLAUSEShe admitted... that she had broken the window.acknowledge,*admit,*anticipate,* appreciate,*avoid,celebrate,consider, contemplate,defer,delay,deny,*detest,dislike,dread,enjoy,entail,escape,excuse,fancy (=imagine)*,finish,forgive,imagine,*involve,keep,loathe,mean,(=have as result)*mention,*mind,miss,pardon,postpone,prevent,propose,*recall,*recollect,*remember,report,*resent,resist,risk,save (=prevent the wastedeffort)stop,suggest,*understand,*Notes:Appreciate is followed by a possessive adjective and the gerund when thegerund does not refer to the subject. Compare :I appreciate having some time off work. (Im having the time...)I appreciate your giving me some time off work. (Youre giving me thetime...)
  • 125. Excuse, forgive, pardon can be followed by an object and the gerund or for+ object and the gerund (both common in spoken English), or a possessiveadjective + gerund (more formal and less likely to be said):Excuse me interrupting.Excuse me for interrupting.Excuse my interrupting.Suggest can be used in a number of ways, but BE CAREFUL. It is importantnot to confuse these patterns:suggest/suggested (+ possessive adjective) + gerund:He suggests going to GlastonburyHe suggested going to GlastonburyHe suggested/suggests my going to Glastonburysuggest/suggested + that-clause (where both that and shouldmay be omitted):He suggests that I should go to GlastonburyHe suggested that I should go to GlastonburyHe suggested/suggests I should go to GlastonburyHe suggested/suggests I go to GlastonburyHe suggested I went to Glastonbury.suggest/suggested + question word + infinitive:He suggested where to go.Propose is followed by the gerund when it means suggest:John proposed going to the debatebut by the infinitive when it means intend:The Government proposes bringing in new laws..Stop can be followed by a gerund or infinitive, but there is a change ofmeaning - see GERUND / INFINITIVE? section.Dread is followed by the infinitive when used with think, in the expression Idread to think:I dread to think what shell do next.Prevent is followedEITHER by a possessive adjective + gerund:You cant prevent my leaving.OR by an object + from + gerund:You cant prevent me from leaving.Examples:q Normally, a mouse wouldnt contemplate marrying an elephant.q Most mice dread meeting elephants.q We cant risk getting wet - we havent got any dry clothes.q If you take that job it will mean getting home late every night.q I cant imagine living in that big house.q If you buy some petrol now, it will save you stopping on the way toLondon.q She couldnt resist eating the plum she found in the fridge.q They decided to postpone painting the house until the weatherimproved.
  • 126. The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 127. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |- ING FORMGERUND OR INFINITIVE?The two groups of verbs below can be followed either by the gerund or bythe infinitive. Usually this has no effect on the meaning, but with some verbsthere is a clear difference in meaning. Verbs marked * can also be followedby a that-clause.Example: to preferI prefer to live in an apartment.I prefer living in an apartment.A. Verbs where there is little or no difference in meaning:allowattemptbeginbotherceasecontinuedeservefear*hate*intend*likeloveneglectomitpermitprefer*recommend*startNotes:1. Allow is used in these two patterns:a. Allow + object + to-infinitive:Her parents allowed her to go to the party.b. Allow + gerund:Her parents dont allow smoking in the house.2. Deserve + gerund is not very common, but is mainly used with passiveconstructions or where there is a passive meaning:a. Your proposals deserve being considered in detail.b. These ideas deserve discussing. (= to be discussed).3. The verbs hate, love, like, prefer are usually followed by a gerund whenthe meaning is general, and by a to-infinitive when they refer to a particulartime or situation. You must always use the to-infinitive with the expressionswould love to, would hate to, etc.Compare:q I hate to tell you, but Uncle Jim is coming this weekend.q I hate looking after elderly relatives!q I love dancing.q I would love to dance with you.
  • 128. The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 129. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |irregular verbs introduction pageCOMMON GROUP 2 ENGLISH IRREGULAR VERBSTwo of the three forms are the same.Examples with catch:q Mary catches the bus to work every day.q Mary caught the bus to work yesterday.q Mary has caught the bus to work since her car broke down.Base Past Past Participle Group Notebeat beat beaten 2become became become 2behold beheld beheld 2bend bent bent 2beseech besought besought 2bet bet, betted bet, betted 2bind bound bound 2bleed bled bled 2breed bred bred 2bring brought brought 2build built built 2burn burnt, burned burnt, burned 2 regular in AEbuy bought bought 2catch caught caught 2cling clung clung 2come came come 2creep crept crept 2dare dared dared 2deal dealt dealt 2dig dug dug 2dive dived dived 2dream dreamt dreamt 2 regular in AEdwell dwelt,dwelled dwelt,dwelled 2feed fed fed 2feel felt felt 2fight fought fought 2find found found 2fit fit, fitted fit, fitted 2 regular in BEflee fled fled 2fling flung flung 2get got got, gotten 2 gotten in AEgild gilt, gilded gilt, gilded 2gird girt, girded girt, girded 2grind ground ground 2
  • 130. hang hung hung 2have had had 2hear heard heard 2hold held held 2keep kept kept 2kneel knelt knelt 2lay laid laid 2lead led led 2leap leapt, leaped leapt, leaped 2learn learnt learnt 2 regular in AEleave left left 2lend lent lent 2light lit lit 2lose lost lost 2make made made 2mean meant meant 2meet met met 2pay paid paid 2plead pled, pleaded pled, pleaded 2rend rent rent 2run ran run 2say said said 2seek sought sought 2sell sold sold 2send sent sent 2shine shone shone 2sit sat sat 2sleep slept slept 2slide slid slid 2sling slung slung 2slink slunk slunk 2smell smelt smelt 2 regular in AEsneak snuck, sneaked snuck, sneaked 2speed sped, speeded sped, speeded 2spell spelt spelt 2 regular in AEspend spent spent 2spill spilt spilt 2 regular in AEspin spun spun 2spit spat spat 2spoil spoilt, spoiled spoilt, spoiled 2stand stood stood 2stick stuck stuck 2sting stung stung 2strike struck struck 2sweep swept swept 2swing swung swung 2teach taught taught 2tell told told 2
  • 131. think thought thought 2understand understood understood 2weep wept wept 2wet wet, wetted wet, wetted 2 regular in BEwin won won 2wind wound wound 2withdraw withdrew withdraw 2wring wrung wrung 2AE=American EnglishBE=British EnglishThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 132. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |ENGLISH IRREGULAR VERBSIrregular verbs are the bane of students whose mother tongue is not English and who are trying tounderstand how these verbs are applied in various tenses. They even trip up native English speakerswho arent always sure of the form of these verbs! It isnt made any easier by the fact that someverbs are regular in American English and irregular in British English.However, there are some general classifications that make it a little easier to remember how theseverbs are formed and to remember them when applying them in your sentences.Irregular verbs in English fall into three categories:1. GROUP 1: verbs where all three forms are the same - e.g. hit, hit, hit2. GROUP 2: verbs where two of the three forms are the same - e.g. become,became,become3. GROUP 3: verbs where all three forms are different - e.g. choose,chose,chosenCommon irregular verbs that differ in American English and British Englishq wake can be regular in American English but is irregular in British Englishq dive is irregular in American English but regular in British Englishq get in American English usually has a past particple of gotten while in British English thepast participle is gotq wet,quit,and fit are regular in British English but irregular in American Englishq learn,lean,smell,burn,dream,spill and spoil are all regular in American English while inBritish English they can be regular but is more common to see the past and past participleswith -t added (e.g. dreamt,spoilt,spilt,smelt)The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 133. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |irregular verbs introduction pageCOMMON GROUP 1 ENGLISH IRREGULAR VERBSAll three forms are the same.Base Past Past Participle Group Notebid bid bid 1cut cut cut 1hit hit hit 1hurt hurt hurt 1let let let 1put put put 1quit quit quit 1 regular in BEread read read 1rid rid rid 1shut shut shut 1split split split 1spread spread spread 1thrust thrust thrust 1AE=American EnglishBE=British EnglishThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 134. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |irregular verbs introduction pageCOMMON GROUP 3 ENGLISH IRREGULAR VERBSAll of the three forms are different.Examples with begin:q I begin my day with a glass of organge juice.q I began to study French when I was living in Paris.q I have begun to understand my parents since I have had children of my own.Base Past Past Participle Group Notearise arose arisen 3awake awoke, awaked awoken 3be was been 3bear bore borne 3befall befell befallen 3beget begot begotten 3begin began begun 3bereave bereaved bereft 3bestride bestrode bestridden 3bid bade bidden 3bite bit bitten 3blow blew blown 3blow blew blown 3break broke broken 3broadcast broadcast broadcast 3burst burst burst 3cast cast cast 3choose chose chosen 3cost cost cost 3dive dove dived 3 regular in BEdo did done 3draw drew drawn 3drink drank drunk 3drive drove driven 3eat ate eaten 3fall fell fallen 3fly flew flown 3forbear forbore forborne 3forbid forbade forbidden 3forget forgot forgotten 3forgive forgave forgiven 3forsake forsook forsaken 3
  • 135. freeze froze frozen 3give gave given 3go went gone 3grow grew grown 3hide hid hidden 3know knew known 3lie lay lain 3melt melted melted, molten 3mow mowed mown, mowed 3ride rode ridden 3ring rang rung 3rise rose risen 3rise rose risen 3see saw seen 3sew sewed sewn 3shake shook shaken 3shear sheared shorn, sheared 3shed shed shed 3shoe shod, shoed shone 3shoot shot shone 3show showed shown 3shrink shrank shrunk 3sing sang sung 3sink sank sunk 3slit slit slit 3smite smote smitten 3speak spoke spoken 3spring sprang sprung 3steal stole stolen 3stride strode stridden 3swear swore sworn 3swim swam swum 3take took taken 3tear tore torn 3throw threw thrown 3tread trod trodden 3tread trod trodden 3undergo underwent undergone 3undertake undertook undertaken 3wake woke woken 3 can be regular in AEwear wore worn 3weave wove woven 3write wrote written 3AE=American EnglishBE=British EnglishThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 136. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |ENGLISH IRREGULAR VERBSBase Past Past Participle Grouparise arose arisen 3awake awoke, awaked awoken 3be was been 3bear bore borne 3beat beat beaten 2become became become 2befall befell befallen 3beget begot begotten 3begin began begun 3behold beheld beheld 2bend bent bent 2bereave bereaved bereft 3beseech besought besought 2bestride bestrode bestridden 3bet bet, betted bet, betted 2bid bade bidden 3bid bid bid 1bind bound bound 2bite bit bitten 3bleed bled bled 2blow blew blown 3blow blew blown 3break broke broken 3breed bred bred 2bring brought brought 2broadcast broadcast broadcast 3build built built 2burn burnt, burned burnt, burned 2burst burst burst 3buy bought bought 2cast cast cast 3catch caught caught 2choose chose chosen 3cling clung clung 2come came come 2cost cost cost 3creep crept crept 2cut cut cut 1dare dared dared 2deal dealt dealt 2
  • 137. dig dug dug 2dive dove dived 3dive dived dived 2do did done 3draw drew drawn 3dream dreamt dreamt 2drink drank drunk 3drive drove driven 3dwell dwelt,dwelled dwelt,dwelled 2eat ate eaten 3fall fell fallen 3feed fed fed 2feel felt felt 2fight fought fought 2find found found 2fit fit, fitted fit, fitted 2flee fled fled 2fling flung flung 2fly flew flown 3forbear forbore forborne 3forbid forbade forbidden 3forget forgot forgotten 3forgive forgave forgiven 3forsake forsook forsaken 3freeze froze frozen 3get got got, gotten 2gild gilt, gilded gilt, gilded 2gird girt, girded girt, girded 2give gave given 3go went gone 3grind ground ground 2grow grew grown 3hang hung hung 2have had had 2hear heard heard 2hide hid hidden 3hit hit hit 1hold held held 2hurt hurt hurt 1keep kept kept 2kneel knelt knelt 2know knew known 3lay laid laid 2lead led led 2leap leapt, leaped leapt, leaped 2learn learnt learnt 2leave left left 2lend lent lent 2
  • 138. let let let 1lie lay lain 3light lit lit 2lose lost lost 2make made made 2mean meant meant 2meet met met 2melt melted melted, molten 3mow mowed mown, mowed 3pay paid paid 2plead pled, pleaded pled, pleaded 2put put put 1quit quit quit 1read read read 1rend rent rent 2rid rid rid 1ride rode ridden 3ring rang rung 3rise rose risen 3rise rose risen 3run ran run 2say said said 2see saw seen 3seek sought sought 2sell sold sold 2send sent sent 2sew sewed sewn 3shake shook shaken 3shear sheared shorn, sheared 3shed shed shed 3shine shone shone 2shoe shod, shoed shone 3shoot shot shone 3show showed shown 3shrink shrank shrunk 3shut shut shut 1sing sang sung 3sink sank sunk 3sit sat sat 2sleep slept slept 2slide slid slid 2sling slung slung 2slink slunk slunk 2slit slit slit 3smell smelt smelt 2smite smote smitten 3sneak snuck, sneaked snuck, sneaked 2speak spoke spoken 3
  • 139. speed sped, speeded sped, speeded 2spell spelt spelt 2spend spent spent 2spill spilt spilt 2spin spun spun 2spit spat spat 2split split split 1spoil spoilt, spoiled spoilt, spoiled 2spread spread spread 1spring sprang sprung 3stand stood stood 2steal stole stolen 3stick stuck stuck 2sting stung stung 2stride strode stridden 3strike struck struck 2swear swore sworn 3sweep swept swept 2swim swam swum 3swing swung swung 2take took taken 3teach taught taught 2tear tore torn 3tell told told 2think thought thought 2throw threw thrown 3thrust thrust thrust 1tread trod trodden 3tread trod trodden 3undergo underwent undergone 3understand understood understood 2undertake undertook undertaken 3wake woke woken 3wear wore worn 3weave wove woven 3weep wept wept 2wet wet, wetted wet, wetted 2win won won 2wind wound wound 2withdraw withdrew withdraw 2wring wrung wrung 2write wrote written 3The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 140. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE INFINITIVEVERBS NORMALLY FOLLOWED BY THE INFINITIVEB. These are the most common of the verbs that are normally followed by anoun + infinitive. The verbs marked * may also be followed by a that-clause.Example:VERB NOUN INFINITIVEHe reminded me to buy some eggs.THAT-CLAUSEHe reminded me that I had to buy some eggs.accustomaidappointassistcausechallengecommand*defydirect*driveempowerenableencourageenticeentitleentreatforcegetimplore*inciteinduceinspireinstruct*inviteleadleave (make someone responsible)obligeorder*persuade*presspromptprovokeremind*require*stimulatesummonteachtelltempttrust*warn*Notes:command, direct, entreat, implore, order, require, trust:there is no noun between these verbs and a that-clause:q The general commanded his men to surrender.q The general commanded that his men should surrender.persuade and remind:there is always a noun between these verbs and a that-clause:q You cant persuade people to buy small cars.q You cant persuade people that small cars are better.instruct, teach, warn:the noun is optional between these verbs and a that-clause:q She taught her students to appreciate poetry.q She taught her students that poetry was valuable.q She taught that poetry was valuable.
