|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |ABOUT THIS VERSIONPDF Version 1.1This full ...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |MAIN SUBJECT INDEX1. active/passive equival...
Keywords: no definite article, determiner, exceptions27. form - adjectivesKeywords: gender, position, form, adjective28. f...
Keywords: verbs, irregular58. introduction - present participle, gerundKeywords: present participle, gerund59. introductio...
89. present perfect 1Keywords: present perfect, past participle, irregular verbs90. present perfect 2Keywords: present per...
120. verbs followed by gerundKeywords: verb + gerund121. verbs followed by infinitiveKeywords: verbs + infinitive without ...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TABLE OF CONTENTSGeneralAbout the authorWhi...
exceptions to using the definite articlemenu - function and classmenu - quantifierspossessivespre-determinersquantifiers 1...
active/passive equivalentsform -pastfunctionget/have something done, x needs doingPossessive with s and possessiveRelative...
present continuous for future eventspresent perfect 1present perfect 2present perfect 3present perfect 4present perfect co...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERAYour search f...
exceptions to using the definite article Keywords: no definitearticle, determiner, exceptionsthe,a,an Keywords: the, a, an...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERBYour search f...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERCYour search f...
Nounsnationalities Keywords: nationalities, country, nounsuse of capital letters Keywords: capital letters, names, months,...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERDYour search f...
Direct and Indirect Speechreporting hopes and intentions Keywords: hopes, intentions, to-infinitive, that-clausesummary of...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTEREYour search f...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERFYour search f...
infinitive after adjectives, infinitive with too/enoughother forms of infinitive Keywords: perfect infinitive, continuousi...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERGYour search f...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERHYour search f...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERIYour search f...
Irregular Verbsintroduction - irregular verbs Keywords: verbs, irregularlist of common irregular verb Keywords: irregular,...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERJYour search f...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERKYour search f...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERLYour search f...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERMYour search f...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERNYour search f...
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|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTEROYour search f...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERPYour search f...
Verbs and Verb Tensespast perfect Keywords: past perfect, justpresent perfect 1 Keywords: present perfect, past participle...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERQYour search f...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERRYour search f...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERSYour search f...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERTYour search f...
examples Keywords: get, got, gettingget,got,getting Keywords: get, got, gettingVerbs and Verb Tensespresent perfect contin...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERUYour search f...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERVYour search f...
past continuous Keywords: past continuous, description, narrativepresent perfect continous Keywords: present perfect conti...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERWYour search f...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERXYour search f...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERYYour search f...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERZYour search f...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE QUANTIFIERSNUMBERSThe cardinal numbers ...
Examples:q There are twenty-five people in the room.q He was the fourteenth person to win the award since 1934.q Six hundr...
zero used in scientific expressions, especiallytemperatures:20oC = minus twenty degrees ortwenty degrees below zeroalso us...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |DETERMINERSFUNCTION AND CLASSES OF DETERMIN...
The English4Today Members Website
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |DEFINITE AND INDEFINITE ARTICLESTHE, A, AND...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |DEFINITE ARTICLETHEArticles in English are ...
The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Memb...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESTHE + SUPERLATIVEth...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESIRREGULAR COMPARATI...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESFORMING THE COMPARA...
a. A cat is fast, a tiger is faster but a cheetah is the fastestb. A car is heavy, a truck is heavier, but a train is the ...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |FORM AND FUNCTION OF ADJECTIVESORDERWhere a...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |FORM AND FUNCTION OF ADJECTIVESFUNCTIONAdje...
Grammar is boring.
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |FORM AND FUNCTION OF ADJECTIVESFORM1. Adjec...
The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Memb...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |ADVERBS - FUNCTIONAdverbs modify, or tell u...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |ADVERBS - MENUq Functionq Formq Comparative...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |ADVERBS - FORM1. In most cases, an adverb i...
Adjective / AdverbearlyfasthardhighlatenearstraightwrongCompare:q It is a fast car.q He drives very fast.q This is a hard ...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARATIVE FORMS OF ADVERBSIn general, com...
q I am most impressed by this application.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSThere are several classes o...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSADVERBS OF MANNERAdverbs of...
Also, these common adverbs are almost always placed AFTER the verb:q wellq badlyq hardq fastThe position of the adverb is ...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSADVERBS OF PLACEAdverbs of ...
q Here it is! (followed by the pronoun)q There she goes! (followed by the pronoun)NOTE: most common adverbs of place also ...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSADVERBS OF TIMEAdverbs of t...
q I often eat vegetarian food. (before the main verb)q He never drinks milk. (before the main verb)q You must always faste...
Example:q 1 + 2 : I work (1) for five hours (2) every dayq 2 + 3 : The magazine was published (2) weekly (3) last year.q 1...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSADVERBS OF CERTAINTYThese a...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSVIEWPOINT AND COMMENTING AD...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSADVERBS OF DEGREEAdverbs of...
Example:q The dress was big enough for me.q Shes not experienced enough for this job.q The coffee was too hot for me.q The...
SUBJECT VERBISheleftgoesHowever, some negative adverbs can cause an inversion - the order isreversed and the verb goes bef...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSINTERROGATIVE ADVERBSThese ...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSRELATIVE ADVERBSThe followi...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |ADJECTIVESSection MenuFORM AND FUNCTION OF ...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESCOMPARATIVE + THANT...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESAS + ADJECTIVE + AS...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESNOT AS + ADJECTIVE ...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESCOMPARISONS OF QUAN...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESCOMPARISONS OF QUAN...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESCOMPARISONS OF QUAN...
|A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |NOUNSNATIONALITIESa. Country: I live in Eng...
Japan Japanese a JapaneseMexico Mexican a MexicanMorocco Moroccan a MoroccanNorway Norwegian a NorwegianPeru Peruvian a Pe...