  • 141. Examples:q The professor challenged his students to argue with his theory.q This law empowers the government to charge more taxes.q You cant force me to do something I dont agree with.q You are obliged to drive on the left in England.q I invited the new student to have dinner with me.q What inspired you to write this poem?q The elephant told the mouse to climb up his tail.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 142. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE INFINITIVEVERBS NORMALLY FOLLOWED BY THE INFINITIVEA. The to-infinitive is used after the verbs in this group, without apreceding noun. The verbs marked * can also be followed by a that-clauseExample:VERB TO-INFINITIVEI hope... to see you next week.THAT- CLAUSEI hope... that Ill see you next weekaffordagree*aimappear †arrange*bothercareclaim*condescendconsentdecide*demand*determine*endeavourfailguarantee*happen †hastenhave (= be obliged)hesitatehope*learnlongmanageofferpreparepretend*proceedpromise*proposeprove (= turn out)refuse resolve*seekseem †striveswear*tendthreaten*troubleundertakevolunteervow*† These verbs can only be followed by a that-clause when they have thesubject it. e.g. It appeared that no-one had locked the door.Examples:q He claimed to be an expert.q I managed to reach the top of the hill.q I know youre only pretending to love me!q Dont pretend that you know the answer.q She failed to explain the problem clearly.q The customs man demanded to search our luggage.q I cant afford to go out tonight.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 143. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESPRESENT CONTINUOUS1. Present continuous, formThe present continuous of any verb is composed of two parts - the presenttense of the verb to be + the present participle of the main verb.(The form of the present participle is: base+ing, e.g. talking, playing,moving, smiling)AffirmativeSubject + to be + base+ingshe is talkingNegativeSubject + to be + not + base+ingshe is not (isnt) talkingInterrogativeto be + subject + base+ingis she talking?Example: to go, present continuousAffirmative Negative InterrogativeI am going I am not going Am I going?You are going You arent going. Are you going?He, she, it is going He, she, it isnt going Is he, she, it going?We are going We arent going Are we going?You are going You arent going Are you going?They are going They arent going Are they going?Note: alternative negative contractions: Im not going, youre not going, hesnot going etc.2. Present continuous, functionAs with all tenses in English, the speakers attitude is as important as thetime of the action or event. When someone uses the present continuous,they are thinking about something that is unfinished or incomplete.The present continuous is used:
  • 144. q to describe an action that is going on at this moment e.g. You are using theInternet. You are studying English grammar.q to describe an action that is going on during this period of time or a trend, e.g.Are you still working for the same company? More and more people are becomingvegetarian.q to describe an action or event in the future, which has already been planned orprepared (See also Ways of expressing the future) e.g. Were going on holidaytomorrow. Im meeting my boyfriend tonight. Are they visiting you next winter?q to describe a temporary event or situation, e.g. He usually plays the drums, buthes playing bass guitar tonight. The weather forecast was good, but its raining atthe moment.q with always, forever, constantly, to describe and emphasise a continuing series ofrepeated actions, e.g. Harry and Sally are always arguing! Youre forevercomplaining about your mother-in-law!BE CAREFUL! Some verbs are not used in the continuous form - see below.3. Verbs that are not normally used in the continuous formThe verbs in the list below are normally used in the simple form, becausethey refer to states, rather than actions or processes:List of common verbs normally used in simple form:Senses / Perceptionfeel*, hear, see*, smell, tasteOpinionassume, believe, consider, doubt, feel (= think), find (= consider),suppose, think*Mental statesforget, imagine, know, mean, notice, recognise, remember, understandEmotions / desiresenvy, fear, dislike, hate, hope, like, love, mind, prefer, regret, want,wishMeasurementcontain, cost, hold, measure, weighOtherslook (=resemble), seem, be (in most cases), have (when it means topossess)*Notes:1. Perception verbs (see, hear, feel, taste, smell) are often used with can:e.g. I can see...2. * These verbs may be used in the continuous form but with a differentmeaning, compare:a. This coat feels nice and warm. (= your perception of the coats qualities)b. Johns feeling much better now (= his health is improving)a. She has three dogs and a cat. (=possession)b. Shes having supper. (= Shes eating)
  • 145. a. I can see Anthony in the garden (= perception)b. Im seeing Anthony later (= We are planning to meet)Examples:q I wish I was in Greece now.q She wants to see him now.q I dont understand why he is shouting.q I feel we are making a mistake.q This glass holds half a litre..The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 146. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESSIMPLE PASTBE CAREFUL! The simple past in English may look like a tense in your ownlanguage, but the meaning may be different.1. Simple past, formRegular verbs: base+ede.g. walked, showed, watched, played, smiled, stoppedIrregular verbs: see list in verbsSimple past, be, have, do:SubjectVerbBe Have DoI was had didYou were had didHe, she, it was had didWe were had didYou were had didThey were had didAffirmativea. I was in Japan last yearb. She had a headache yesterday.c. We did our homework last night.Negative and interrogativeNote: For the negative and interrogative simple past form of "do" as anordinary verb, use the auxiliary "do", e.g. We didnt do our homework lastnight. The negative of "have" in the simple past is usually formed using theauxiliary "do", but sometimes by simply adding not or the contraction "nt".The interrogative form of "have" in the simple past normally uses theauxiliary "do".q They werent in Rio last summer.q We hadnt any money.q We didnt have time to visit the Eiffel Tower.q We didnt do our exercises this morning.q Were they in Iceland last January?q Did you have a bicycle when you were a boy?q Did you do much climbing in Switzerland?Simple past, regular verbsAffirmative
  • 147. Subject verb + edI washedNegativeSubject did not infinitive without toThey didnt visit ...InterrogativeDid subject infinitive without toDid she arrive...?Interrogative negativeDid not subject infinitive without toDidnt you like..?Example: to walk, simple past.Affirmative Negative InterrogativeI walked I didnt walk Did I walk?You walked You didnt walk Did you walk?He,she,it walked He didnt walk Did he walk?We walked We didnt walk Did we walk?You walked You didnt walk Did you walk?They walked They didnt walk Did they walk?Note: For the negative and interrogative form of all verbs in the simple past,always use the auxiliary did.Examples: Simple past, irregular verbsto goa. He went to a club last night.b. Did he go to the cinema last night?c. He didnt go to bed early last night.to gived. We gave her a doll for her birthday.e. They didnt give John their new address.f. Did Barry give you my passport?to comeg. My parents came to visit me last July.h. We didnt come because it was raining.i. Did he come to your party last week?2. Simple past, functionThe simple past is used to talk about a completed action in a time beforenow. Duration is not important. The time of the action can be in the recentpast or the distant past.q John Cabot sailed to America in 1498.q My father died last year.q He lived in Fiji in 1976.q We crossed the Channel yesterday.You always use the simple past when you say when something happened, soit is associated with certain past time expressions
  • 148. Examples:q frequency:often, sometimes, always;q a definite point in time:last week, when I was a child, yesterday, six weeks ago.q an indefinite point in time:the other day, ages ago, a long time ago etc.Note: the word ago is a useful way of expressing the distance into the past.It is placed after the period of time e.g. a week ago, three years ago, aminute ago.Examples:a. Yesterday, I arrived in Geneva.b. She finished her work at seven oclock.c. We saw a good film last week.d. I went to the theatre last night.e. She played the piano when she was a child.f. He sent me a letter six months ago.g. Peter left five minutes ago.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 149. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESFUTURE FORMSIntroductionThere are a number of different ways of referring to the future in English. Itis important to remember that we are expressing more than simply the timeof the action or event. Obviously, any future tense will always refer to atime later than now, but it may also express our attitude to the futureevent.All of the following ideas can be expressed using different tenses:a. Simple predictionb. Arrangementsc. Plans and intentionsd. Time-tabled eventse. Prediction based on present evidencef. Willingnessg. An action in progress in the futureh. An action or event that is a matter of routinei. Obligationj. An action or event that will take place immediately or verysoonk. Projecting ourselves into the future and looking back at acompleted action.The example sentences below correspond to the ideas above:a. There will be snow in many areas tomorrow.b. Im meeting Jim at the airport.c. Were going to spend the summer abroad.d. The plane takes off at 3 a.m.e. I think its going to rain!f. Well give you a lift to the cinema.g. This time next week Ill be sun-bathing.h. Youll be seeing John in the office tomorrow, wont you?i. You are to travel directly to London.j. The train is about to leave.k. A month from now he will have finished all his exams.It is clear from these examples that several tenses are used to express thefuture. The sections that follow show the form and function of each of thesetenses.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 150. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESPAST PERFECT CONTINUOUSPast perfect continuous, formThe past perfect continuous is composed of two elements - the past perfectof the verb to be (=had been) + the present participle (base+ing).Examples:Subject had been verb-ingI had been walkingAffirmativeShe had been tryingNegativeWe hadnt been sleepingInterrogativeHad you been eatingInterrogative negativeHadnt they been livingExample: to buy, past perfect continuousAffirmative Negative InterrogativeI had been buying I hadnt been buying Had I been buying?You had been buying You hadnt been buying Had you been buyingHe,she,it had been buying He hadnt been buying Had she been buying?We had been buying We hadnt been buying Had we been buying?You had been buying You hadnt been buying Had you been buyingThey had been buying They hadnt been buying Had they been buyingPast perfect continuous, functionThe past perfect continuous corresponds to the present perfect continuous,but with reference to a time earlier than before now. Again, we are moreinterested in the process.Examples:a. Had you been waiting long before the taxi arrived?b. We had been trying to open the door for five minutes when Jane foundher key.c. It had been raining hard for several hours and the streets were very wet.d. Her friends had been thinking of calling the police when she walked in.This form is also used in reported speech. It is the equivalent of the past
  • 151. continuous and the present perfect continuous in direct speech:Jane said "I have been gardening all afternoon." Jane said she had beengardening all afternoon.When the police questioned him, John said "I was working late in the officethat night." When the police questioned him, John told them he hadbeen working late in the office that night.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 152. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESPAST PERFECTPast perfect, formThe Past Perfect tense in English is composed of two parts: the past tense ofthe verb to have (had) + the past participle of the main verb.Subject had past participleWe had decided...AffirmativeShe had given.NegativeWe hadnt asked.InterrogativeHad they arrived?Interrogative negativeHadnt you finished?Example: to decide, Past perfectAffirmative Negative InterrogativeI had decided I hadnt decided Had I decided?You had decided You hadnt decided Had you decided?He, she, it had decided He hadnt decided Had she decided?We had decided We hadnt decided Had we decided?You had decided You hadnt decided Had you decided?They had decided They hadnt decided Had they decided?Past perfect, functionThe past perfect refers to a time earlier than before now. It is used to makeit clear that one event happened before another in the past. It does notmatter which event is mentioned first - the tense makes it clear which onehappened first.In these examples, Event A is the first or earliest event, Event B is thesecond or latest event:a.John had gone out when I arrived in the office.Event A Event Bb.I had saved my document before the computer crashed.Event A Event Bc.When they arrived we had already started cookingEvent B Event A
  • 153. d.He was very tired because he hadnt slept well.Event B Event APast perfect + justJust is used with the past perfect to refer to an event that was only a shorttime earlier than before now, e.g.a. The train had just left when I arrived at the station.b. She had just left the room when the police arrived.c. I had just put the washing out when it started to rain.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 154. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESSIMPLE FUTURESimple future, formThe simple future is composed of two parts: will / shall + the infinitivewithout toSubject will infinitive without toHe will leave...AffirmativeI will goI shall goNegativeThey will not seeThey wont seeInterrogativeWill she ask?InterrogativenegativeWont she take?Contractions:I will Ill We will wellYou will youll You will youllHe,she, will hell, shell They will theyllNOTE: The form it will is not normally shortened.Example: to see, simple futureAffirmative Negative InterrogativeIll see I wont see/ Will I see?/*I will/shall see I shant see Shall I see?Youll see You wont see Will you see?He, she, it will see He wont see Will she see?Well see We wont see/ Will we see?/*We will/shall see We shant see Shall we see?You will see You wont see Will you see?Theyll see They wont see Will they see?
  • 155. *NOTE: shall is slightly dated but can be used instead of will with I / we.Simple future, functionThe simple future refers to a time later than now, and expresses facts orcertainty. In this case there is no attitude.The simple future is used:a. to predict a future event: It will rain tomorrow.b. (with I/we) to express a spontaneous decision: Ill pay for the tickets bycredit card.c. to express willingness: Ill do the washing-up. Hell carry your bag foryou.d. (in the negative form) to express unwillingness: The baby wont eat hissoup. I wont leave until Ive seen the manager!e. (with I in the interrogative form) to make an offer: Shall I open thewindow?f. (with we in the interrogative form) to make a suggestion: Shall we go tothe cinema tonight?g. (with I in the interrogative form) to ask for advice or instructions: Whatshall I tell the boss about this money?h. (with you) to give orders: You will do exactly as I say.i. (with you) to give an invitation: Will you come to the dance with me?Will you marry me?NOTE: In modern English will is preferred to shall.Shall is mainly used with I and we to make an offer or suggestion (seeexamples (e) and (f) above, or to ask for advice (example (g) above).With the other persons (you, he, she, they) shall is only used in literary orpoetic situations, e.g."With rings on her fingers and bells on her toes, She shall have musicwherever she goes."The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 156. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESPAST CONTINUOUS1. Past continuous - form.The past continuous of any verb is composed of two parts : the past tense ofthe verb to be (was/were), and the base of the main verb +ing.Subject was/were base-ingThey were watchingAffirmativeShe was readingNegativeShe wasnt readingInterrogativeWas she reading?Interrogative negativeWasnt she reading?Example: to play, past continuousAffirmative Negative InterrogativeI was playing I was not playing Was I playing?You were playing You were not playing Were you playing?He, she, it was playing She wasnt playing Was she playing?We were playing We werent playing Were we playing?You were playing You werent playing Were you playing?They were playing They werent playing Were they playing?2. Past continuous, functionThe past continuous describes actions or events in a time before now, whichbegan in the past and was still going on at the time of speaking. In otherwords, it expresses an unfinished or incomplete action in the past.It is used:q often, to describe the background in a story written in the past tense,e.g. "The sun was shining and the birds were singing as the elephantcame out of the jungle. The other animals were relaxing in theshade of the trees, but the elephant moved very quickly. She waslooking for her baby, and she didnt notice the hunter who waswatching her through his binoculars. When the shot rang out, she wasrunning towards the river..."q to describe an unfinished action that was interrupted by anotherevent or action: "I was having a beautiful dream when the alarm
  • 157. clock rang."q to express a change of mind: e.g. "I was going to spend the day atthe beach but Ive decided to go on an excursion instead."q with wonder, to make a very polite request: e.g. "I was wondering ifyou could baby-sit for me tonight."More examples:a. They were waiting for the bus when the accidenthappened.b. Caroline was skiing when she broke her leg.c. When we arrived he was having a bath.d. When the fire started I was watching television.Note: with verbs not normally used in the continuous form, the simple past isused. See list in Present continuousThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 158. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESPRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUSPresent perfect continuous, formThe present perfect continuous is made up of two elements: (a) the presentperfect of the verb to be (have/has been), and (b) the present participle ofthe main verb (base+ing).Subject has/have been base+ingShe has been swimmingAffirmativeShe has been / Shes been runningNegativeShe hasnt been runningInterrogativeHas she been running?Interrogative negativeHasnt she been running?Example: to live, present perfect continuousAffirmative Negative InterrogativeI have been living I havent been living Have I been living?You have been living You havent been living Have you been living?He, she, it has been living He hasnt been living Has she been living?We have been living We havent been living Have we been living?You have been living You havent been living Have you been living?They have been living They havent been living Have they been living?Present perfect continuous, functionThe present perfect continuous refers to an unspecified time betweenbefore now and now. The speaker is thinking about something that startedbut perhaps did not finish in that period of time. He/she is interested in theprocess as well as the result, and this process may still be going on, or mayhave just finished.Examples:1. Actions that started in the past and continue in the present.a. She has been waiting for you all day (=and shes still waiting now).b. Ive been working on this report since eight oclock this morning (=and Istill havent finished it).