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
English grammar by anthony hughes
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English grammar by anthony hughes

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English grammar by anthony hughes

  1. 1. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |ABOUT THIS VERSIONPDF Version 1.1This full PDF version of the Online English Grammar has a number ofadvantages over the version that you can find online for public viewing:q It covers more grammar topics than the online versionq You can view it on your desktop as an easy reference guideq It is easy to print out pages from this version using any standardprinterq You can access regular updates to the Online English Grammar nowthat you have purchased this copy. All that is required is that yousupply your username and password to begin the download. You willreceive regular emails when new updates are available. The updatesubscription is valid for one year from the date you purchased theitem from us.WHAT ELSE IS PLANNED?After the outstanding response to our release of the Online English Grammaras a desktop edition, we are developing a range of new English languageguides and worksheets to help both students and teachers with their Englishlanguage requirements. These guides and worksheets will all be available asdownloads from our website at http://www.English4Today.com and you willbe notified of their release as we publish them. At the moment we have thefollowing under development:q English grammar worksheets for teachers and studentsq A Writers Guide to Using Englishq Writing Lettersq A Guide to English Pronunciationq Grammar Games PackWe are also in the process of working on Version 2.0 of the PDF Version ofthe Online English Grammar - adding even more sections, sound files andexercises.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  2. 2. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |MAIN SUBJECT INDEX1. active/passive equivalentsKeywords: active, passive equivalent2. as + adjective + asKeywords: as, adjective3. as present participleKeywords: present participle , with verbs of movement with verbs of perception, as adjective withspend, with waste, with catch, with find, replacing time clause, replacing reason clause4. certaintyKeywords: certainly, definitely, probably, surely5. changes of time and place referenceKeywords: time reference, place reference6. common irregular verbs - group 1Keywords: irregular verbs7. common irregular verbs - group 2Keywords: irregular verbs8. common irregular verbs - group 3Keywords: irregular verbs9. comparative + thanKeywords: comparative , than, adjective10. comparative formKeywords: comparative, adverbs11. comparatives & superlativesKeywords: comparatives, superlatives, adjectives12. comparisons of quantity - showing no differenceKeywords: quantity, comparison, adjective, difference13. comparisons of quantity - menuKeywords: quantity, comparison, adjective14. comparisons of quantity - showing differenceKeywords: quantity, comparison, adjective, difference15. compound nounsKeywords: compound nouns, phrasal verbs16. countable & uncountableKeywords: countable, uncountable, noun17. defining relative clausesKeywords: defining relative clauses18. defining words - which,whoseKeywords: which, whose19. degree - enough,very,too,extremely,almost etcKeywords: enough, very, too, extremely, almost, nearly, completely20. demonstratives - this,that,these,those etcKeywords: this, that, these, those, determiners21. difference words - other,anotherKeywords: other, another22. distributives - all, both, halfKeywords: all, both, half, distributives, determiners23. distributives - each, every, either, neitherKeywords: each, every, either, neither24. distributives - menuKeywords: all, both, half, each, every, either, neither25. examplesKeywords: get, got, getting26. exceptions to using the definite article
  3. 3. Keywords: no definite article, determiner, exceptions27. form - adjectivesKeywords: gender, position, form, adjective28. form - adverbKeywords: adverb, form29. form -pastKeywords: be + past participle30. form, with or without toKeywords: to-infinitive, zero infinitive31. functionKeywords: order, adjectives, function32. functionKeywords: adverb, function33. functionKeywords: function, infinitive of purpose, infinitive as subject, infinitive after adjectives, infinitivewith too/enough34. functionKeywords: unknown agent, subject, by formal/scientific texts35. future continuousKeywords: future, actions in progress36. future forms - introductionKeywords: future, attitude37. future forms - simple futureKeywords: will/shall, prediction, decision, future facts, certainty38. future perfectKeywords: future, completed actions39. future perfect continuousKeywords: unfinished, future time40. future with going toKeywords: plans, intentions41. gerund or infinitive?Keywords: gerund/infinitive-, no difference in meaning42. gerund/infinitive - difference in meaningKeywords: gerund/infinitive, difference in meaning43. gerundsKeywords: gerund, as subject, after prepositions, after phrasal verbs, in compound nouns, cantstand.cant help44. get,got,gettingKeywords: get, got, getting45. get/have something done, x needs doingKeywords: get, need46. if sentences with conditional perfect continuousKeywords: conditional perfect continuous47. if sentences with if + past,would,present condtionalKeywords: if + past, would, present condtional48. if sentences with if,condtional tensesKeywords: if, condtional tenses49. if sentences with if+not,unless,verbsKeywords: if+not, unless, verbs50. if sentences with mixed conditionalsKeywords: mixed conditionals51. if sentences with perfect conditional,if + past perfectKeywords: perfect conditional, if + past perfect52. if sentences with wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if onlyKeywords: wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if only53. if setences with present continuous conditionalKeywords: present continuous conditional54. infinitive after question wordsKeywords: infinitive, question words55. interrogative - why, where, how, whenKeywords: why, where, how, when56. introduction - defining relative clauses, non-defining relative clausesKeywords: defining relative clauses, non-defining relative clauses57. introduction - irregular verbs
  4. 4. Keywords: verbs, irregular58. introduction - present participle, gerundKeywords: present participle, gerund59. introduction - reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speakKeywords: reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speak60. irregular comparatives & superlativesKeywords: irregular comparatives, superlatives, adjectives61. list of common irregular verbKeywords: irregular, verbs62. main menu - adjectivesKeywords: adjectives63. main menu - adverbsKeywords: adverbs64. manner - adverbsKeywords: adverbs, manner65. menu - function and classKeywords: determiners, function, class, pre-determiners66. menu - kinds of adverbsKeywords: kinds, adverbs67. menu - nounsKeywords: nouns68. menu - quantifiersKeywords: much, many, a little, a few, some, any69. menu / introductionKeywords: menu, introduction, tenses70. nationalitiesKeywords: nationalities, country, nouns71. negative infinitiveKeywords: negative infinitive72. non-defining relative clausesKeywords: relative clauses, non-defining73. not as + adjective + asKeywords: not, as, so, not as, not so, adjective74. noun genderKeywords: gender, masculine, feminine, noun75. order of adjectivesKeywords: order, adjectives76. other forms of futureKeywords: is to, obligation, about to, immediate future77. other forms of infinitiveKeywords: perfect infinitive, continuous infinitive, passive infinitive, perfect continuous infinitive78. past continuousKeywords: past continuous, description, narrative79. past perfectKeywords: past perfect, just80. past perfect continuousKeywords: past perfect continuous, process, reported speech81. place, adverbs of placeKeywords: adverbs, place82. pluralsKeywords: singular plural, irregular plural, noun83. possessiveKeywords: possessive, time expressions, apostrophe, names, possessive84. possessivesKeywords: possessive adjectives, possessive pronouns, my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, our,ours, their, theirs85. pre-determinersKeywords: such, what, rather, quite86. prepositions in relative clausesKeywords: prepositions, relative clauses87. present continuousKeywords: -ing, verbs, tenses, present participle, verbs not used in continuous form88. present continuous for future eventsKeywords: arrangements, future