  • 159. c. They have been travelling since last October (=and theyre not homeyet).2. Actions that have just finished, but we are interested in the results:a. She has been cooking since last night (=and the food on the table looksdelicious).b. Its been raining (= and the streets are still wet).c. Someones been eating my chips (= half of them have gone).Note:Verbs without continuous formsWith verbs not normally used in the continuous form, use the present perfectsimple. See list of these verbs under Present Continuous:q Ive wanted to visit China for years.q Shes known Robert since she was a child.q Ive hated that music since I first heard it.q Ive heard a lot about you recently.q Weve understood everything weve heard this morning.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 160. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESPRESENT PERFECT + for, sinceUsing the present perfect, we can define a period of time before now byconsidering its duration, with for + a period of time, or by considering itsstarting point, with since + a point in time.For + a period of time:for six years, for a week, for a month, for hours, for twohours.I have worked here for five years.Since + a point in time:since this morning, since last week, since yesterday,since I was a child, since Wednesday, since 2 oclock.I have worked here since 1990.More examples:present perfect with for:a. She has lived here for twenty years.b. We have taught at this school for a long time.c. Alice has been married for three months.d. They have been at the hotel for a week.present perfect with since:a. She has lived here since 1980.b. We have taught at this school since 1965.c. Alice has been married since March 2nd.d. They have been at the hotel since last Tuesday.Note:1. For and since can both be used with the past perfect.2. Since can only be used with perfect tenses, for can also be used with thesimple past.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 161. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESPRESENT PERFECT OR SIMPLE PAST?Always use the present perfect when the time is not important, or notspecified.Always use the simple past when details about the time or place arespecified or asked for.Compare:Present perfect Simple pastI have lived in Lyon. I lived in Lyon in 1989.They have eaten Thai food. They ate Thai food last night.Have you seen Othello?. Where did you see Othello?We have been to Ireland. When did you go to Ireland?There is also a difference of attitude that is often more important than thetime factor."What did you do at school today?" is a question about activities, andconsiders the school day as finished."What have you done at school today?" is a question about results - "showme", and regards the time of speaking as a continuation of the school day.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 162. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESPRESENT CONTINUOUS FOR FUTURE EVENTS1. Present continuous for the future, formSee notes on form in section on Present Continuous.Subject + to be + base-ingShe is meeting2. Future: Present continuous for the future, functionThe present continuous is used to talk about arrangements for events at atime later than now.There is a suggestion that more than one person is aware of the event, andthat some preparation has already happened. e.g.a. Im meeting Jim at the airport = and both Jim and I have discussed this.b. I am leaving tomorrow. = and Ive already bought my train ticket.c. Were having a staff meeting next Monday = and all members of staff havebeen told about it.More examples:a. Is she seeing him tomorrow?b. He isnt working next week.c. They arent leaving until the end of next year.d. We are staying with friends when we get to Boston.Note: in example (a), seeing is used in a continuous form because it meansmeeting.BE CAREFUL! The simple present is used when a future event is part of aprogramme or time-table. Notice the difference between:a. Were having a staff meeting next Monday.b. We have a staff meeting next Monday.(= we have a meeting everyMonday, its on the time-table.)The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 163. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESPRESENT PERFECT1. Present perfect - formThe present perfect of any verb is composed of two elements : theappropriate form of the auxiliary verb to have (present tense), plus the pastparticiple of the main verb. The past participle of a regular verb is base+ed,e.g. played, arrived, looked. For irregular verbs, see the Table of irregularverbs in the section called Verbs.AffirmativeSubject to have past participleShe has visitedNegativeSubject to have + not past participleShe hasnt visitedInterrogativeto have subject past participleHas she visited..?Interrogative negativeto have + not subject past participleHasnt she visited...?Example: to walk, present perfectAffirmative Negative InterrogativeI have walked I havent walked Have I walked?You have walked You havent walked Have you walked?He, she, it has walked He, she, it hasnt walked Has he,she,it walkedWe have walked We havent walked Have we walked?You have walked You havent walked Have you walked?They have walked They havent walked Have they walked?2. Present perfect, functionThe Present Perfect is used to indicate a link between the present and thepast. The time of the action is before now but not specified, and we areoften more interested in the result than in the action itself.BE CAREFUL! There may be a verb tense in your language with a similarform, but the meaning is probably NOT the same.The present perfect is used to describe:1.An action or situation that started in the past and continues in the present.Example: I have lived in Bristol since 1984 (= and I still do.)
  • 164. 2. An action performed during a period that has not yet finished. Example:She has been to the cinema twice this week (= and the week isnt over yet.)3. A repeated action in an unspecified period between the past and now.Example: We have visited Portugal several times.4. An action that was completed in the very recent past, (expressed byjust). Example: I have just finished my work.5. An action when the time is not important. Example: He has read War andPeace. (the result of his reading is important)Note: When we want to give or ask details about when, where, who, we usethe simple past. Example: He read War and Peace last week.Examples:1. Actions started in the past and continuing in the present.a. They havent lived here for years.b. She has worked in the bank for five years.c. We have had the same car for ten years.d. Have you played the piano since you were a child?2. When the time period referred to has not finished.a. I have worked hard this week.b. It has rained a lot this year.c. We havent seen her today.3. Actions repeated in an unspecified period between the past and now.a. They have seen that film six times.b. It has happened several times already.c. She has visited them frequently.d. We have eaten at that restaurant many times.4. Actions completed in the very recent past (+just).a. Have you just finished work?b. I have just eaten.c. We have just seen her.d. Has he just left?5. When the precise time of the action is not important or not known.a. Someone has eaten my soup!b. Have you seen Gone with the Wind?c. Shes studied Japanese, Russian and English.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 165. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |IF SENTENCES AND THE UNREAL PASTIn this section you will find information on sentences containing the word if,the use of conditional tenses, and the unreal past, that is, when we use apast tense but we are not actually referring to past time.IF AND THE CONDITIONALThere are four main types of if sentences in English:1. The zero conditional, where the tense in both parts of the sentence isthe simple present:IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSEIf + simple presentIf you heat iceIf it rainssimple presentit melts.you get wetIn these sentences, the time is now or always and the situation is real andpossible. They are often used to refer to general truths.2. The Type 1 conditional, where the tense in the if clause is the simplepresent, and the tense in the main clause is the simple futureIF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSEIf + simple presentIf it rainsIf you dont hurrySimple futureyou will get wetwe will miss the train.In these sentences, the time is the present or future and the situation isreal. They refer to a possible condition and its probable result.3. The Type 2 conditional, where the tense in the if clause is the simplepast, and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional:IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSEIf + simple pastIf it rainedIf you went to bed earlierPresent conditionalyou would get wetyou wouldnt be so tired.In these sentences, the time is now or any time, and the situation is unreal.They are not based on fact, and they refer to an unlikely or hypotheticalcondition and its probable result.4. The Type 3 conditional, where the tense in the if clause is the pastperfect, and the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional:
  • 166. IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSEIf + past perfectIf it had rainedIf you had worked harderPerfect conditionalyou would have got wetyou would have passed the exam.In these sentences, the time is past, and the situation is contrary to reality.The facts they are based on are the opposite of what is expressed, and theyrefer to an unreal past condition and its probable past result.A further type if if sentence exists, where Type 2 and Type 3 are mixed. Thetense in the if clause is the past perfect, and the tense in the main clause isthe present conditional:IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSEIf + past perfectIf I had worked harder atschoolIf we had looked at the mapPresent conditionalI would have a better job now.we wouldnt be lost.In these sentences, the time is past in the if clause, and present in themain clause. They refer to an unreal past condition and its probable resultin the present.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 167. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TYPE 1 CONDITIONAL1. FormIn a Type 1 conditional sentence, the tense in the if clause is the simplepresent, and the tense in the main clause is the simple futureIF CLAUSE (CONDITION) MAIN CLAUSE (RESULT)If + simple presentIf it rainsIf you dont hurrySimple futureyou will get wetwe will miss the train.2. FunctionIn these sentences, the time is the present or future and the situation isreal. They refer to a possible condition and its probable result. They arebased on facts, and they are used to make statements about the real world,and about particular situations. We often use such sentences to givewarnings:q If you dont leave, Ill call the police.q If you dont drop the gun, Ill shoot!Examples:q If you drop that glass, it will break.q Nobody will notice if you make a mistake.q If I have time, Ill finish that letter.q What will you do if you miss the plane?NOTE: We can use modals to express the degree of certainty of the result:q If you drop that glass, it might break.q I may finish that letter if I have time.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 168. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TYPE 2 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES1. FormIn a Type 2 conditional sentence, the tense in the if clause is the simplepast, and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional:IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSEIf + simple pastIf it rainedIf you went to bed earlierPresent conditionalyou would get wetyou wouldnt be so tired.Present conditional, formThe present conditional of any verb is composed of two parts - the modalauxiliary would + the infinitive of the main verb (without to.)Subject would infinitive without toShe would learnAffirmativeI would goNegativeI wouldnt askInterrogativeWould she come?Interrogative negativeWouldnt they accept?Would: Contractions of wouldIn spoken English, would is contracted to d.Id Wedyoud youdhed, shed theydThe negative contraction = wouldnt.Example: to accept, Present conditionalAffirmative Negative InterrogativeI would accept I wouldnt accept Would I accept?
  • 169. You would accept You wouldntacceptWould you accept?He would accept She wouldntacceptWould he accept?We would accept We wouldntacceptWould we accept?You would accept You wouldntacceptWould you accept?They would accept They wouldntacceptWould they accept?2. FunctionIn these sentences, the time is now or any time, and the situation is unreal.They are not based on fact, and they refer to an unlikely or hypotheticalcondition and its probable result. The use of the past tense after ifindicates unreality. We can nearly always add a phrase starting with "but",that expresses the real situation:q If the weather wasnt so bad, we would go to the park (...but it isbad, so we cant go)q If I was the Queen of England, I would give everyone £100. (...butIm not, so I wont)Examples of use:1. To make a statement about something that is not real at present, but ispossible:I would visit her if I had time. (= I havent got time but I might have sometime)2. To make a statement about a situation that is not real now and nevercould be real:If I were you, Id give up smoking (but I could never be you)Examples:a. If I was a plant, I would love the rain.b. If you really loved me, you would buy me a diamond ring.c. If I knew where she lived, I would go and see her.d. You wouldnt need to read this if you understood English grammar.e. Would he go to the concert if I gave him a ticket?f. They wouldnt invite her if they didnt like herg. We would be able to buy a larger house if we had more moneyNOTE: It is correct, and very common, to say "If I were" instead of "If I was".The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 170. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TYPE 3 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES1. FormIn a Type 3 conditional sentence, the tense in the if clause is the pastperfect, and the tense in the main clause is the perfect conditional:IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSEIf + past perfectIf it had rainedIf you had worked harderPerfect conditionalyou would have got wetyou would have passed theexam.Perfect conditional - formThe perfect conditional of any verb is composed of two elements: would +the perfect infinitive of the main verb (=have + past participle):Subject would perfect infinitiveHeTheywouldwouldhave gone...have stayed...AffirmativeI would have believed ...NegativeShe wouldnt have given...InterrogativeWould you have left...?InterrogativenegativeWouldnt he have been...?Example: to go, Past conditionalAffirmative Negative InterrogativeI would have gone I wouldnt have gone Would I have gone?You would have gone You wouldnt have gone Would you have gone?He would have gone She wouldnt have gone Would it have gone?We would have gone We wouldnt have gone Would we have gone?You would have gone You wouldnt have gone Would you have gone?They would have gone They wouldnt have gone Would they have gone?In these sentences, the time is past, and the situation is contrary toreality. The facts they are based on are the opposite of what is expressed.Type 3 conditional sentences, are truly hypothetical or unreal, because it isnow too late for the condition or its result to exist. There is always anunspoken "but..." phrase:q If I had worked harder I would have passed the exam(but I didnt work hard, and I didnt pass the exam).
  • 171. q If Id known you were coming Id have baked a cake(but I didnt know, and I havent baked a cake).NOTE: Both would and had can be contracted to d, which can be confusing.Remember that you NEVER use would in the IF-clause, so in the exampleabove, "If Id known" must be "If I had known", and "Id have baked" must be "Iwould have baked.."Examples:a. If Id known you were in hospital, I would have visited you.b. I would have bought you a present if Id known it was your birthday.c. If theyd had a better goalkeeper they wouldnt have lost the game.d. If you had told me you were on the Internet, Id have sent you an e-mail.e. Would you have bought an elephant if youd known how much they eat?The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 172. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESSIMPLE PRESENT(See also Verbs -Regular verbs in the simple present)Simple present, third person singularNote:1. he, she, it: in the third person singular the verb always ends in -s:he wants, she needs, he gives, she thinks.2. Negative and question forms use DOES (=the third person of theauxiliaryDO) + the infinitive of the verb.He wants. Does he want? He does not want.3. Verbs ending in -y : the third person changes the -y to -ies:fly flies, cry criesException: if there is a vowel before the -y:play plays, pray prays4. Add -es to verbs ending in:-ss, -x, -sh, -ch:he passes, she catches, he fixes, it pushesSee also Verbs -Regular verbs in the simple present, and Be, do & haveExamples:1. Third person singular with s or -esa. He goes to school every morning.b. She understands English.c. It mixes the sand and the water.d. He tries very hard.e. She enjoys playing the piano.2. Simple present, formExample: to think, present simpleAffirmative Interrogative NegativeI think Do I think ? I do not think.You think Do you think? You dont think.he, she, it thinks Does he, she, it think? He, she, it doesnt think.we think Do we think? We dont think.you think Do you think? You dont think.The simple present is used:
  • 173. 1. to express habits, general truths, repeated actions or unchangingsituations, emotions and wishes:I smoke (habit); I work in London (unchanging situation); London is alarge city (general truth)2. to give instructions or directions:You walk for two hundred metres, then you turn left.3. to express fixed arrangements, present or future:Your exam starts at 09.004. to express future time, after some conjunctions: after, when,before, as soon as, until:Hell give it to you when you come next Saturday.BE CAREFUL! The simple present is not used to express actions happeningnow. See Present Continuous.Examples:1. For habitsHe drinks tea at breakfast.She only eats fish.They watch television regularly.2. For repeated actions or eventsWe catch the bus every morning.It rains every afternoon in the hot season.They drive to Monaco every summer.3. For general truthsWater freezes at zero degrees.The Earth revolves around the Sun.Her mother is Peruvian.4. For instructions or directionsOpen the packet and pour the contents into hot water.You take the No.6 bus to Watney and then the No.10 to Bedford.5. For fixed arrangementsHis mother arrives tomorrow.Our holiday starts on the 26th March6. With future constructionsShell see you before she leaves.Well give it to her when she arrives.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 174. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESSUMMARY OF VERB TENSESPresent tensesSimple present: She wants a drink.Present continuous: They are walking home.Past tensesSimple past: Peter lived in China in 1965.Past continuous: I was reading when she arrived.Perfect tensesPresent Perfect: I have lived here since 1987.Present perfect continuous: I have been living here for years.Past perfect: We had been to see her several times before she visited us.Past perfect continuous: He had been watching her for some time when sheturned and smiled.Future perfect: We will have arrived in the States by the time you get thisletter.Future perfect continuous: By the end of your course, you will have beenstudying for five years.Future tensesSimple future: They will go to Italy next week.Future continuous: I will be travelling by train.Conditional tensesPresent conditional: If he had the money he would goPresent continuous conditional: He would be getting up now if he was inAustralia.Perfect conditional: She would have visited me if she had had time.Perfect continuous conditional: I would have been playing tennis if I hadntbroken my arm.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 175. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESFUTURE PERFECTFuture perfect, formThe future perfect is composed of two elements: the simple future of theverb to have (will have) + the past participle of the main verb:Subject will have past participleHe will have finishedAffirmativeI will have leftNegativeThey wont have goneInterrogativeWill we have seen?Interrogative negativeWont he have arrived?Example: to arrive, future perfectAffirmative Negative InterrogativeIll have arrived I wont have arrived Will I have arrived?Youll have arrived You wont have arrived Will you have arrived?Hell have arrived She wont have arrived Will it have arrived?Well have arrived We wont have arrived Will we have arrived?Youll have arrived You wont have arrived Will you have arrived?Theyll have arrived They wont have arrived Will they have arrived?Future perfect, functionThe future perfect refers to a completed action in the future. When we usethis tense we are projecting ourselves forward into the future and lookingback at an action that will be completed some time later than now.It is often used with a time expression using by + a point in future time.Examples:a. Ill have been here for six months on June 23rd.b. By the time you read this Ill have left.c. You will have finished your work by this time next week.
  • 176. The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 177. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESFUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUSFuture perfect continuous, formThis form is composed of two elements: the future perfect of the verb to be(will have been) + the present participle of the main verb (base+ing):Subject will have been base+ingWe will have been livingAffirmativeI will have been workingNegativeI wont have been workingInterrogativeWill I have been working?Interrogative negativeWont I have been working?Example: to live, Future Perfect continuousAffirmative Negative InterrogativeIll have been living I wont have been living Will I have been living?Youll have beenlivingYou wont have been living Will you have beenliving?Hell have been living He wont have been living Will she have beenliving?Well have beenlivingWe wont have been living Will we have beenliving?Youll have beenlivingYou wont have been living Will you have beenliving?Theyll have beenlivingThey wont have beenlivingWill they have beenliving?Future perfect continuous, functionLike the future perfect simple, this form is used to project ourselves forwardin time and to look back. It refers to events or actions in a time betweennow and some future time, that may be unfinished.Examples:a. I will have been waiting here for three hours by six oclock.b. By 2001 I will have been living here for sixteen years.c. By the time I finish this course, I will have been learning English for twentyyears.d. Next year I will have been working here for four years.
  • 178. The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 179. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESFUTURE CONTINUOUSFuture continuous, formThe future continuous is made up of two elements: the simple future of theverb to be + the present participle (base+ing)Subject simple future, to be base+ingYou will be watchingAffirmativeI will be askingNegativeShe wont be leavingInterrogativeWill they be retiring?Interrogative negativeWont we be staying?Example: to stay, future continuousAffirmative Negative InterrogativeI will be staying I wont be staying Will I be staying?You will be staying You wont be staying Will you be staying?He, she, it will be staying He wont be staying Will she be staying?We will be staying We wont be staying Will we be staying?You will be staying You wont be staying Will you be staying?They will be staying They wont be staying Will they be staying?Future continuous, functionThe future continuous refers to an unfinished action or event that will be inprogress at a time later than now. It is used:a. to project ourselves into the future and see something happening: Thistime next week I will be sun-bathing in Bali.b. to refer to actions/events that will happen in the normal course of events:Ill be seeing Jim at the conference next week.c. in the interrogative form, especially with you, to distinguish between asimple request for information and an invitation: Will you be coming to theparty tonight? (= request for information) Will you come to the party? (=invitation)d. to predict or guess about someones actions or feelings, now or in the
  • 180. future: Youll be feeling tired after that long walk, I expect.More examples:a. events in progress in the future:When you are in Australia will you be staying with friends?This time next week you will be working in your new job.At four thirty on Tuesday afternoon I will be signing thecontract.b. events/actions in normal course of events:Ill be going into town this afternoon, is there anything youwant from the shops?Will you be using the car tomorrow? - No, you can take it.Ill be seeing Jane this evening - Ill give her the message.c. asking for information:Will you be bringing your friend to the pub tonight?Will Jim be coming with us?d. predicting or guessing:Youll be feeling thirsty after working in the sun.Hell be coming to the meeting, I expect.Youll be missing the sunshine now youre back in England.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 181. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESPRESENT PERFECT + ever, never, already, yetThe adverbs ever and never express the idea of an unidentified time beforenow e.g. Have you ever visited Berlin?Ever is useda. in questions. e.g.Have you ever been to England?Has she ever met the Prime Minister?b. in negative questions e.g.Havent they ever been to Europe?Havent you ever eaten Chinese food?c. and in negative statements using the patternnothing.......ever, nobody.......ever e.g.Nobody has ever said that to me before.Nothing like this has ever happened to us.d. Ever is also used with The first time.... e.g.Its the first time (that) Ive ever eaten snails.This is the first time Ive ever been to England.Never means at no time before now, and is the same as not ..... ever:I have never visited BerlinBE CAREFUL!You must not use never and not together:I havent never been to Italy.I have never been to Italy.Position: Ever and never are always placed before themain verb (past participle).Already and yet:Already refers to an action that has happened at an unspecified time beforenow. It suggests that there is no need for repetition, e.g.a. Ive already drunk three coffees this morning. (and youre offering meanother one!)b. Dont write to John, Ive already done it.It is also used in questions:a. Have you already written to John?b. Has she finished her homework already?Position: already can be placed before the main verb (pastparticiple) or at the end of the sentence:
  • 182. a. I have already been to Tokyo.b. I have been to Tokyo already.yet is used in negative statements and questions, to mean (not) in the periodof time between before now and now, (not) up to and including the present.e.g.a. Have you met Judy yet?b. I havent visited the Tate Gallery yet.c. Has he arrived yet?d. They havent eaten yet.Position: Yet is usually placed at the end of the sentence.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 183. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESIntroductionIt is important to understand the meaning and use of tenses in English. Theform may be like that of a tense in your own language, but the meaning maybe different, so be very careful!Summary of Verb TensesPresent tensesSimple presentPresent continuousPast tensesSimple pastPast continuousPerfect tensesPresent PerfectPresent perfect continuousPast perfectPast perfect continuousFuture perfectFuture perfect continuousFuture tensesSimple futureFuture continuousConditional tensesPresent conditionalPresent continuous conditionalPerfect conditionalPerfect continuous conditionalThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 184. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |UNREAL PASTThe past tense is sometimes used in English to refer to an unreal situation.So, although the tense is the past, we are usually talking about the present,e.g. in a Type 2 conditional sentence:If an elephant and a mouse fell in love, they would have many problems.Although fell is in the past tense, we are talking about a hypotheticalsituation that might exist now or at any time, but we are not referring to thepast. We call this use the unreal past.Other situations where this occurs are:q after other words and expressions like if (supposing, if only, whatif);q after the verb to wish;q after the expression Id rather..Expressions like ifThe following expressions can be used to introduce hypothetical situations:- supposing, if only, what if. They are followed by a past tense to indicatethat the condition they introduce is unreal:q Supposing an elephant and a mouse fell in love? (= but we know this is unlikely orimpossible)q What if we painted the room purple? (= that would be very surprising)q If only I had more money. (= but I havent).These expressions can also introduce hypothetical situations in the past andthen they are followed by the past perfect.Examples:q If only I hadnt kissed the frog (= I did and it was a mistake becausehe turned into a horrible prince, but I cant change it now.)q What if the elephant had trodden on the mouse? (She didnt, but wecan imagine the result!)q Supposing I had given that man my money! (I didnt, so Ive still gotmy money now.)The verb to wishThe verb to wish is followed by an unreal past tense when we want to talkabout situations in the present that we are not happy about but cannotchange:q I wish I had more money (=but I havent)q She wishes she was beautiful (= but shes not)q We wish we could come to your party (but we cant)
  • 185. When we want to talk about situations in the past that we are not happyabout or actions that we regret, we use the verb to wish followed by thepast perfect:q I wish I hadnt said that (= but I did)q He wishes he hadnt bought the car (= but he did buy it.)q I wish I had taken that job in New York (= but I didnt, so Im stuck inBristol)NOTE: When we want to talk about situations we are not happy about andwhere we want someone else to change them, we use to wish followed bywould + infinitive:q I wish he would stop smoking. (= I dont like it, I want him to changeit)q I wish you would go away. (= I dont want you here, I want you totake some action)q I wish you wouldnt squeeze the toothpaste from the middle! (= Iwant you to change your habits.)Id rather and its time...These two expressions are also followed by an unreal past. The verb is in thepast tense, but the situation is in the present.When we want to talk about a course of action we would prefer someoneelse to take, we use Id rather + past tense:q Id rather you wentq Hed rather you called the policeq Id rather you didnt hunt elephants.NOTE: the stress can be important in these sentences, to show what ourpreference is:q Id rather you went = not me,q Id rather you went = dont stayq Hed rather you called the police = he doesnt want toq Hed rather you called the police = not the ambulance serviceSimilarly, when we want to say that now is a suitable moment to dosomething, either for ourselves or for someone else, we use its time + pasttense:q Its (high) time I went.q Its time you paid that bill.q Dont you think its time you had a haircut?The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 186. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |UNLESSUnless means the same as if...not. Like if, it is followed by a present tense, apast tense or a past perfect (never by would). It is used instead of if + notin conditional sentences of all types:Type 1: (Unless + present)a. Youll be sick unless you stop eating. (= You will be sick if youdont stop eating)b. I wont pay unless you provide the goods immediately. (= Ifyou dont provide them I wont pay)c. Youll never understand English unless you study this grammarcarefully. (= Youll never understand if you dont study...)Type 2: (Unless + past)a. Unless he was very ill, he would be at work.b. I wouldnt eat that food unless I was really hungry.c. She would be here by now unless she was stuck in the traffic.Type 3: (Unless + past perfect)a. The elephant wouldnt have seen the mouse unless shed hadperfect eyesight.b. I wouldnt have phoned him unless youd suggested it.c. They would have shot her unless shed given them themoney.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 187. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |MIXED CONDITIONAL SENTENCESIt is possible for the two parts of a conditional sentence to refer to differenttimes, and the resulting sentence is a "mixed conditional" sentence. Thereare two types of mixed conditional sentence:A. Present result of past condition:1. FormThe tense in the if clause is the past perfect, and the tense in the mainclause is the present conditional:IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSEIf + past perfectIf I had worked harder atschoolIf we had looked at the mapPresent conditionalI would have a better job now.we wouldnt be lost.2. FunctionIn these sentences, the time is past in the if clause, and present in themain clause. They refer to an unreal past condition and its probable resultin the present. They express a situation which is contrary to reality both inthe past and in the present:If I had worked harder at school is contrary to past fact - I didnt work hardat school, and I would have a better job now is contrary to present fact - Ihavent got a good job.If we had looked at the map (we didnt), we wouldnt be lost (we are lost).Examples:q I would be a millionaire now if I had taken that job.q If youd caught that plane youd be dead now.q If you hadnt spent all your money on CDs, you wouldnt be broke.B. Past result of present or continuing condition.1. FormThe tense in the If-clause is the simple past, and the tense in the mainclause is the perfect conditional:IF CLAUSE MAIN CLAUSEIf + simple pastIf I wasnt afraid ofspidersIf we didnt trust himPerfect conditionalI would have picked it up.we would have sacked him monthsago.2. FunctionIn these sentences the time in the If-clause is now or always, and the timein the main clause is before now. They refer to an unreal present situationand its probable (but unreal) past result:
  • 188. If I wasnt afraid of spiders is contrary to present reality - I am afraid of spiders,and I would have picked it up is contrary to past reality - I didnt pick it up.qIf we didnt trust him is contrary to present reality - we do trust him, and wewould have sacked him is contrary to past reality - we havent sacked him.Examples:a. If she wasnt afraid of flying she wouldnt have travelled by boat.b. Id have been able to translate the letter if my Italian was better.c. If I was a good cook, Id have invited them to lunch.d. If the elephant wasnt in love with the mouse, shed have trodden on himby now.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 189. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |PERFECT CONDITIONAL, CONTINUOUS1. Perfect conditional, continuous - FormThis tense is composed of two elements: the perfect condtional of the verbto be (would have been) + the present participle (base+ing).Subject would have been base+ingIWewould have beenwould have beensittingswimmingAffirmativeI would have been studying.NegativeYou wouldnt have been living.InterrogativeWould we have been travelling?Interrogative negativeWouldnt it have been working?Examples: to work, Past continuous conditionalAffirmative NegativeI would have been working I wouldnt have been workingYou would have been working You wouldnt have been working.He would have been working She wouldnt have been workingWe would have been working We wouldnt have been workingYou would have been working You wouldnt have been workingThey would have been working They wouldnt have been workingInterrogative Interrogative negativeWould I have been working? Wouldnt I have been working?Would you have been working? Wouldnt you have been working?Would he have been working? Wouldnt she have been working?Would we have been working? Wouldnt we have been working?Would you have been working? Wouldnt you have been working?Would they have been working? Wouldnt they have been working?2. FunctionThis tense can be used in Type 3 conditional sentences. It refers to theunfulfilled result of the action in the if-clause, and expresses this result asan unfinished or continuous action. Again, there is always an unspoken"but.." phrase:q If the weather had been better (but it wasnt), Id have been sittingin the garden when he arrived (but I wasnt and so I didnt see him).q If she hadnt got a job in London (but she did), she would have beenworking in Paris (but she wasnt).