  5. 5. 89. present perfect 1Keywords: present perfect, past participle, irregular verbs90. present perfect 2Keywords: present perfect, ever, never, already, yet91. present perfect 3Keywords: present perfect, simple past, time, attitude92. present perfect 4Keywords: present perfect, for, since93. present perfect continousKeywords: present perfect continous, present participle94. quantifiers 1 - determiners,a few,few,a little,littleKeywords: determiners, a few, few, a little, little95. quantifiers 2 - many,much,more,most etc.Keywords: many, much, more, most, little, less, least, few, fewer, fewest96. quantifiers 3 - how,much,many,few,lot etc.Keywords: how, much, many, few, lot, number, several, countable, uncountable97. quantifiers 4 - numbersKeywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions, decimals, units, years, zero98. quantifiers 5 - some and anyKeywords: determiners, quantifiers, some, any99. quantifiers 6 - something,somebody,someone etc.Keywords: something, somebody, someone, somewhere, anything, anybody, anyone, anywhere,nothing, nobody, noone, nowhere,100. quantifiers 7 - enoughKeywords: enough, quantifiers, determiners101. question words - which,what,whoseKeywords: which, what, whose102. relative adverbs - which,what,whoseKeywords: where, when, why103. reporting hopes and intentionsKeywords: hopes, intentions, to-infinitive, that-clause104. reporting orders, requests, suggestionsKeywords: orders, requests, suggestions, should - omission, that-clause105. reporting questionsKeywords: reporting yes/no questions, reporting questions with question words106. simple pastKeywords: simple past, form, function, irregular verbs, irregular verbs, auxiliary did, ago107. simple presentKeywords: verbs, tenses, present simple108. simple present for future eventsKeywords: future, facts, timetable, calendar109. summaryKeywords: verb tenses, present tenses, perfect tenses, conditional tenses, past tenses, future tenses110. summary of reporting verbsKeywords: summary, reporting verbs, to-infintive, that-clause111. tense changesKeywords: reported speech, tense changes112. the + superlativeKeywords: the, superlative, adjectives113. the definite articleKeywords: the, definite article114. the indefinite articleKeywords: the, indefinite article, a, an115. the,a,anKeywords: the, a, an, indefinite article, exceptions116. time, adverbs ofKeywords: adverbs, time117. type 1 conditionalKeywords: if + present + future, fact118. use of capital lettersKeywords: capital letters, names, months, days, holidays, seasons, geographical, names, streets,buildings, titles of books, nouns119. verbs + infinitive with/without nounKeywords: verb with or without noun + infinitive
  6. 6. 120. verbs followed by gerundKeywords: verb + gerund121. verbs followed by infinitiveKeywords: verbs + infinitive without a noun122. verbs followed by noun + infinitiveKeywords: verb + noun + infinitive123. viewpoint, commentingKeywords: adverbs, viewpoint, commenting124. zero conditionalKeywords: if + present, general truths, instructions125. zero infinitiveKeywords: zero infinitiveThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  7. 7. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |TABLE OF CONTENTSGeneralAbout the authorWhich English?Ask our English teachers a questionVisit the members section of the English4Today websiteAdjectivesas + adjective + ascomparative + thancomparatives & superlativescomparisons of quantity - showing no differencecomparisons of quantity - menucomparisons of quantity - showing differenceform - adjectivesfunctionirregular comparatives & superlativesmain menu - adjectivesnot as + adjective + asorder of adjectivesthe + superlativeAdverbscertaintycomparative formdegree - enough,very,too,extremely,almost etcform - adverbfunctioninterrogative - why, where, how, whenmain menu - adverbsmanner - adverbsmenu - kinds of adverbsplace, adverbs of placerelative adverbs - which,what,whosetime, adverbs ofviewpoint, commentingDeterminersdefining words - which,whosedemonstratives - this,that,these,those etcdifference words - other,anotherdistributives - all, both, halfdistributives - each, every, either, neitherdistributives - menu
  8. 8. exceptions to using the definite articlemenu - function and classmenu - quantifierspossessivespre-determinersquantifiers 1 - determiners,a few,few,a little,littlequantifiers 2 - many,much,more,most etc.quantifiers 3 - how,much,many,few,lot etc.quantifiers 4 - numbersquantifiers 5 - some and anyquantifiers 6 - something,somebody,someone etc.quantifiers 7 - enoughquestion words - which,what,whosethe definite articlethe indefinite articlethe,a,anDirect and Indirect Speechchanges of time and place referenceintroduction - reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speakreporting hopes and intentionsreporting orders, requests, suggestionsreporting questionssummary of reporting verbstense changes-ING Formas present participlegerund or infinitive?gerund/infinitive - difference in meaninggerundsintroduction - present participle, gerundverbs followed by gerundIrregular Verbscommon irregular verbs - group 1common irregular verbs - group 2common irregular verbs - group 3introduction - irregular verbslist of common irregular verbNounscompound nounscountable & uncountablemenu - nounsnationalitiesnoun genderpluralsuse of capital lettersPassive
  9. 9. active/passive equivalentsform -pastfunctionget/have something done, x needs doingPossessive with s and possessiveRelative Clausesdefining relative clausesintroduction - defining relative clauses, non-defining relativeclausesnon-defining relative clausesprepositions in relative clausesThe Infinitiveform, with or without tofunctioninfinitive after question wordsnegative infinitiveother forms of infinitiveverbs + infinitive with/without nounverbs followed by infinitiveverbs followed by noun + infinitivezero infinitiveTo Getexamplesget,got,gettingVerbs and Verb Tensesfuture continuousfuture forms - introductionfuture forms - simple futurefuture perfectfuture perfect continuousfuture with going toif sentences with conditional perfect continuousif sentences with if + past,would,present condtionalif sentences with if,condtional tensesif sentences with if+not,unless,verbsif sentences with mixed conditionalsif sentences with perfect conditional,if + past perfectif sentences with wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if onlyif setences with present continuous conditionalmenu / introductionother forms of futurepast continuouspast perfectpast perfect continuouspresent continuous
  10. 10. present continuous for future eventspresent perfect 1present perfect 2present perfect 3present perfect 4present perfect continoussimple pastsimple presentsimple present for future eventssummarytype 1 conditionalzero conditionalThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  11. 11. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERAYour search for items starting with the letter A has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivesirregular comparatives & superlatives Keywords: irregularcomparatives, superlatives, adjectivesmain menu - adjectives Keywords: adjectivescomparisons of quantity - menu Keywords: quantity, comparison,adjectivenot as + adjective + as Keywords: not, as, so, not as, not so, adjectiveas + adjective + as Keywords: as, adjectivethe + superlative Keywords: the, superlative, adjectivescomparisons of quantity - showing difference Keywords: quantity,comparison, adjective, differencecomparisons of quantity - showing no difference Keywords:quantity, comparison, adjective, differencecomparatives & superlatives Keywords: comparatives, superlatives,adjectivesorder of adjectives Keywords: order, adjectivesfunction Keywords: order, adjectives, functionform - adjectives Keywords: gender, position, form, adjectivecomparative + than Keywords: comparative , than, adjectiveAdverbscomparative form Keywords: comparative, adverbsmanner - adverbs Keywords: adverbs, mannerform - adverb Keywords: adverb, formcertainty Keywords: certainly, definitely, probably, surelytime, adverbs of Keywords: adverbs, timerelative adverbs - which,what,whose Keywords: where, when, whyinterrogative - why, where, how, when Keywords: why, where,how, whenfunction Keywords: adverb, functionviewpoint, commenting Keywords: adverbs, viewpoint, commentingplace, adverbs of place Keywords: adverbs, placedegree - enough,very,too,extremely,almost etc Keywords:enough, very, too, extremely, almost, nearly, completelymenu - kinds of adverbs Keywords: kinds, adverbsmain menu - adverbs Keywords: adverbsDeterminerspossessives Keywords: possessive adjectives, possessive pronouns, my,mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, our, ours, their, theirs