  • 190. Examples:q If Id had a ball I would have been playing football.q If Id had any money Id have been drinking with my friends in thepub that night.q If I had known it was dangerous I wouldnt have been climbing thatcliff.q She wouldnt have been wearing a seat-belt if her father hadnt toldher to.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 191. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |Join the G-Club!Well keep you up-to-datewith new info about theOnline Grammar, TestCentre, Grammar Tips andother DEN facilities.PRESENT CONTINUOUSCONDITIONALIn type 2 conditional sentences, thecontinuous form of the presentconditional may be used:If I were a millionaire, I wouldnt bedoing this job!1. Present continuous conditional -form.This form is composed of two elements:the present conditional of the verb to be(would be) + the present participle of themain verb (base+ing).Subject would be base+ingHeTheywould bewould begoinglivingAffirmativeWe would be comingNegativeYou wouldntbeworkingInterrogativeWould you be sharing?Interrogative negativeWouldnt they be playing?Example: to live, Present continuousconditional.Affirmative Negative InterrogativeI would belivingI wouldnt belivingWould I beliving?You wouldbe livingYou wouldntbe livingWould you beliving?He would belivingShe wouldntbe livingWould he beliving?We wouldbe livingWe wouldntbe livingWould we beliving?You wouldbe livingYou wouldntbe livingWould you beliving?They wouldbe livingTheywouldnt belivingWould theybe living?
  • 192. 2. Present continuous conditional -functionThis form is common in Type 2 conditionalsentences. It expresses an unfinished orcontinuing action or situation, which isthe probable result of an unrealcondition:q I would be working in Italy if Ispoke Italian.(but I dont speak Italian, so I amnot working in Italy.q She would be living with Jack ifshe wasnt living with her parents.(but she is living with her parentsso shes not living with Jack).More examples:q I wouldnt be eating this if Iwasnt extremely hungry.q If I had an exam tomorrow, Id berevising now.q You wouldnt be smiling if youknew the truth.NOTE: This form is also found in: mixedconditional sentences (See section onMixed Conditional Sentences); in indirectspeech:She said "Ill be working in the garden."She said she would be working inthe garden. (See section on IndirectSpeech)The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 193. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESSIMPLE PRESENT FOR FUTURE EVENTS1. Form - see Simple Present section.2. Simple present for future events - functionThe simple present is used to make statements about events at a time laterthan now, when the statements are based on present facts, and when thesefacts are something fixed like a time-table, schedule, calendar.Examples:a. The plane arrives at 18.00 tomorrow.b. She has a yoga class tomorrow morning.c. The restaurant opens at 19.30 tonight.d. Next Thursday at 14.00 there is an English exam.Note the difference between:a. The plane leaves in ten minutes (= statement of fact)b. The planes going to leave in ten minutes (= predictionbased on present situation, meaning "...and if you dont hurryup youre going to miss it!")The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 194. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESOTHER WAYS OF TALKING ABOUT THE FUTURE1. IS TO + INFINITIVEForm:This form is composed of two elements: the appropriate form of the verb tobe + to (am to, are to, is to), and the infinitive of the main verb withoutto..Subject to be to infinitive without toWe are to leaveAffirmativeShe is to travelNegativeYou are not (arent) to travelInterrogativeAm I to travel?Interrogative negativeArent they to travel?Function:This form refers to an obligation to do something at a time later than now.It is similar to must, but there is a suggestion that something has beenarranged or organised for us. It is not normally used in spoken English, butmight be found in spy stories, e.g."You are to leave this room at once, and you are to travel bytrain to London. In London you are to pick up your ticketfrom Mr Smith, and you are to fly to your destination alone.When you arrive, you are to meet our agent, Mr X, who willgive you further information. You are to destroy this messagenow."2. BE + ABOUT TO + INFINITIVEForm:This form is composed of three elements : the appropriate form of the verbto be, present tense, + about to + the infinitive of the main verb withoutto:Subject be about to infinitive without toI am about to leave
  • 195. She is about to arriveFunction:This form refers to a time immediately after the moment of speaking, andemphasises that the event or action will happen very soon:Examples:a. She is about to leave.b. You are about to see something very unusual.c. I am about to go to a meeting - can I talk to you later?It is often used with the word just, which emphasises the immediacy of theaction:We are just about to go to sleep.Sally is just about to take an exam.This form can also be used in the simple past tense to refer to an action thatwas imminent, but was interrupted. In such cases it is often followed by awhen - clause:She was about to leave when he arrived.I was just about to telephone her when she walked into the house.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 196. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TENSESFUTURE WITH GOING TO1. Future with Going to - formThis form is composed of three elements: the appropriate form of the verbto be + going to + the infinitive of the main verb:Subject to be going to infinitiveShe is going to leave2. Future with Going to - functionThe use of going to to refer to future events suggests a very strongassociation with the present. The time is not important - it is later than now,but the attitude is that the event depends on a present situation, that weknow about. So it is used:a) to refer to our plans and intentions:Were going to move to London next year. (= the plan is in our minds now.)b) to make predictions based on present evidence:Look at those clouds - its going to pour with rain! (= Its clear from what Ican see now.)Note: In everyday speech, going to is often shortened to gonna, especiallyin American English.More examples:Plans and intentions:a. Is Freddy going to buy a new car soon?b. Are John and Pam going to visit Milan when they are in Italy?c. I think Nigel and Mary are going to have a party next week.Predictions based on present evidence:a. Theres going to be a terrible accident!b. Hes going to be a brilliant politician.c. Im going to have terrible indigestion.NOTE: It is unusual to say Im going to go to...Instead, we use going to + a place or event:Examples:We are going to the beach tomorrow.She is going to the ballet tonight.Are you going to the party tomorrow night?
  • 197. The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 198. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |NOUNSUSE OF CAPITAL LETTERS WITH NOUNSCapital letters are used with:Names and titles of peoplea. Winston Churchillb. Marilyn Monroec. the Queen of Englandd. the President of the United Statese. the Headmaster of Etonf. Doctor Mathewsg. Professor Samuels.Note: The personal pronoun I is always written with acapital letter.Titles of works, books etc.a. War and Peaceb. The Merchant of Venicec. Crime and Punishmentd. Tristan and IsoldeMonths of the yearJanuary JulyFebruary AugustMarch SeptemberApril OctoberMay NovemberJune DecemberDays of the weekMonday FridayTuesday SaturdayWednesday SundayThursdaySeasonsSpringSummerAutumnWinterHolidays
  • 199. Christmas Easter New Years DayBoxing Day May Day Thanksgiving DayGeographical names...names of countries and continentsAmerica England ScotlandChina Peru AlbaniaAfrica Europe Asianames of regions, states, districts etc.Sussex California QueenslandProvence Tuscany VaudFlorida Costa Brava Tyrolnames of cities, towns, villages etc.London Cape Town RomeFlorence Bath Wagga WaggaVancouver Wellington Pekingnames of rivers, oceans, seas, lakes etc.the Atlantic the Dead Sea the PacificLake Leman Lake Victoria Lake Michiganthe Rhine the Thames the Nilenames of geographical formationsthe Himalayas the Alps the SaharaAdjectives relating to nationality nounsFrance - French musicAustralia - Australian animalsGermany - German literatureArabia - Arabic writingIndonesia - Indonesian poetryChina - Chinese foodNames of streets, buildings, parks etc.Park Lane Central Avenue Pall MallGeorge Street Sydney Opera House Central ParkHyde Park the Empire State Building Wall StreetThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 200. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |NOUNSCOUNTABLE AND UNCOUNTABLE NOUNSCountable nouns are for things we can countExample: dog, horse, man, shop, idea.They usually have a singular and plural form.Example: two dogs, ten horses, a man, six men, the shops, a few ideas.Uncountable nouns are for the things that we cannot countExample: tea, sugar, water, air, rice.They are often the names for abstract ideas or qualities.Example: knowledge, beauty, anger, fear, love.They are used with a singular verb. They usually do not have a plural form.We cannot say sugars, angers, knowledges.Examples of common uncountable nouns:money, furniture, happiness, sadness, research, evidence, safety,beauty, knowledge.We cannot use a/an with these nouns. To express a quantity of one of thesenouns, use a word or expression like:some, a lot of, a piece of, a bit of, a great deal of...Examples:q There has been a lot of research into the causes of this disease.q He gave me a great deal of advice before my interview.q Theyve got a lot of furniture.q Can you give me some information about uncountable nouns?Some nouns are countable in other languages but uncountable in English.Some of the most common of these are:
  • 201. accommodationadvicebaggagebehaviourbreadfurnitureinformationluggagenewsprogresstraffictraveltroubleweatherworkBE CAREFUL with the noun hair which is normally uncountable in English:She has long blonde hairIt can also be countable when referring to individual hairs:My fathers getting a few grey hairs nowSee also Adjectives - Comparisons of quantityThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 202. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |REPORTED SPEECHCHANGE OF TIME AND PLACE REFERENCETime/place references are also changed in reported speechExamples:"I will see you here tomorrow", she said. She said that she would seeme there the next day.The most common of these changes are shown below:Today that day"I saw him today", she said. She said that she had seen him that day.Yesterday the day before"I saw him yesterday", she said. She said that she had seen him the daybefore.The day before yesterday two days before"I met her the day before yesterday", hesaid.He said that he had met her two daysbefore.Tomorrow the next/following day"Ill see you tomorrow", he said He said that he would see me the next day.The day after tomorrow in two days time/ two days later"Well come the day after tomorrow",they said.They said that they would come in two daystime/ two days later.Next week/month/year the following week/month/year"I have an appointment next week", shesaid.She said that she had an appointment thefollowing week.Last week/month/year the previous/week/month/year"I was on holiday last week", he told us. He told us that he had been on holiday theprevious week.ago before"I saw her a week ago," he said. He said he had seen her a week before.this (for time) that"Im getting a new car this week", shesaid.She said she was getting a new car thatweek.this/that (adjectives) the"Do you like this shirt?" he asked He asked if I liked the shirt.here thereHe said, "I live here". He told me he lived there.Other changes:In general, personal pronouns change to the third person singular or plural,except when the speaker reports his own words:I/me/my/mine, you/your/yours him/his/her/herswe/us/our/ours, you/your/yours they/their/theirs:
  • 203. He said: "I like your new car." He told her that he liked her new car.I said: "Im going to my friends house." I said that I was going to myfriends house.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 204. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |REPORTED SPEECHTENSE CHANGESNormally, the tense in reported speech is one tense back in time from thetense in direct speech:She said, "I am tired." She said that she was tired.The changes are shown below:Simple present Simple past"I always drink coffee", she said She said that she always drank coffee.Present continuous Past continuous"I am reading a book", he explained. He explained that he was reading abookSimple past Past perfect"Bill arrived on Saturday", he said. He said that Bill had arrived onSaturdayPresent perfect Past perfect"I have been to Spain", he told me. He told me that he had been to SpainPast perfect Past perfect"I had just turned out the light," heexplained.He explained that he had just turnedout the light.Present perfect continuous Past perfect continuousThey complained, "We have been waitingfor hours".They complained that they had beenwaiting for hours.Past continuous Past perfect continuous"We were living in Paris", they told me. They told me that they had been livingin Paris.Future Present conditional"I will be in Geneva on Monday", he said He said that he would be in Geneva onMonday.Future continuous Conditional continuousShe said, "Ill be using the car nextFriday".She said that she would be using the carnext Friday.NOTE:1. You do not need to change the tense if the reporting verb is in thepresent, or if the original statement was about something that is still true,e.g.He says he has missed the train but hell catch the next one.We explained that it is very difficult to find our house.2. These modal verbs do not change in reported speech:
  • 205. might, could, would, should, ought to, e.g.We explained that it could be difficult to find our house.She said that she might bring a friend to the party.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 206. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE INFINITIVEINFINITIVE AFTER QUESTION WORDSThese verbs: ask, decide, explain, forget, know, show, tell, understand,can be followed by a question word such as where, how, what, who, whenor whether + the to-infinitive.Examples:q She asked me how to use the washing machine.q Do you understand what to do?q Tell me when to press the button.q Ive forgotten where to put this little screw.q I cant decide whether to wear the red dress or the black one.The question word Why is followed by the zero infinitive in suggestions:Examples:q Why wait until tomorrow?q Why not ask him now?q Why walk when we can go in the car?q Why not buy a new bed for your bedroom?q Why leave before the end of the game?q Why not spend a week in Beirut and a week in Baghdad?The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 207. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE INFINITIVENEGATIVE INFINITIVETo form the negative infinitive, place not before the to- or zero infinitive:e.g. not to worry:Its hard not to worry about exams.Examples:q I decided not to go to London.q He asked me not to be late.q Elephants ought not to marry mice.q Youd better not smile at the crocodile.q Id rather not eat meat.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 208. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE INFINITIVEOTHER FORMSThe infinitive can have the following forms:q The perfect infinitiveq The continuous infinitiveq The perfect continuous infinitiveq The passive infinitiveNOTE: as with the present infinitive, there are situations where the to isomitted, e.g. after most modal auxiliaries.The perfect infinitive:to have + past participle, e.g. to have broken, to haveseen, to have saved.This form is most commonly found in Type 3 conditionalsentences, using the conditional perfect, e.g. If I had knownyou were coming I would have baked a cake.Examples:q Someone must have broken the window and climbedin.q I would like to have seen the Taj Mahal when I was inIndia.q He pretended to have seen the film.q If Id seen the ball I would have caught it.The continuous infinitive:to be + present participle, e.g.to be swimming, to bejoking, to be waitingExamples:q Id really like to be swimming in a nice cool pool rightnow.q You must be joking!q I happened to be waiting for the bus when theaccident happened.The perfect continuous infinitive:
  • 209. to have been + present participleExamples:to have been cryingto have been waitingto have been paintingq The woman seemed to have been crying.q You must have been waiting for hours!q He pretended to have been painting all day.The passive infinitive:to be + past participle, e.g. to be given, to be shut, to beopenedExamples:q I am expecting to be given a pay-rise next month.q These doors should be shut.q This window ought to be opened.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 210. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE INFINITIVEFUNCTIONThe most common uses of the infinitive are:To indicate the purpose or intention of an action(where the to has the same meaning as in order to orso as to):q Shes gone to collect her pay cheque.q The three bears went into the forest to findfirewood.As the subject of the sentence:q To be or not to be, that is the question.q To know her is to love her.(Note: this is more common in written English thanspoken)With nouns or pronouns, to indicate what somethingcan be used for, or what is to be done with it:q Would you like something to drink?q I havent anything to wear.q The children need a garden to play in.After adjectives in these patterns:q It is + adjective +to-infinitiveIt is good to talkq It is + adjective + infinitive + for someone + to-infinitive.It is hard for elephants to see miceq It is + adjective + infintive + of someone + to-infinitive.It is unkind of her to say that.After an adjective + noun when a comment orjudgement is being made:q It was a stupid place to park the car.q This is the right thing to do.q It was an astonishing way to behave.With too and enough in these patterns:too much/many (+ noun) + to-infinitiveTheres too much sugar to put in this bowl.I had too many books to carry.