  12. 12. exceptions to using the definite article Keywords: no definitearticle, determiner, exceptionsthe,a,an Keywords: the, a, an, indefinite article, exceptionsdistributives - menu Keywords: all, both, half, each, every, either,neitherdifference words - other,another Keywords: other, anotherdistributives - all, both, half Keywords: all, both, half, distributives,determinersthe indefinite article Keywords: the, indefinite article, a, anquantifiers 5 - some and any Keywords: determiners, quantifiers,some, anyquantifiers 6 - something,somebody,someone etc. Keywords:something, somebody, someone, somewhere, anything, anybody, anyone,anywhere, nothing, nobody, noone, nowhere,the definite article Keywords: the, definite article-ING Formas present participle Keywords: present participle , with verbs ofmovement with verbs of perception, as adjective with spend, with waste,with catch, with find, replacing time clause, replacing reason clausePassiveactive/passive equivalents Keywords: active, passive equivalentThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  13. 13. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERBYour search for items starting with the letter B has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Determinersdistributives - all, both, half Keywords: all, both, half, distributives,determinersdistributives - menu Keywords: all, both, half, each, every, either,neitherPassiveform -past Keywords: be + past participleThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  14. 14. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERCYour search for items starting with the letter C has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivesirregular comparatives & superlatives Keywords: irregularcomparatives, superlatives, adjectivescomparatives & superlatives Keywords: comparatives, superlatives,adjectivescomparative + than Keywords: comparative , than, adjectivecomparisons of quantity - showing difference Keywords: quantity,comparison, adjective, differencecomparisons of quantity - showing no difference Keywords:quantity, comparison, adjective, differencecomparisons of quantity - menu Keywords: quantity, comparison,adjectiveAdverbscomparative form Keywords: comparative, adverbscertainty Keywords: certainly, definitely, probably, surelyviewpoint, commenting Keywords: adverbs, viewpoint, commentingDeterminersquantifiers 6 - something,somebody,someone etc. Keywords:something, somebody, someone, somewhere, anything, anybody, anyone,anywhere, nothing, nobody, noone, nowhere,menu - function and class Keywords: determiners, function, class, pre-determinersquantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions,decimals, units, years, zeroquantifiers 3 - how,much,many,few,lot etc. Keywords: how,much, many, few, lot, number, several, countable, uncountableDirect and Indirect Speechchanges of time and place reference Keywords: time reference,place referenceIrregular Verbscommon irregular verbs - group 3 Keywords: irregular verbscommon irregular verbs - group 1 Keywords: irregular verbscommon irregular verbs - group 2 Keywords: irregular verbs
  15. 15. Nounsnationalities Keywords: nationalities, country, nounsuse of capital letters Keywords: capital letters, names, months, days,holidays, seasons, geographical, names, streets, buildings, titles of books,nounscountable & uncountable Keywords: countable, uncountable, nouncompound nouns Keywords: compound nouns, phrasal verbsRelative Clausesintroduction - defining relative clauses, non-defining relativeclauses Keywords: defining relative clauses, non-defining relative clausesprepositions in relative clauses Keywords: prepositions, relativeclausesnon-defining relative clauses Keywords: relative clauses, non-definingVerbs and Verb Tensestype 1 conditional Keywords: if + present + future, factpresent continuous Keywords: -ing, verbs, tenses, present participle,verbs not used in continuous formfuture continuous Keywords: future, actions in progresszero conditional Keywords: if + present, general truths, instructionsif sentences with if + past,would,present condtional Keywords:if + past, would, present condtionalif setences with present continuous conditional Keywords:present continuous conditionalif sentences with perfect conditional,if + past perfect Keywords:perfect conditional, if + past perfectif sentences with conditional perfect continuous Keywords:conditional perfect continuousif sentences with mixed conditionals Keywords: mixed conditionalsif sentences with if,condtional tenses Keywords: if, condtionaltensesThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  16. 16. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERDYour search for items starting with the letter D has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adverbsdegree - enough,very,too,extremely,almost etc Keywords:enough, very, too, extremely, almost, nearly, completelyDeterminersquantifiers 2 - many,much,more,most etc. Keywords: many,much, more, most, little, less, least, few, fewer, fewestdefining words - which,whose Keywords: which, whosequestion words - which,what,whose Keywords: which, what, whosedifference words - other,another Keywords: other, anotherdistributives - each, every, either, neither Keywords: each, every,either, neitherdistributives - menu Keywords: all, both, half, each, every, either,neithermenu - function and class Keywords: determiners, function, class, pre-determinersquantifiers 7 - enough Keywords: enough, quantifiers, determinersmenu - quantifiers Keywords: much, many, a little, a few, some, anypossessives Keywords: possessive adjectives, possessive pronouns, my,mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, our, ours, their, theirsdemonstratives - this,that,these,those etc Keywords: this, that,these, those, determinersexceptions to using the definite article Keywords: no definitearticle, determiner, exceptionsthe,a,an Keywords: the, a, an, indefinite article, exceptionsthe definite article Keywords: the, definite articlequantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions,decimals, units, years, zerodistributives - all, both, half Keywords: all, both, half, distributives,determinersquantifiers 6 - something,somebody,someone etc. Keywords:something, somebody, someone, somewhere, anything, anybody, anyone,anywhere, nothing, nobody, noone, nowhere,quantifiers 5 - some and any Keywords: determiners, quantifiers,some, anyquantifiers 1 - determiners,a few,few,a little,little Keywords:determiners, a few, few, a little, littlequantifiers 3 - how,much,many,few,lot etc. Keywords: how,much, many, few, lot, number, several, countable, uncountablethe indefinite article Keywords: the, indefinite article, a, anpre-determiners Keywords: such, what, rather, quite
  17. 17. Direct and Indirect Speechreporting hopes and intentions Keywords: hopes, intentions, to-infinitive, that-clausesummary of reporting verbs Keywords: summary, reporting verbs, to-infintive, that-clausereporting orders, requests, suggestions Keywords: orders, requests,suggestions, should - omission, that-clausereporting questions Keywords: reporting yes/no questions, reportingquestions with question wordschanges of time and place reference Keywords: time reference,place referencetense changes Keywords: reported speech, tense changesintroduction - reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speakKeywords: reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speakPassiveget/have something done, x needs doing Keywords: get, needRelative Clausesnon-defining relative clauses Keywords: relative clauses, non-definingdefining relative clauses Keywords: defining relative clausesThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  18. 18. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTEREYour search for items starting with the letter E has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adverbsdegree - enough,very,too,extremely,almost etc Keywords:enough, very, too, extremely, almost, nearly, completelyDeterminersdistributives - each, every, either, neither Keywords: each, every,either, neitherquantifiers 7 - enough Keywords: enough, quantifiers, determinersexceptions to using the definite article Keywords: no definitearticle, determiner, exceptionsthe,a,an Keywords: the, a, an, indefinite article, exceptionsTo Getexamples Keywords: get, got, gettingThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  19. 19. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERFYour search for items starting with the letter F has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivesform - adjectives Keywords: gender, position, form, adjectivefunction Keywords: order, adjectives, functionAdverbsfunction Keywords: adverb, functionform - adverb Keywords: adverb, formcomparative form Keywords: comparative, adverbsDeterminersquantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions,decimals, units, years, zeroquantifiers 2 - many,much,more,most etc. Keywords: many,much, more, most, little, less, least, few, fewer, fewestmenu - function and class Keywords: determiners, function, class, pre-determinersquantifiers 1 - determiners,a few,few,a little,little Keywords:determiners, a few, few, a little, little-ING Formintroduction - present participle, gerund Keywords: presentparticiple, gerundNounsnoun gender Keywords: gender, masculine, feminine, nounPassiveform -past Keywords: be + past participlefunction Keywords: unknown agent, subject, by formal/scientific textsThe Infinitiveverbs followed by infinitive Keywords: verbs + infinitive without anounform, with or without to Keywords: to-infinitive, zero infinitivefunction Keywords: function, infinitive of purpose, infinitive as subject,
  20. 20. infinitive after adjectives, infinitive with too/enoughother forms of infinitive Keywords: perfect infinitive, continuousinfinitive, passive infinitive, perfect continuous infinitiveVerbs and Verb Tensesfuture continuous Keywords: future, actions in progressfuture forms - introduction Keywords: future, attitudefuture with going to Keywords: plans, intentionsfuture perfect Keywords: future, completed actionsfuture perfect continuous Keywords: unfinished, future timeother forms of future Keywords: is to, obligation, about to, immediatefuturefuture forms - simple future Keywords: will/shall, prediction,decision, future facts, certaintyThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  21. 21. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERGYour search for items starting with the letter G has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivesform - adjectives Keywords: gender, position, form, adjective-ING Formgerund/infinitive - difference in meaning Keywords:gerund/infinitive, difference in meaninggerund or infinitive? Keywords: gerund/infinitive-, no difference inmeaningverbs followed by gerund Keywords: verb + gerundgerunds Keywords: gerund, as subject, after prepositions, after phrasalverbs, in compound nouns, cant stand.cant helpNounsnoun gender Keywords: gender, masculine, feminine, nounPassiveget/have something done, x needs doing Keywords: get, needTo Getexamples Keywords: get, got, gettingget,got,getting Keywords: get, got, gettingThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  22. 22. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERHYour search for items starting with the letter H has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Determinersdistributives - all, both, half Keywords: all, both, half, distributives,determinersdistributives - menu Keywords: all, both, half, each, every, either,neitherDirect and Indirect Speechreporting hopes and intentions Keywords: hopes, intentions, to-infinitive, that-clauseThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  23. 23. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERIYour search for items starting with the letter I has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivesirregular comparatives & superlatives Keywords: irregularcomparatives, superlatives, adjectivesAdverbsinterrogative - why, where, how, when Keywords: why, where,how, whenDeterminersthe,a,an Keywords: the, a, an, indefinite article, exceptionsthe indefinite article Keywords: the, indefinite article, a, anDirect and Indirect Speechsummary of reporting verbs Keywords: summary, reporting verbs, to-infintive, that-clausereporting hopes and intentions Keywords: hopes, intentions, to-infinitive, that-clausereporting orders, requests, suggestions Keywords: orders, requests,suggestions, should - omission, that-clausechanges of time and place reference Keywords: time reference,place referencetense changes Keywords: reported speech, tense changesintroduction - reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speakKeywords: reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speak-ING Formverbs followed by gerund Keywords: verb + gerundintroduction - present participle, gerund Keywords: presentparticiple, gerundgerunds Keywords: gerund, as subject, after prepositions, after phrasalverbs, in compound nouns, cant stand.cant helpgerund or infinitive? Keywords: gerund/infinitive-, no difference inmeaninggerund/infinitive - difference in meaning Keywords:gerund/infinitive, difference in meaningas present participle Keywords: present participle , with verbs ofmovement with verbs of perception, as adjective with spend, with waste,with catch, with find, replacing time clause, replacing reason clause
  24. 24. Irregular Verbsintroduction - irregular verbs Keywords: verbs, irregularlist of common irregular verb Keywords: irregular, verbscommon irregular verbs - group 1 Keywords: irregular verbscommon irregular verbs - group 3 Keywords: irregular verbscommon irregular verbs - group 2 Keywords: irregular verbsRelative Clausesintroduction - defining relative clauses, non-defining relativeclauses Keywords: defining relative clauses, non-defining relative clausesThe Infinitivenegative infinitive Keywords: negative infinitiveinfinitive after question words Keywords: infinitive, question wordsfunction Keywords: function, infinitive of purpose, infinitive as subject,infinitive after adjectives, infinitive with too/enoughother forms of infinitive Keywords: perfect infinitive, continuousinfinitive, passive infinitive, perfect continuous infinitiveverbs followed by infinitive Keywords: verbs + infinitive without anounverbs followed by noun + infinitive Keywords: verb + noun +infinitiveverbs + infinitive with/without noun Keywords: verb with orwithout noun + infinitivezero infinitive Keywords: zero infinitiveform, with or without to Keywords: to-infinitive, zero infinitiveVerbs and Verb Tensesif sentences with mixed conditionals Keywords: mixed conditionalsmenu / introduction Keywords: menu, introduction, tensesif sentences with if,condtional tenses Keywords: if, condtionaltenseszero conditional Keywords: if + present, general truths, instructionstype 1 conditional Keywords: if + present + future, factif sentences with if + past,would,present condtional Keywords:if + past, would, present condtionalif setences with present continuous conditional Keywords:present continuous conditionalif sentences with conditional perfect continuous Keywords:conditional perfect continuousif sentences with if+not,unless,verbs Keywords: if+not, unless,verbsif sentences with wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if onlyKeywords: wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if onlyif sentences with perfect conditional,if + past perfect Keywords:perfect conditional, if + past perfectThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  25. 25. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERJYour search for items starting with the letter J has not returned any relateditems. You may have better luck with a keyword search using the keywordsearch box.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  26. 26. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERKYour search for items starting with the letter K has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adverbsmenu - kinds of adverbs Keywords: kinds, adverbsThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  27. 27. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERLYour search for items starting with the letter L has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Determinersquantifiers 1 - determiners,a few,few,a little,little Keywords:determiners, a few, few, a little, littlequantifiers 2 - many,much,more,most etc. Keywords: many,much, more, most, little, less, least, few, fewer, fewestIrregular Verbslist of common irregular verb Keywords: irregular, verbsThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  28. 28. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERMYour search for items starting with the letter M has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivesmain menu - adjectives Keywords: adjectivesAdverbsmenu - kinds of adverbs Keywords: kinds, adverbsmain menu - adverbs Keywords: adverbsmanner - adverbs Keywords: adverbs, mannerDeterminersdistributives - menu Keywords: all, both, half, each, every, either,neitherquantifiers 2 - many,much,more,most etc. Keywords: many,much, more, most, little, less, least, few, fewer, fewestmenu - quantifiers Keywords: much, many, a little, a few, some, anymenu - function and class Keywords: determiners, function, class, pre-determinersNounsmenu - nouns Keywords: nounsnoun gender Keywords: gender, masculine, feminine, nounVerbs and Verb Tensesmenu / introduction Keywords: menu, introduction, tensesif sentences with mixed conditionals Keywords: mixed conditionalsThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  29. 29. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERNYour search for items starting with the letter N has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivesnot as + adjective + as Keywords: not, as, so, not as, not so, adjectiveDeterminersquantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions,decimals, units, years, zeroquantifiers 3 - how,much,many,few,lot etc. Keywords: how,much, many, few, lot, number, several, countable, uncountabledistributives - each, every, either, neither Keywords: each, every,either, neitherquantifiers 6 - something,somebody,someone etc. Keywords:something, somebody, someone, somewhere, anything, anybody, anyone,anywhere, nothing, nobody, noone, nowhere,Nounsplurals Keywords: singular plural, irregular plural, nouncountable & uncountable Keywords: countable, uncountable, nouncompound nouns Keywords: compound nouns, phrasal verbsuse of capital letters Keywords: capital letters, names, months, days,holidays, seasons, geographical, names, streets, buildings, titles of books,nounsnoun gender Keywords: gender, masculine, feminine, nounmenu - nouns Keywords: nounsnationalities Keywords: nationalities, country, nounsRelative Clausesnon-defining relative clauses Keywords: relative clauses, non-definingThe Infinitivenegative infinitive Keywords: negative infinitiveverbs followed by noun + infinitive Keywords: verb + noun +infinitiveverbs + infinitive with/without noun Keywords: verb with orwithout noun + infinitiveThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony Hughes
  30. 30. The English4Today Members Website