  • 211. too + adjective + to-infinitiveThis soup is too hot to eat.She was too tired to work.too + adverb + to-infinitiveHe arrived too late to see the actors.enough (+ noun) + to-infinitiveIve had enough (food) to eat.adjective + enough + to-infinitiveShes old enough to make up her own mind.not enough (+noun) + to-infinitiveThere isnt enough snow to ski on.not + adjective + enough + to-infinitiveYoure not old enough to have grand-children!The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 212. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TO GETTO GET + direct object = to obtain, to receive, to buy:To obtainq She got her driving license last week.q They got permission to live in Switzerland.To receiveq I got a letter from my friend in Nigeria.q He gets £1,000 a year from his father.To buyq She got a new coat from Zappaloni in Rome.q We got a new television for the sitting room.TO GET + place expression = reach, arrive at a place:q We got to London around 6 p.m.q What time will we get there?q When did you get back from New York?TO GET + adjective = to become, show a change of state:q Its getting hotter.q By the time they reached the house they were getting hungry.q Im getting tired of all this nonsense.q My mothers getting old and needs looking after.q It gets dark very early in the winter.q Dont touch the stove until is gets cool.TO GET + preposition / adverb is used in many phrasal verbs. Here are someof the most common ones:Phrasal Verb Meaningget at try to expressget away with escape punishment for a crime or bad actionget by manage (financially)get down descend; depress
  • 213. get off leave a form of transport(train, bus, bicycle, plane)get on enter/sit on a form of transport(train, bus, bicycle, plane);have a relationship with someone;manageget out of avoid doing something, especially a dutyget over recover (from an illness, a surprise)get through use or finish the supply of somethingget up leave your bedget up to do - usually something badExamples:a. He got on his bicycle and rode down the street.b. He gets up at 6.00 a.m. every morning.c. She got out of the washing-up every day, even when it was her turn.d. We got off the train just before the bomb exploded.e. Weve got through all the sugar - can you buy some more?f. The children are very quiet - I wonder what theyre getting up to.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 214. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TO GETTo get can be used in a number of patterns and has a number of meanings.TO GET + direct object = obtain, receive, buy.Example: I got my passport last week.More ExamplesTO GET + place expression = reach, arrive at a place.Example: How are you getting home tonight?More ExamplesTO GET + adjective = become, show a change of state.Example: I am getting old.More ExamplesTO GET + preposition/adverb is used in many phrasal verbs.Example: This rain is really getting me down.More ExamplesTO GET has a number of other meanings:a. Do you get it? (= understand)b. Hes getting dinner tonight. (= prepare a meal)c. Ill get the bill. (= pay)d. That really gets me! (= irritate, annoy)Other expressions with GET:q To get rid of something means to throw it away.Example: Im going to get rid of all these old newspapers.q To get out of be on the wrong side means to be in a bad mood.Example: He got out of the wrong side of the bed this morning andhes been horrible all day.q To get your own back means to have your revenge or punish someone.Example: Shes getting her own back for all those rude things yousaid at the party last night.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 215. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |DIRECT AND REPORTED SPEECHYou can answer the question "What did he/she say?" in two ways:q by repeating the words spoken (direct speech)q by reporting the words spoken (indirect or reported speech).Direct SpeechDirect speech repeats, or quotes, the exact words spoken. When we usedirect speech in writing, we place the words spoken between invertedcommas ("....") and there is no change in these words. We may be reportingsomething thats being said NOW (for example a telephone conversation), ortelling someone later about a previous conversationExamples:She says "What time will you be home?"She said "What time will you be home?"and I said "I dont know! ""Theres a fly in my soup!" screamed Simone.John said, "Theres an elephant outside the window."Reported SpeechReported speech is usually used to talk about the past, so we normallychange the tense of the words spoken. We use reporting verbs like say, tell,ask, and we may use the word that to introduce the reported words.Inverted commas are not used.She said, "I saw him." She said that she had seen him.a. That may be omitted:She told him that she was happy.She told him she was happy.b. Say and tell:Use say when there is no indirect object:He said that he was tired.Always use tell when you say who was being spoken to (i.e. with anindirect object):He told me that he was tired.Talk and speak are used:- to describe the action of communicating:He talked to us.She was speaking on the telephone.- with about to refer to what was said:He talked (to us) about his parents.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony Hughes
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  • 217. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |REPORTED SPEECHHOPES, INTENTIONS, PROMISESWhen we report an intention, hope or promise, we use an appropriatereporting verb followed by a that-clause or a to-infinitive:"Ill pay you the money tomorrow."He promised to pay me the money the next day.He promised that he would pay me the money the next day.Other verbs used in this pattern include:hope, propose, threaten, guarantee, swear.Examples:a. "Ill be back by lunchtime."He promised to be back by lunchtime.He promised that he would be back by lunchtime.b. "We should arrive in London before nightfall."They hoped to arrive in London before nightfall.They hoped they would arrive in London before nightfall.c. "Give me the keys to the safe or Ill shoot you!"He threatened to shoot me if I didnt give him the keys to the safe.He threatened that he would shoot me if I didnt give him the keysto the safe.Note: see also Summary of Reporting Verbs.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 218. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |REPORTED SPEECHORDERS, REQUESTS, SUGGESTIONS1. When we want to report an order or request, we can use a verb like tellwith a to-clause.Examples:He told me to go away.The pattern is verb + indirect object + to-clause.(The indirect object is the person spoken to.)Other verbs used to report orders and requests in this way are: command,order, warn, ask, advise, invite, beg, teach, forbid.Examples:a. The doctor said to me, "Stop smoking!".The doctor told me to stop smoking.b. "Get out of the car!" said the policeman.The policeman ordered him to get out of the car.c. "Could you please be quiet," she said.She asked me to be quiet.d. The man with the gun said to us, "Dont move!"The man with the gun warned us not to move.(See also section on Verbs followed by infinitive and Verbs followed bygerund)2. Requests for objects are reported using the patternask + for + object: Examples:a. "Can I have an apple?", she asked. She asked for an apple.b. "Can I have the newspaper, please?"He asked for the newspaper.c. "May I have a glass of water?" he said.He asked for a glass of water.d. "Sugar, please."She asked for the sugar.e. "Could I have three kilos of onions?"He asked for three kilos of onions.3. Suggestions are usually reported with a that-clause. That and should areoptional in these clauses:She said: "Why dont you get a mechanic to look at the car?" Shesuggested that I should get a mechanic to look at the car. OR She suggested Iget a mechanic to look at the car.Other reporting verbs used in this way are: insist, recommend, demand,
  • 219. request, propose.Examples:a. "It would be a good idea to see the dentist", said my mother. Mymother suggested I see the dentist.b. The dentist said, "I think you should use a different toothbrush". Thedentist recommended that I should use a different toothbrush.c. My manager said, "I think we should examine the budget carefully at thismeeting." My manager proposed that we examine the budget carefullyat the meeting.d. "Why dont you sleep overnight at my house?" she said. She suggestedthat I sleep overnight at her house.Notes:Suggest can also be followed by a gerund: I suggested postponing the visit tothe dentist.See also Summary of Reporting Verbs.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 220. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |- ING FORMVERBS FOLLOWED BY THE GERUNDThe gerund is used after certain verbs.Example:miss: I miss living in England.The most important of these verbs are shown below.Those marked * can also be followed by a that-clauseExample:VERB GERUNDShe admitted... breaking the windowTHAT-CLAUSEShe admitted... that she had broken the window.acknowledge,*admit,*anticipate,* appreciate,*avoid,celebrate,consider, contemplate,defer,delay,deny,*detest,dislike,dread,enjoy,entail,escape,excuse,fancy (=imagine)*,finish,forgive,imagine,*involve,keep,loathe,mean,(=have as result)*mention,*mind,miss,pardon,postpone,prevent,propose,*recall,*recollect,*remember,report,*resent,resist,risk,save (=prevent the wastedeffort)stop,suggest,*understand,*Notes:Appreciate is followed by a possessive adjective and the gerund when thegerund does not refer to the subject. Compare :I appreciate having some time off work. (Im having the time...)I appreciate your giving me some time off work. (Youre giving me thetime...)
  • 221. Excuse, forgive, pardon can be followed by an object and the gerund or for+ object and the gerund (both common in spoken English), or a possessiveadjective + gerund (more formal and less likely to be said):Excuse me interrupting.Excuse me for interrupting.Excuse my interrupting.Suggest can be used in a number of ways, but BE CAREFUL. It is importantnot to confuse these patterns:suggest/suggested (+ possessive adjective) + gerund:He suggests going to GlastonburyHe suggested going to GlastonburyHe suggested/suggests my going to Glastonburysuggest/suggested + that-clause (where both that and shouldmay be omitted):He suggests that I should go to GlastonburyHe suggested that I should go to GlastonburyHe suggested/suggests I should go to GlastonburyHe suggested/suggests I go to GlastonburyHe suggested I went to Glastonbury.suggest/suggested + question word + infinitive:He suggested where to go.Propose is followed by the gerund when it means suggest:John proposed going to the debatebut by the infinitive when it means intend:The Government proposes bringing in new laws..Stop can be followed by a gerund or infinitive, but there is a change ofmeaning - see GERUND / INFINITIVE? section.Dread is followed by the infinitive when used with think, in the expression Idread to think:I dread to think what shell do next.Prevent is followedEITHER by a possessive adjective + gerund:You cant prevent my leaving.OR by an object + from + gerund:You cant prevent me from leaving.Examples:q Normally, a mouse wouldnt contemplate marrying an elephant.q Most mice dread meeting elephants.q We cant risk getting wet - we havent got any dry clothes.q If you take that job it will mean getting home late every night.q I cant imagine living in that big house.q If you buy some petrol now, it will save you stopping on the way toLondon.q She couldnt resist eating the plum she found in the fridge.q They decided to postpone painting the house until the weatherimproved.
  • 222. The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 223. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |REPORTED SPEECHQUESTIONS1. Normal word order is used in reported questions, that is, the subjectcomes before the verb, and it is not necessary to use do or did:"Where does Peter live?" She asked him where Peterlived.2. Yes / no questions: This type of question is reported by using ask + if /whether + clause:a. "Do you speak English?" He asked me if I spoke English.b. "Are you British or American?" He asked me whether Iwas British or American.c. "Is it raining?" She asked if it was raining.d. "Have you got a computer?" He wanted to knowwhether I had a computer.e. "Can you type?" She asked if I could type.f. "Did you come by train?" He enquired whether I hadcome by train.g. "Have you been to Bristol before?" She asked if I hadbeen to Bristol before.3. Question words:This type of question is reported by using ask (or another verb like ask) +question word + clause. The clause contains the question, in normal wordorder and with the necessary tense change.Examples:a. "What is your name?" he asked me. He asked me whatmy name was.b. "How old is your mother?", he asked. He asked how oldher mother was.c. The mouse said to the elephant, "Where do you live?"The mouse asked the elephant where she lived.d. "What time does the train arrive?" she asked. Sheasked what time the train arrived.e. "When can we have dinner?" she asked. She askedwhen they could have dinner.f. The elephant said to the mouse, "Why are you so small?"The elephant asked the mouse why she was so small.
  • 224. Note: See also Summary of Reporting VerbsThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 225. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |RELATIVE CLAUSESNON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSESThe information in these clauses is not essential. It tells us more aboutsomeone or something, but it does not help us to identify them or it.Compare:1. Elephants that love mice are very unusual. (This tells us which elephantswe are talking about).2. Elephants, which are large and grey, can sometimes be found in zoos.(This gives us some extra information about elephants - we are talking aboutall elephants, not just one type or group).3. Johns mother, who lives in Scotland, has 6 grandchildren. (We know whoJohns mother is, and he only has one. The important information is thenumber of grandchildren, but the fact that she lives in Scotland might befollowed with the words "by the way" - it is additional information).PunctuationNon-defining relative clauses are always separated from the rest of thesentence by commas. The commas have a similar function to brackets:My friend John has just written a best-selling novel. (He went to the sameschool as me) > My friend John, who went to the same school as me, hasjust written a best-selling novel.Relative pronouns in non-defining clausesPerson Thing PlaceSubject who whichObject who/whom which wherePossessive whoseNotes:1. In non-defining clauses, you cannot use ‘that’ instead of who, whom orwhich.2. You cannot leave out the relative pronoun, even when it is the object ofthe verb in the relative clause:He gave me the letter, which was in a blue envelope.He gave me the letter, which I read immediately3. The preposition in these clauses can go at the end of the clause, e.g. Thisis Stratford-on-Avon, which you have all heard about.This pattern is often used in spoken English, but in written or formal Englishyou can also put the preposition before the pronoun: e.g. Stratford-on-Avon,about which many people have written is Shakespeare’s birthplace.