  31. 31. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTEROYour search for items starting with the letter O has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivesorder of adjectives Keywords: order, adjectivesfunction Keywords: order, adjectives, functionDeterminersdifference words - other,another Keywords: other, anotherquantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions,decimals, units, years, zeroDirect and Indirect Speechreporting orders, requests, suggestions Keywords: orders, requests,suggestions, should - omission, that-clauseThe Infinitiveother forms of infinitive Keywords: perfect infinitive, continuousinfinitive, passive infinitive, perfect continuous infinitiveVerbs and Verb Tensesother forms of future Keywords: is to, obligation, about to, immediatefutureThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  32. 32. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERPYour search for items starting with the letter P has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adverbsplace, adverbs of place Keywords: adverbs, placeDeterminersmenu - function and class Keywords: determiners, function, class, pre-determinerspre-determiners Keywords: such, what, rather, quitepossessives Keywords: possessive adjectives, possessive pronouns, my,mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, our, ours, their, theirs-ING Formas present participle Keywords: present participle , with verbs ofmovement with verbs of perception, as adjective with spend, with waste,with catch, with find, replacing time clause, replacing reason clauseintroduction - present participle, gerund Keywords: presentparticiple, gerundNounsplurals Keywords: singular plural, irregular plural, nounPassiveform -past Keywords: be + past participlefunction Keywords: unknown agent, subject, by formal/scientific textsget/have something done, x needs doing Keywords: get, needactive/passive equivalents Keywords: active, passive equivalentPossessive with s and possessive Keywords: possessive, time expressions, apostrophe, names,possessiveRelative Clausesprepositions in relative clauses Keywords: prepositions, relativeclausesdefining relative clauses Keywords: defining relative clauses
  33. 33. Verbs and Verb Tensespast perfect Keywords: past perfect, justpresent perfect 1 Keywords: present perfect, past participle, irregularverbspresent continuous Keywords: -ing, verbs, tenses, present participle,verbs not used in continuous formpresent perfect 2 Keywords: present perfect, ever, never, already, yetpresent perfect 3 Keywords: present perfect, simple past, time,attitudepresent perfect 4 Keywords: present perfect, for, sincepast continuous Keywords: past continuous, description, narrativepast perfect continuous Keywords: past perfect continuous, process,reported speechpresent continuous for future events Keywords: arrangements,futureif sentences with wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if onlyKeywords: wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if onlypresent perfect continous Keywords: present perfect continous,present participleThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  34. 34. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERQYour search for items starting with the letter Q has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivescomparisons of quantity - showing no difference Keywords:quantity, comparison, adjective, differencecomparisons of quantity - showing difference Keywords: quantity,comparison, adjective, differencecomparisons of quantity - menu Keywords: quantity, comparison,adjectiveDeterminersquantifiers 6 - something,somebody,someone etc. Keywords:something, somebody, someone, somewhere, anything, anybody, anyone,anywhere, nothing, nobody, noone, nowhere,quantifiers 5 - some and any Keywords: determiners, quantifiers,some, anyquantifiers 1 - determiners,a few,few,a little,little Keywords:determiners, a few, few, a little, littlequantifiers 3 - how,much,many,few,lot etc. Keywords: how,much, many, few, lot, number, several, countable, uncountablepre-determiners Keywords: such, what, rather, quitequestion words - which,what,whose Keywords: which, what, whosequantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions,decimals, units, years, zeroquantifiers 7 - enough Keywords: enough, quantifiers, determinersquantifiers 2 - many,much,more,most etc. Keywords: many,much, more, most, little, less, least, few, fewer, fewestmenu - quantifiers Keywords: much, many, a little, a few, some, anyDirect and Indirect Speechreporting questions Keywords: reporting yes/no questions, reportingquestions with question wordsThe Infinitiveinfinitive after question words Keywords: infinitive, question wordsThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  35. 35. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERRYour search for items starting with the letter R has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adverbsrelative adverbs - which,what,whose Keywords: where, when, whyDeterminerspre-determiners Keywords: such, what, rather, quiteDirect and Indirect Speechsummary of reporting verbs Keywords: summary, reporting verbs, to-infintive, that-clausereporting hopes and intentions Keywords: hopes, intentions, to-infinitive, that-clausereporting orders, requests, suggestions Keywords: orders, requests,suggestions, should - omission, that-clausereporting questions Keywords: reporting yes/no questions, reportingquestions with question wordschanges of time and place reference Keywords: time reference,place referencetense changes Keywords: reported speech, tense changesintroduction - reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speakKeywords: reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speakRelative Clausesnon-defining relative clauses Keywords: relative clauses, non-definingprepositions in relative clauses Keywords: prepositions, relativeclausesdefining relative clauses Keywords: defining relative clausesintroduction - defining relative clauses, non-defining relativeclauses Keywords: defining relative clauses, non-defining relative clausesThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  36. 36. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERSYour search for items starting with the letter S has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivesthe + superlative Keywords: the, superlative, adjectivescomparatives & superlatives Keywords: comparatives, superlatives,adjectivesDeterminersquantifiers 6 - something,somebody,someone etc. Keywords:something, somebody, someone, somewhere, anything, anybody, anyone,anywhere, nothing, nobody, noone, nowhere,quantifiers 5 - some and any Keywords: determiners, quantifiers,some, anypre-determiners Keywords: such, what, rather, quiteDirect and Indirect Speechsummary of reporting verbs Keywords: summary, reporting verbs, to-infintive, that-clauseintroduction - reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speakKeywords: reported speech, that, say, tell, talk, speakVerbs and Verb Tensessimple present for future events Keywords: future, facts, timetable,calendarsimple past Keywords: simple past, form, function, irregular verbs,irregular verbs, auxiliary did, agosimple present Keywords: verbs, tenses, present simplesummary Keywords: verb tenses, present tenses, perfect tenses,conditional tenses, past tenses, future tensesThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  37. 37. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERTYour search for items starting with the letter T has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adjectivesthe + superlative Keywords: the, superlative, adjectivescomparative + than Keywords: comparative , than, adjectiveAdverbstime, adverbs of Keywords: adverbs, timeDeterminersthe indefinite article Keywords: the, indefinite article, a, andemonstratives - this,that,these,those etc Keywords: this, that,these, those, determinersthe,a,an Keywords: the, a, an, indefinite article, exceptionsthe definite article Keywords: the, definite articleDirect and Indirect Speechchanges of time and place reference Keywords: time reference,place referencetense changes Keywords: reported speech, tense changesThe Infinitiveverbs + infinitive with/without noun Keywords: verb with orwithout noun + infinitiveinfinitive after question words Keywords: infinitive, question wordsnegative infinitive Keywords: negative infinitivezero infinitive Keywords: zero infinitiveother forms of infinitive Keywords: perfect infinitive, continuousinfinitive, passive infinitive, perfect continuous infinitiveform, with or without to Keywords: to-infinitive, zero infinitiveverbs followed by infinitive Keywords: verbs + infinitive without anounverbs followed by noun + infinitive Keywords: verb + noun +infinitivefunction Keywords: function, infinitive of purpose, infinitive as subject,infinitive after adjectives, infinitive with too/enoughTo Get
  38. 38. examples Keywords: get, got, gettingget,got,getting Keywords: get, got, gettingVerbs and Verb Tensespresent perfect continous Keywords: present perfect continous,present participlesimple present Keywords: verbs, tenses, present simplefuture continuous Keywords: future, actions in progresspresent continuous Keywords: -ing, verbs, tenses, present participle,verbs not used in continuous formpresent perfect 1 Keywords: present perfect, past participle, irregularverbspresent perfect 2 Keywords: present perfect, ever, never, already, yetpresent perfect 3 Keywords: present perfect, simple past, time,attitudepresent perfect 4 Keywords: present perfect, for, sincesummary Keywords: verb tenses, present tenses, perfect tenses,conditional tenses, past tenses, future tensessimple past Keywords: simple past, form, function, irregular verbs,irregular verbs, auxiliary did, agopast continuous Keywords: past continuous, description, narrativepast perfect Keywords: past perfect, justpast perfect continuous Keywords: past perfect continuous, process,reported speechfuture forms - introduction Keywords: future, attitudefuture forms - simple future Keywords: will/shall, prediction,decision, future facts, certaintypresent continuous for future events Keywords: arrangements,futurefuture with going to Keywords: plans, intentionsmenu / introduction Keywords: menu, introduction, tensesfuture perfect Keywords: future, completed actionsfuture perfect continuous Keywords: unfinished, future timeother forms of future Keywords: is to, obligation, about to, immediatefuturetype 1 conditional Keywords: if + present + future, factsimple present for future events Keywords: future, facts, timetable,calendarThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  39. 39. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERUYour search for items starting with the letter U has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Determinersquantifiers 3 - how,much,many,few,lot etc. Keywords: how,much, many, few, lot, number, several, countable, uncountablequantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions,decimals, units, years, zeroNounsuse of capital letters Keywords: capital letters, names, months, days,holidays, seasons, geographical, names, streets, buildings, titles of books,nounscountable & uncountable Keywords: countable, uncountable, nounVerbs and Verb Tensesif sentences with wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if onlyKeywords: wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if onlyThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  40. 40. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERVYour search for items starting with the letter V has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adverbsviewpoint, commenting Keywords: adverbs, viewpoint, commentingDirect and Indirect Speechsummary of reporting verbs Keywords: summary, reporting verbs, to-infintive, that-clause-ING Formverbs followed by gerund Keywords: verb + gerundIrregular Verbscommon irregular verbs - group 2 Keywords: irregular verbscommon irregular verbs - group 1 Keywords: irregular verbslist of common irregular verb Keywords: irregular, verbsintroduction - irregular verbs Keywords: verbs, irregularcommon irregular verbs - group 3 Keywords: irregular verbsThe Infinitiveverbs followed by noun + infinitive Keywords: verb + noun +infinitiveverbs + infinitive with/without noun Keywords: verb with orwithout noun + infinitiveverbs followed by infinitive Keywords: verbs + infinitive without anounVerbs and Verb Tensespresent continuous Keywords: -ing, verbs, tenses, present participle,verbs not used in continuous formsimple past Keywords: simple past, form, function, irregular verbs,irregular verbs, auxiliary did, agofuture forms - introduction Keywords: future, attitudepast perfect continuous Keywords: past perfect continuous, process,reported speechpast perfect Keywords: past perfect, justfuture forms - simple future Keywords: will/shall, prediction,decision, future facts, certainty
  41. 41. past continuous Keywords: past continuous, description, narrativepresent perfect continous Keywords: present perfect continous,present participlepresent perfect 4 Keywords: present perfect, for, sincepresent perfect 3 Keywords: present perfect, simple past, time,attitudepresent continuous for future events Keywords: arrangements,futurepresent perfect 1 Keywords: present perfect, past participle, irregularverbsif sentences with if,condtional tenses Keywords: if, condtionaltensessimple present Keywords: verbs, tenses, present simplesummary Keywords: verb tenses, present tenses, perfect tenses,conditional tenses, past tenses, future tensespresent perfect 2 Keywords: present perfect, ever, never, already, yetif sentences with if + past,would,present condtional Keywords:if + past, would, present condtionalmenu / introduction Keywords: menu, introduction, tensesif sentences with wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if onlyKeywords: wish, would rather, suppose, what if, if onlyif sentences with if+not,unless,verbs Keywords: if+not, unless,verbsif sentences with mixed conditionals Keywords: mixed conditionalsif sentences with conditional perfect continuous Keywords:conditional perfect continuousfuture perfect continuous Keywords: unfinished, future timeif setences with present continuous conditional Keywords:present continuous conditionalsimple present for future events Keywords: future, facts, timetable,calendartype 1 conditional Keywords: if + present + future, factzero conditional Keywords: if + present, general truths, instructionsother forms of future Keywords: is to, obligation, about to, immediatefuturefuture perfect Keywords: future, completed actionsfuture continuous Keywords: future, actions in progressfuture with going to Keywords: plans, intentionsif sentences with perfect conditional,if + past perfect Keywords:perfect conditional, if + past perfectThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  42. 42. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERWYour search for items starting with the letter W has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Adverbsrelative adverbs - which,what,whose Keywords: where, when, whyinterrogative - why, where, how, when Keywords: why, where,how, whenDeterminerspre-determiners Keywords: such, what, rather, quitedefining words - which,whose Keywords: which, whosequestion words - which,what,whose Keywords: which, what, whoseThe Infinitiveverbs + infinitive with/without noun Keywords: verb with orwithout noun + infinitiveform, with or without to Keywords: to-infinitive, zero infinitiveThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  43. 43. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERXYour search for items starting with the letter X has not returned anyrelated items. You may have better luck with a keyword search using thekeyword search box.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  44. 44. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERYYour search for items starting with the letter Y has not returned anyrelated items. You may have better luck with a keyword search using thekeyword search box.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  45. 45. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |SEARCH BY ALPHABETICAL LETTERZYour search for items starting with the letter Z has returned the followinglist.The item may appear in the top heading, main sub-heading or in the list ofkeywords.Determinersquantifiers 4 - numbers Keywords: cardinal, ordinal, fractions,decimals, units, years, zeroThe Infinitivezero infinitive Keywords: zero infinitiveform, with or without to Keywords: to-infinitive, zero infinitiveVerbs and Verb Tenseszero conditional Keywords: if + present, general truths, instructionsThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  46. 46. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |THE QUANTIFIERSNUMBERSThe cardinal numbers (one, two, three, etc.) are adjectives referring toquantity, and the ordinal numbers (first, second, third, etc.) refer todistribution.Number Ordinal Cardinal1 one first2 two second3 three third4 four fourth5 five fifth6 six sixth7 seven seventh8 eight eighth9 nine ninth10 ten tenth11 eleven eleventh12 twelve twelfth13 thirteen thirteenth14 fourteen fourteenth15 fifteen fifteenth16 sixteen sixteenth17 seventeen seventeenth18 eighteen eighteenth19 nineteen nineteenth20 twenty twentieth21 twenty-one twenty-first22 twenty-two twenty-second23 twenty-three twenty-third24 twenty-four twenty-fourth25 twenty-five twenty-fifth26 twenty-six twenty-sixth27 twenty-seven twenty-seventh28 twenty-eight twenty-eighth29 twenty-nine twenty-ninth30 thirty thirtieth31 thirty-one thirty-first40 forty fortieth50 fifty fiftieth60 sixty sixtieth70 seventy seventieth80 eighty eightieth90 ninety ninetieth100 one hundred hundredth500 five hundred five hundredth1,000 one thousand thousandth100,000 one hundred thousand hundred thousandth1,000,000 one million millionth
  47. 47. Examples:q There are twenty-five people in the room.q He was the fourteenth person to win the award since 1934.q Six hundred thousand people were left homeless after theearthquake.q I must have asked you twenty times to be quiet.q He went to Israel for the third time this year.Fractions and decimalsSaid Written Saidhalf 0.5 point fivea quarter 0.25 point two fivethree quarters 0.75 point seven fivePercentagesWritten Said25% twenty five percent50% fifty percent75% seventy five percent100% a/one hundred percentUnitsWritten Said$1,200 one thousand two hundreddollars£16,486 sixteen thousand four hundredand eighty-six pounds545kms five hundred and forty-fivekilometres$25.35 twenty-five dollars thirty-fiveYearsWritten Said1988 Nineteen eighty-eight1864 Eighteen sixty-four1999 Nineteen ninety-nineHow to say 0nought used in mathematical expressions anddecimals:nought times three equals nought0.3 = nought point three (or point three)0.03 = point nought three