  • 226. 4. Non-defining clauses can be introduced by expressions like all of, many of+ relative pronoun:Person Thingall of + whom + whichany of + whom + which(a) few of + whom + whichboth of + whom + whicheach of + whom + whicheither of + whom + whichhalf of + whom + whichmany of + whom + whichmost of + whom + whichmuch of + whom + whichnone of + whom + whichone of + whom + whichtwo of etc… + whom + whichExamples:a. There were a lot of people at the party, many of whom I had known foryears.b. He was carrying his belongings, many of which were broken.5. The relative pronoun which at the beginning of a non-defining relativeclause, can refer to all the information contained in the previous part of thesentence, rather than to just one word.a. Chris did really well in his exams, which was a big surprise. (= the factthat he did well in his exams was a big surprise).b. An elephant and a mouse fell in love, which is most unusual. (= the factthat they fell in love is unusual).Examples:a. My grandmother, who is dead now, came from the North of England.b. I spoke to Fred, who explained the problem.c. The elephant looked at the tree, under which she had often sat.d. We stopped at the museum, which we’d never been into.e. She’s studying maths, which many people hate.f. I’ve just met Susan, whose husband works in London.g. He had thousands of books, most of which he had read.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 227. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |RELATIVE CLAUSEWHERE TO PUT THE PREPOSTITION IN A RELATIVE CLAUSEThere are often prepositions in relative clauses, and the relative pronoun isthe object of the preposition. This means that the preposition can sometimesbe omitted.1. The preposition is normally placed at the end of the relative clause:Is that the man (who) you arrived with?Do you know the girl (that) John is talking to?2. In formal or written English, the preposition is often placed beforethe relative pronoun, and in this case the pronoun cannot be omitted:The person with whom he is negotiating is the Chairman of alarge company.It is a society to which many important people belong.However, this is unusual in spoken English.Examples:q The jungle the elephant lived in was full of strange and unusualanimals.q He was very fond of the mouse that he lived with.q The tree under which they had their home was the largest andoldest in the jungle.q In the middle of the jungle was a river that all the animals went toevery day.q It was the stream in which the elephant and the mouse preferredto swim.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 228. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |RELATIVE CLAUSESDEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSESAs the name suggests, these clauses give essential information to define oridentify the person or thing we are talking about. Obviously, this is onlynecessary if there is more than one person or thing involved.Example:Elephants who marry mice are very unusual.In this sentence we understand that there are many elephants, but it is clearthat we are only talking the ones who marry mice.PunctuationCommas are not used in defining relative clauses.Relative pronounsThe following relative pronouns are used in defining relative clauses:Person Thing Place Time ReasonSubject who/that which/thatObject who/whom/that/ø which/that/ø where when whyPossessive whose whoseNotes:1. The relative pronoun stands in place of a noun.This noun usually appears earlier in the sentence:The woman who/that spoke at the meeting was very knowledgeable.Noun,subject ofmain clauserelativepronounreferring tothe woman,subject ofspokeverb + rest of relativeclauseverb + rest of main clause2. Who, whom and which can be replaced by that. This is very common inspoken English.3. The relative pronoun can be omitted (ø) when it is the object of theclause:The mouse that the elephant loved was very beautiful.OR The mouse the elephant loved was very beautiful.Both of these sentences are correct, though the second one is more commonin spoken English.The mouse that/ø the elephant loved was very beautiful.
  • 229. Noun, subject ofmain clauserelativepronoun,referring tothe mouse,object oflovedverb + rest ofrelative clauseverb + rest of mainclause.(You can usually decide whether a relative pronoun is an object because it isnormally followed by another subject + verb.)4. Whose is used for things as well as for people.Examples:The man whose car was stolen.A tree whose leaves have fallen.5. Whom is very formal and is only used in written English. You can usewho/that, or omit the pronoun completely :The doctor whom/who/that/ø I was hoping to see wasnt on duty.6. That normally follows words like something, anything, everything,nothing, all, and superlatives.Examples:q Theres something that you should know.q It was the best film that Ive ever seen.Examples:q A clown is someone who makes you laugh.q An elephant is an animal that lives in hot countries.q The plums that were in the fridge were delicious. I have eaten them.q Where are the plums (that) I put in the fridge?q Has anyone seen the book I was reading?q Nothing that anyone does can replace my lost bag.q Lets go to a country where the sun always shines.q They live in the house whose roof is full of holes.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 230. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |RELATIVE CLAUSESSee also Pronouns.There are two different types of relative clause:1. A "defining" or identifying clause, which tells us which person or thingwe are talking about.2. A "non-defining" or non-essential clause, which gives us moreinformation about the person or thing we are talking about. This kindof clause could often be information included in brackets (...)Example:The farmer (his name was Fred) sold us some potatoes.The farmer, whose name was Fred, sold us some potatoes.It is important to see the difference between the two types of clause, as itaffects:a. the choice of pronoun used to introduce the clause,b. the punctuation - you must use commas with a non-defining clause.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 231. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |- ING FORMTHE PRESENT PARTICIPLEThe present participle of most verbs has the form base+ing and is used in thefollowing ways:a. as part of the continuous form of a verb(See continuous tenses in VERB TENSES)Example:I am working,he was singing,they have been walking.b. after verbs of movement/position in the pattern: verb +present participleExample:q She went shoppingq He lay looking up at the cloudsq She came running towards meThis construction is particularly useful with the verb to go, as in thesecommon expressions :to go shoppingto go ski-ingto go fishingto go surfingto go walkingto go swimmingto go runningto go dancingc. after verbs of perception in the pattern:verb + object + present participleExample:I heard someone singing.He saw his friend walking along the road.I can smell something burning!NOTE: There is a difference in meaning when such a sentence contains azero-infinitive rather than a participle. The infinitive refers to a completeaction, but the participle refers to an incomplete action, or part of anaction.Compare:
  • 232. q I heard Joanna singing (= she had started before I heard her, andprobably went on afterwards)q I heard Joanna sing (= I heard her complete performance)d. as an adjectiveExamples:amazing, worrying, exciting, boring.q It was an amazing film.q Its a bit worrying when the police stop youq Dark billowing clouds often precede a storm.q Racing cars can go as fast as 400kph.q He was trapped inside the burning house.q Many of his paintings depict the setting sun.e. with the verbs spend and waste, in the pattern:verb + time/money expression + present participleExample:q My boss spends two hours a day travelling to work.q Dont waste time playing computer games!q Theyve spent the whole day shopping.f. with the verbs catch and find, in the pattern:verb + object + present participle:With catch, the participle always refers to an action which causes annoyanceor anger:q If I catch you stealing my apples again, therell be trouble!q Dont let him catch you reading his letters.This is not the case with find, which is unemotional:q We found some money lying on the ground.q They found their mother sitting in the garden.g. to replace a sentence or part of a sentence:When two actions occur at the same time, and are done by the same personor thing, we can use a present participle to describe one of them:q They went out into the snow. They laughed as they went. Theywent laughing out into the snow.q He whistled to himself. He walked down the road. Whistling tohimself, he walked down the road.When one action follows very quickly after another done by the same personor thing, we can express the first action with a present participle:q He put on his coat and left the house. Putting on his coat, heleft the house.q She dropped the gun and put her hands in the air. Dropping the
  • 233. gun, she put her hands in the air.The present participle can be used instead of a phrase starting as, since,because, and it explains the cause or reason for an action:q Feeling hungry, he went into the kitchen and opened the fridge.(= because he felt hungry...)q Being poor, he didnt spend much on clothes.q Knowing that his mother was coming, he cleaned the flat.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 234. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |- ING FORMINTRODUCTIONThe -ing form of the verb may be a present participle or a gerund.The form is identical, the difference is in the function, or the job the worddoes in the sentence.The present participle:This is most commonly used:q as part of the continuous form of a verb,he is painting; she has been waitingq after verbs of movement/position in the pattern:verb + present participle,She sat looking at the seaq after verbs of perception in the pattern:verb + object + present participle,We saw him swimmingq as an adjective, e.g. amazing, worrying, exciting, boringThe gerund:This always has the same function as a noun (although it looks like a verb), soit can be used:q as the subject of the sentence:Eating people is wrong.q after prepositions:Can you sneeze without opening your mouth?She is good at paintingq after certain verbs,e.g. like, hate, admit, imagineq in compound nouns,e.g. a driving lesson, a swimming pool, bird-watching, train-spottingThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 235. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |NOUNSTHE PLURAL OF NOUNSMost nouns form the plural by adding -s or -es.Singular Pluralboat boatshat hatshouse housesriver riversA noun ending in -y preceded by a consonant makes the plural with -ies.Singular Plurala cry criesa fly fliesa nappy nappiesa poppy poppiesa city citiesa lady ladiesa baby babiesThere are some irregular formations for noun plurals. Some of the mostcommon ones are listed below.Examples of irregular plurals:Singular Pluralwoman womenman menchild childrentooth teethfoot feetperson peopleleaf leaveshalf halvesknife kniveswife wiveslife livesloaf loavespotato potatoes
  • 236. cactus cactifocus focifungus funginucleus nucleisyllabus syllabi/syllabusesanalysis analysesdiagnosis diagnosesoasis oasesthesis thesescrisis crisesphenomenon phenomenacriterion criteriadatum dataSome nouns have the same form in the singular and the plural.Examples:Singular Pluralsheep sheepfish fishspecies speciesaircraft aircraftSome nouns have a plural form but take a singular verb.Examples:news The news is on at 6.30 p.m.athletics Athletics is good for young people.linguistics Linguistics is the study of language.darts Darts is a popular game in England.billiards Billiards is played all over the world.Some nouns have a plural form and take a plural verb.Examples:trousers My trousers are too tight.jeans Her jeans are black.glasses Those glasses are his.others include:savings, thanks, steps, stair, customs, congratulations, tropics, wages,spectacles, outskirts, goods, witsThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony Hughes
  • 237. The English4Today Members Website
  • 238. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE PASSIVE VOICEPASSIVE, FORMThe passive voice in English is composed of two elements : the appropriateform of the verb to be + the past participle of the verb in question:Subject verb to be past participleThe house was built ...Example: to cleanSubject verb to be past participleSimple present:The house is cleaned every day.Present continuous:The house is being cleaned at the moment.Simple past:The house was cleaned yesterday.Past continuous:The house was being cleaned last week.Present perfect:The house has been cleaned since you left.Past perfect:The house had been cleaned before their arrival.Future:The house will be cleaned next week.Future continuous:The house will be being cleaned tomorrow.Present conditional:The house would be cleaned if they had visitors.Past conditional:The house would have been cleaned if it had been dirty.NOTE: to be born is a passive form and is most commonly used in the pasttense:I was born in 1976. When were you born?BUT: Around 100 babies are born in this hospital every week.Infinitive form: infinitive of to be + past participle: (to) be cleanedThis form is used after modal verbs and other verbs normally followed by aninfinitive, e.g.
  • 239. You have to be tested on your English grammarJohn might be promoted next year.She wants to be invited to the party.Gerund or -ing form: being + past participle: being cleanedThis form is used after prepositions and verbs normally followed by a gerundExamples:a. Most film stars hate being interviewed.b. I remember being taught to drive.c. The children are excited about being taken to the zoo.NOTE: Sometimes the passive is formed using the verb to get instead of theverb to be:a. He got arrested for dangerous driving.b. Theyre getting married later this year.c. Im not sure how the window got broken.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 240. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE PASSIVE VOICEPASSIVE, FUNCTIONThe passive voice is used to show interest in the person or object thatexperiences an action rather than the person or object that performs theaction, e.g.q The passive is used ...:We are interested in the passive, not who uses it.q The house was built in 1654:We are interested in the house, not the builder.q The road is being repaired:We are interested in the road, not the people repairing it.In other words, the most important thing or person becomes the subject ofthe sentence.Sometimes we use the passive voice because we dont know or cannotexpress who or what performed the action:q I noticed that a window had been left openq Every year people are killed on our roads.If we want to say who or what performs the action, we use the prepositionby:q "A Hard Days Night" was written by the Beatlesq ET was directed by SpielbergThe passive voice is often used in formal or scientific texts:q A great deal of meaning is conveyed by a few well-chosen words.q Our planet is wrapped in a mass of gases.q Waste materials are disposed of in a variety of ways.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 241. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE PASSIVE VOICEGET / HAVE SOMETHING DONEThis construction is passive in meaning. It may describe situations where wewant someone else to do something for us.Examples:a. I must get / have my hair cut.b. When are you going to get that window mended?c. Were having the house painted.If the verb refers to something negative or unwanted, it has the samemeaning as a passive sentence:d. Jim had his car stolen last night. (= Jims car was stolen)e. They had their roof blown off in the storm. (= Their roofwas blown off in the storm)The construction can refer to the completion of an activity, especially if atime expression is used:f. Well get the work done as soon as possible.g. Ill get those letters typed before lunchtime.In all these sentences, we are more interested in the result of the activitythan in the person or object that performs the activity.X NEEDS DOINGIn the same way, this construction has a passive meaning. The importantthing in our minds is the person or thing that will experience the action, e.g.a. The ceiling needs painting (= the ceiling needs to bepainted)b. My hair needs cutting (= my hair needs to be cut)The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 242. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE PASSIVE VOICEPASSIVE TENSES AND ACTIVE EQUIVALENTSNotice that the tense of the verb to be in the passive voice is the same as thetense of the main verb in the active voice.Example: to keepTENSE / VERB FORM ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICESimple present keeps is keptPresent continuous is keeping is being keptSimple past kept was keptPast continuous was keeping was being keptPresent perfect have kept have been keptPast perfect had kept had been keptfuture will keep will be keptConditional present would keep would be keptConditional past would have kept would have been keptpresent infinitive to keep to be keptperfect infinitive to have kept to have been keptpresent participle/gerund keeping being keptperfect participle having kept having been keptExample sentences:Active: I keep the butter in the fridge.Passive: The butter is kept in the fridge.Active: They stole the painting.Passive: The painting was stolen.Active: They are repairing the road.Passive: The road is being repaired.Active: Shakespeare wrote Hamlet.Passive: Hamlet was written by Shakespeare.Active: A dog bit him.Passive: He was bitten by a dog.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 243. Error Occurred While Processing RequestError Diagnostic InformationAn error has occurred.HTTP/1.0 404 Object Not Found
  • 244. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |NOUNSCOMPOUND NOUNSFormationWords can be combined to form compound nouns. These are very common,and new combinations are invented almost daily. They normally have twoparts. The second part identifies the object or person in question (man,friend, tank, table, room). The first part tells us what kind of object orperson it is, or what its purpose is (police, boy, water, dining, bed):What type / what purpose What or whopolice manboy friendwater tankdining tablebed roomThe two parts may be written in a number of ways :1. as one word.Example: policeman, boyfriend2. as two words joined with a hyphen.Example: dining-table3. as two separate words.Example: fish tank.There are no clear rules about this - so write the common compounds thatyou know well as one word, and the others as two words.The two parts may be: Examples:noun + nounbedroomwater tankmotorcycleprinter cartridgenoun + verbrainfallhaircuttrain-spottingnoun + adverbhanger-onpasser-byverb + nounwashing machinedriving licenceswimming pool
  • 245. verb + adverb*lookouttake-offdrawbackadjective + noungreenhousesoftwareredheadadjective + verbdry-cleaningpublic speakingadverb + nounonlookerbystanderadverb + verb*outputoverthrowupturninputCompound nouns often have a meaning that is different from the twoseparate words.Stress is important in pronunciation, as it distinguishes between a compoundnoun (e.g. greenhouse) and an adjective with a noun (e.g. green house).In compound nouns, the stress usually falls on the first syllable:a greenhouse = place where we grow plants (compound noun)a green house = house painted green (adjective and noun)a bluebird = type of bird (compound noun)a blue bird = any bird with blue feathers (adjective and noun)* Many common compound nouns are formed from phrasal verbs (verb +adverb or adverb + verb).Examples: breakdown, outbreak, outcome, cutback, drive-in, drop-out,feedback, flyover, hold-up, hangover, outlay, outlet, inlet, makeup,output, set-back, stand-in, takeaway, walkover..The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 246. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |NOUNSNouns answer the questions "What is it?" and "Who is it?" They give names tothings, people and qualities.Examples: dog, bicycle, man, girl, beauty, truth, world.NOUN GENDERIn general there is no distinction between masculine, feminine and neuter inEnglish nouns. However, gender is sometimes shown by different forms ordifferent words.Examples:Different words:Masculine FemininemanfatheruncleboyhusbandwomanmotherauntgirlwifeDifferent forms:Masculine FeminineactorprinceherowaiterwidoweractressprincessheroinewaitresswidowSome nouns can be used for either a masculine or a feminine subject:Examples:cousin teenager teacher doctorcook student parent friendrelation colleague partner leaderq Mary is a doctor. She is a doctorq Peter is a doctor. He is a doctor.q Arthur is my cousin. He is my cousin.q Jane is my cousin. She is my cousin.It is possible to make the distinction by adding the words male or female.
  • 247. Example: a female student; a male cousinFor professions, we can add the word womanExample: a woman doctor; a woman journalist.In some cases nouns describing things are given gender.Examples:q I love my car. She (the car) is my greatest passion.q France is popular with her (Frances) neighbours at the moment.q I travelled from England to New York on the Queen Elizabeth, she(the Queen Elizabeth) is a great ship.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 248. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |NOUNSSECTION MENU:Noun GenderThe Plural of NounsCountable and Uncountable nounsCompound NounsProper NounsNationalitiesThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 249. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |- ING FORMTHE GERUNDThis looks exactly the same as a present participle, and for this reason it isnow common to call both forms the -ing form. However it is useful tounderstand the difference between the two. The gerund always has the samefunction as a noun (although it looks like a verb), so it can be used:a. as the subject of the sentence:q Eating people is wrong.q Hunting elephants is dangerous.q Flying makes me nervous.b. as the complement of the verb to be:q One of his duties is attending meetings.q The hardest thing about learning English is understanding thegerund.q One of lifes pleasures is having breakfast in bed.c. after prepositions. The gerund must be used when a verbcomes after a preposition:q Can you sneeze without opening your mouth?q She is good at painting.q Theyre keen on windsurfing.q She avoided him by walking on the opposite side of the road.q We arrived in Madrid after driving all night.q My father decided against postponing his trip to Hungary.This is also true of certain expressions ending in a preposition, e.g. in spiteof, theres no point in..:q Theres no point in waiting.q In spite of missing the train, we arrived on time.d. after a number of phrasal verbs which are composed of averb + preposition/adverbExample:to look forward to, to give up, to be for/against, to take to, to put off, tokeep on:q I look forward to hearing from you soon. (at the end of a letter)q When are you going to give up smoking?q She always puts off going to the dentist.q He kept on asking for money.NOTE: There are some phrasal verbs and other expressions that include the
  • 250. word to as a preposition, not as part of a to-infinitive: - to look forwardto, to take to, to be accustomed to, to be used to. It is important torecognise that to is a preposition in these cases, as it must be followed by agerund:q We are looking forward to seeing you.q I am used to waiting for buses.q She didnt really take to studying English.It is possible to check whether to’ is a preposition or part of a to-infinitive:if you can put a noun or the pronoun it after it, then it is a preposition andmust be followed by a gerund:q I am accustomed to it (the cold).q I am accustomed to being cold.e. in compound nounsExample:q a driving lesson, a swimming pool, bird-watching, train-spottingIt is clear that the meaning is that of a noun, not of a continuous verb.Example:q the pool is not swimming, it is a pool for swimming in.f. after the expressions:cant help, cant stand, its no use/good, and the adjective worth:q The elephant couldnt help falling in love with the mouse.q I cant stand being stuck in traffic jams.q Its no use/good trying to escape.q It might be worth phoning the station to check the time of the train.
  • 251. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |- ING FORMGERUND OR INFINITIVE?B. Verbs where there is a clear difference in meaning:Verbs marked with an asterisk* can also be followed by a that-clause.comeforget*go onmean*regret*remember*stoptryNOTES:Come:Come + gerund is like other verbs of movement followed bythe gerund, and means that the subject is doing somethingas they move:q She came running across the field.Come + to-infinitive means that something happens ordevelops, perhaps outside the subjects control:q At first I thought he was crazy, but Ive come toappreciate his sense of humour.q How did you come to be outside the wrong house?q This word has come to mean something quitedifferent.Forget, regret and remember:When these verbs are followed by a gerund, the gerundrefers to an action that happened earlier:q I remember locking the door (= I remember now, Ilocked the door earlier)q He regretted speaking so rudely. (= he regretted atsome time in the past, he had spoken rudely at someearlier time in the past.)Forget is frequently used with never in the simple futureform:q Ill never forget meeting the Queen.When these verbs are followed by a to-infinitive, theinfinitive refers to an action happening at the same time, orlater:q I remembered to lock the door (= I thought about it,
  • 252. then I did it.)q Dont forget to buy some eggs! (= Please think aboutit and then do it.)q We regret to announce the late arrival of the 12.45from Paddington. (= We feel sorry before we tell youthis bad news.)Go on:Go on + gerund means to continue with an action:q He went on speaking for two hours.q I cant go on working like this - Im exhausted.Go on + to-infinitive means to do the next action, which isoften the next stage in a process:q After introducing her proposal, she went on toexplain the benefits for the company.q John Smith worked in local government for fiveyears, then went on to become a Member ofParliament.Mean:Mean + gerund expresses what the result of an action willbe, or what will be necessary:q If you take that job in London it will mean travellingfor two hours every day.q We could take the ferry to France, but that willmean spending a night in a hotel.Mean + to-infinitive expresses an intention or a plan:q Did you mean to dial this number?q I mean to finish this job by the end of the week!q Sorry - I didnt mean to hurt you.Stop:Stop + gerund means to finish an action in progress:q I stopped working for them because the wages wereso low.Stop tickling me!Stop + to-infinitive means to interrupt an activity in orderto do something else, so the infinitive is used to express apurpose:q I stopped to have lunch. (= I was working, ortravelling, and I interrupted what I was doing in orderto eat.)q Its difficult to concentrate on what you are doing ifyou have to stop to answer the phone every fiveminutes.Try:
  • 253. Try + gerund means to experiment with an action that mightbe a solution to your problem.q If you have problems sleeping, you could try doingsome yoga before you go to bed, or you could trydrinking some warm milk.q I cant get in touch with Carl. Have you tried e-mailing him?Try + to-infinitive means to make an effort to do something.It may be something very difficult or even impossible:q The surgeons tried to save his life but he died on theoperating table.q Well try to phone at 6 oclock, but it might be hardto find a public telephone.q Elephants and mice have to try to live together inharmony.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 254. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |ABOUT ANTHONY HUGHESAuthor of the Online English GrammarAnthony Hughes has been involved in education for the past twenty years. He spent hisformative years in Australia and attended the Universities of Sydney (B.A.), New England(M.Litt) and the University of New South Wales (Cert. TESOL)After receiving a Masters in English Literature and Language he went on to teach English inseveral countries including Australia, Switzerland and France. While in Switzerland he wroteand directed a six part audio-visual course for English language learners and was thedirector of the international education fair Mondolingua.In 1995 he moved to Bristol in the UK and formed the Digital Education Network Ltd withDavid Blackie.The Digital Education Network (DEN) is now a world leader in the provision of educationalinformation on the Internet and counts amongst its clients many of the worlds topeducational organisations.Charged with the development of the DEN websites and content and with the developmentof educational websites for clients around the world, he has become an expert in thedevelopment and design of high-end, database driven and interactive sites for education.Along with the technical expertise he has developed content in the form of the OnlineEnglish Grammar which currently attracts over 180,000 monthly user sessions on DEN and ofinteractive games in the DEN test centre. He is currently working on a number ofmultimedia and DV video based projects for primary and secondary schools as well as aseries on the use of English.In 1999 he formed ZEP Media Ltd to provide an online educational software shop andresource centre for schools and to act as a laboratory for the development of educationalapplications using the new technologies.Apart from his business activities he has contributed articles and photographs to a numberof magazines, written a screenplay on the life of Friedrich Nietzsche and maintains a stronginterest in the development of creative learning applications using the new technologies.Professional, publishing and Online Grammar licensing enquiries can be sent toakh@zepmedia.comThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 255. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |WHICH ENGLISH?Trash or Rubbish? - Sorting out our EnglishColour or color? Socks or sox? Organisations or Organizations?Underground or subway? Gas or petrol? Fall or Autumn? Candy orsweets? Cookie or biscuit? Centre or Center, Trash or rubbish?I often get emails from users berating me for my terrible spelling.While I admit to a few glaring typos from time to time the emailsare often concerned with spellings that have more to do withgeography than with poor literacy skills.Just to confuse the issue a little more, I was born in England, wentto Australia when I was five, was entirely educated in Australia,spent several years in the USA and Canada and then ten years inFrance, and now live in England married to a Colombian wife wherethe common language at home is French, where my wife speaksSpanish to the children, I speak English to them and they spendundue amounts of time listening to American TV shows like SesameStreet, Buffy the Vampire Killer and the Simpsons or listening toAmerican rappers, English Spice Girls or, when forced, heroes fromthe seventies such as Van Morrison and James Taylor. And theysuck vocabulary, expressions, idioms and grammar out of all of thisand plonk it into their own English. In my home, as in many othersaround the world, English isnt something that you can pin down asyou would a prize butterfly and say There it is! That is English.There is no longer, if there ever was, a standard English to whichall speakers should pay homage. Now we recognise as legitimatevariations American English, Australian English, British English,Indian English, there is even a variety called Singlish fromSingapore. You only have to have used an electronic spell checkerto know that you can select from some of these English varietieswhen correcting your spelling in a word processor.Although it is true that we have a wonderfully rich global mappingof English which makes it possible for English speakers to almostimmediately fix a fellow English speaker to a geographical area, itis also true that there is more that is similar among these Englishvarieties than is dissimilar. If there wasnt, English speakers fromdifferent parts of the world would have absolutely no hope ofunderstanding each other! In most cases it is pronunciation and notusage, vocabulary or grammar that makes a fellow English speakerfrom another part of the world, or sometimes even another part ofthe country, difficult to understand.In the Online English Grammar I try to remain open to theinternational and evolving character of English and, at the risk offalling into the sea, try to keep one foot each in British andAmerican English - if I had more feet I would attempt to coversome of the other main English variations as well, but a shortage offeet is one of the many drawbacks of being a lowly biped. What thismeans is that I try to point out grammatical rules that may varyslightly depending on where you are, the same with spelling. As faras spelling goes for the actual explanations and examples I tend touse the Australian/British spellings. For example I useorganisation rather than organization and colour rather thancolor and prefer program to programme. Australia has always
  • 256. had the great advantage of being able to choose to follow theAmerican or British ways or invent things for itself. However, if youlook under the bonnet of these pages you will see that we areforced to use American English in the HTML which we use to codethe pages - colour is always color and centre, center there!The important thing to remember is that while spelling rememberas rember is definately wrong, spelling socks as sox is not!That saying She speak English really well is definately wrong (theverb speak must be third person speaks or used in another tensesuch as spoke), saying She speaks English real well may not bewrong (it is acceptable to use real rather than really in informalAmerican English.)When visualising English always think of it as a writhing, many-headed, sensual, changing and wonderful creature and not somedry, changeless, inanimate measuring stick.That should avoid the urge to condemn other peoples use ofEnglish before carefully thinking about what they have said andwhere they come from - perhaps they are even contributingsomething new, unique and colourful to the language.This may also slow the flow of emails arriving in my in-tray fromangry users who think it is a disgrace that I consistently spellcenter as centre - am I dyslexic?Anthony HughesAuthor of the Online English GrammarThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 257. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |ASK A QUESTIONIf you have bought the ONLINE ENGLISH GRAMMAR PACK (includes the PDFVersion of the Online English Grammar, The Guide to Punctuation and the 10Question QandA option) you are entitled to ask up to 10 English grammarrelated questions which will be answered by a professional English languageteacher.To ask you question complete the form below while you are connected to theInternet and then hit the ask now! button. Make sure that you havecompleted the fields asking for your username and password as the questionscan only be answered if this information is sent and if your access codes arevalid.If you have purchased the PDF VERSION OF THE ONLINE ENGLISH GRAMMAR asa stand-alone product without the 10 question option you may still sign upfor the Question and Answer service for a fee of $25.00* per 10 Englishgrammar related questions.Select a link:q I have my valid access codes and wish to ask a questionq I wish to sign-up for the Question and Answer option for $25.00* Fee subject to change without notice. If the fee has been altered since this PDF versionwas created we will notify you by return email before debiting your credit card.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  • 258. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE QUESTION AND ANSWER OPTIONTo ask your question you must enter your valid username and password.The access system will verify these and post your question and emailaddress to our English language professors for answering.If you have forgotten your username and password contactgrammar@english4today.com supplying any of the original order details thatyou have. We will forward the username and password to the email addressheld in our database (for security it will only be sent to the original emailaddress you used when ordering the OLEG and none other.)Username:Password :Type your question in the box below:Ensure that you are online and that all details are correct. Click the sendform button once and wait for the Internet server to respond. Dependingon where you are this may take a few seconds. Do not click more thanonce as this may send multiple copies of your order through.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Websitesend form
  • 259. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE QUESTION AND ANSWER OPTIONI would like to purchase the Question and Answer option for the fee of$25.00 (USD) / £17.50 UK sterling* per 10 questions.Your credit card will be debited for £17.50 UK sterling, at todays exchange rate this isslightly less than $25.00 US. The debit will show as being made to ZEP Media Ltd. the parentcompany of English4Today.comFirst name:Family Name :Street Address :City or Town :Country :Zip / Postal Code :Email :Credit Card :Card Number :Expiry Date :You can ask your first question immediately or email us the first questionany time after we confirm your payment.I would like ask the following question:Ensure that you are online and that all details are correct. Click the sendform button once and wait for the Internet server to respond. Dependingon where you are this may take a few seconds. Do not click more thanonce as this may send multiple copies of your order through.Choose a Country(Select One)Month 2001send form
  • 260. The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website