  48. 48. zero used in scientific expressions, especiallytemperatures:20oC = minus twenty degrees ortwenty degrees below zeroalso used to mean the lowest point:The heavy rain reduced visibility to zeroo (the letter) used in telephone numbers:0171 390 0062 = o one seven one threenine o double o six twonil/nothing used to express the score in games suchas football:2 - 0 = two nil or two nothingThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  49. 49. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |DETERMINERSFUNCTION AND CLASSES OF DETERMINERSFunctionDeterminers are words placed in front of a noun to make it clear what thenoun refers to. The word people by itself is a general reference to somegroup of human beings. If someone says these people, we know which groupthey are talking about, and if they say a lot of people we know how big thegroup is.Classes of DeterminersThere are several classes of determiners:Definite and Indefinite articlesthe, a, anDemonstrativesthis, that, these, thosePossessivesmy, your, his, her, its, our, theirQuantifiersa few, a little, much, many, a lot of, most, some, any, enough, etc.Numbersone, ten, thirty, etc.Distributivesall, both, half, either, neither, each, everyDifference wordsother, anotherQuestion wordsWhich, what, whoseDefining wordswhich, whoseThe following words are pre-determiners. They go before determiners, suchas articles: such and what, half, rather, quiteThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony Hughes
  50. 50. The English4Today Members Website
  51. 51. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |DEFINITE AND INDEFINITE ARTICLESTHE, A, ANDefinite article: THEIndefinite article: A/ANExceptions to using the definite articleThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  52. 52. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |DEFINITE ARTICLETHEArticles in English are invariable. That is, they do not change according tothe gender or number of the noun they refer to, e.g. the boy, the woman,the childrenThe is used:1. to refer to something which has already been mentioned.Example: An elephant and a mouse fell in love.The mouse loved the elephants long trunk,and the elephant loved the mouses tiny nose.2. when both the speaker and listener know what is being talked about, evenif it has not been mentioned before.Example: Wheres the bathroom?Its on the first floor.3. in sentences or clauses where we define or identify a particular person orobject:Examples: The man who wrote this book is famous.Which car did you scratch? The red one.My house is the one with a blue door.4. to refer to objects we regard as unique:Examples: the sun, the moon, the world5. before superlatives and ordinal numbers: (see Adjectives)Examples: the highest building, the first page, the lastchapter.6. with adjectives, to refer to a whole group of people:Examples: the Japanese (see Nouns - Nationalities), the old7. with names of geographical areas and oceans:Examples: the Caribbean, the Sahara, the Atlantic8. with decades, or groups of years:Example: she grew up in the seventies
  53. 53. The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  54. 54. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESTHE + SUPERLATIVEthe is placed before the superlative:For example: He is the richest man in the world.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  55. 55. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESIRREGULAR COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVESThese adjectives have completely irregular comparative and superlativeforms:Adjective Comparative Superlativegood better bestbad worse worstlittle less leastmuch more mostfar further / farther furthest / farthestThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  56. 56. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESFORMING THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVENumber of syllables Comparative Superlativeone syllable + -er + -esttall taller tallestone syllable with the spelling consonant + single vowel + consonant: double thefinal consonant:fat fatter fattestbig bigger biggestsad sadder saddestNumber of syllables Comparative Superlativetwo syllables + -er OR more + adj + -est OR most + adjending in: -y, -ly, -owending in: -le, -er or -urethese common adjectives - handsome, polite, pleasant, common, quiethappy happier/ more happy happiest/ most happyyellow yellower/ more yellow yellowest/ most yellowsimple simpler/ more simple simplest/ most simpletender tenderer/ more tender tenderest/ most tenderIf you are not sure, use MORE + OR MOST +Note: Adjectives ending in -y like happy, pretty, busy, sunny, lucky etc:. replacethe -y with -ier or -iest in the comparative and superlative formbusy busier busiestNumber of syllables Comparative Superlativethree syllables or more more + adj most + adjimportant more important most importantexpensive more expensive most expensiveExamples:
  57. 57. a. A cat is fast, a tiger is faster but a cheetah is the fastestb. A car is heavy, a truck is heavier, but a train is the heaviestc. A park bench is comfortable, a restaurant chair is more comfortable, but a sofais the most comfortableThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  58. 58. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |FORM AND FUNCTION OF ADJECTIVESORDERWhere a number of adjectives are used together, the order depends on thefunction of the adjective. The usual order is:Value/opinion, Size, Age/Temperature, Shape, Colour, Origin, MaterialValue/opinion delicious, lovely, charmingSize small, huge, tinyAge/Temperature old, hot, youngShape round, square, rectangularColour red, blonde, blackOrigin Swedish, Victorian, ChineseMaterial plastic, wooden, silverExamples:q a lovely old red post-boxq some small round plastic tablesq some charming small silver ornamentsThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  59. 59. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |FORM AND FUNCTION OF ADJECTIVESFUNCTIONAdjectives tell us more about a noun. They can:Describe feelings or qualities:He is a lonely manThey are honest peopleGive nationality or origin:Pierre is FrenchThis clock is GermanOur house is VictorianTell more about a things characteristics:A wooden table.The knife is sharp.Tell us about age:Hes a young manMy coat is very oldTell us about size and measurement:John is a tall man.This is a very long film.Tell us about colour:Paul wore a red shirt.The sunset was crimson and gold.Tell us about material/what something is made of:It was a wooden tableShe wore a cotton dressTell us about shape:A rectangular boxA square envelopeExpress a judgement or a value:A fantastic film
  60. 60. Grammar is boring.
  61. 61. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |FORM AND FUNCTION OF ADJECTIVESFORM1. Adjectives are invariable:They do not change their form depending on the gender or number of thenoun.A hot potato Some hot potatoes2. To emphasise or strengthen the meaning of an adjective use very orreally:A very hot potato Some really hot potatoes.(BUT see also Modifiers/Adverbs)3. Position of adjectives:a) Usually in front of a noun: A beautifulgirl.b) After verbs like "to be", "to seem" , "tolook", "to taste":q The girl is beautifulq You look tiredq This meat tastes funny.c) After the noun: in some fixedexpressions:q The Princess Royalq The President electq a court martialthe adjectives involved, present, concerned:1. I want to see the people involved/concerned (= the people whohave something to do with the matter)2. Here is a list of the people present (= the people who were in thebuilding or at the meeting)Be careful! When these adjectives are used before the noun they have adifferent meaning:q An involved discussion = detailed, complexq A concerned father = worried, anxiousq The present situation = current, happening now
  62. 62. The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  63. 63. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |ADVERBS - FUNCTIONAdverbs modify, or tell us more about other words, usually verbs:q The bus moved slowly.q The bears ate greedily.Sometimes they tell us more about adjectives:q You look absolutely fabulous!They can also modify other adverbs:q She played the violin extremely well.q Youre speaking too quietly.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  64. 64. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |ADVERBS - MENUq Functionq Formq Comparative formsq Kinds of adverbsThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  65. 65. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |ADVERBS - FORM1. In most cases, an adverb is formed by adding -ly to anadjective:Adjective AdverbcheapquickslowcheaplyquicklyslowlyExamples:q Time goes quickly.q He walked slowly to the door.q She certainly had an interesting life.q He carefully picked up the sleeping child.If the adjective ends in -y, replace the y with i and add -ly:Adjective AdverbeasyangryhappyluckyeasilyangrilyhappilyluckilyIf the adjective ends in -able, -ible, or -le, replace the -e with -y:Adjective AdverbprobableterriblegentleprobablyterriblygentlyIf the adjective ends in -ic, add -ally:Adjective AdverbbasiceconomictragicbasicallyeconomicallytragicallyNote: Exception: public - publicly2. Some adverbs have the same form as the adjective:
  66. 66. Adjective / AdverbearlyfasthardhighlatenearstraightwrongCompare:q It is a fast car.q He drives very fast.q This is a hard exercise.q He works hard.q We saw many high buildings.q The bird flew high in the sky.3. Well and goodWell is the adverb that corresponds to the adjective good.Examples:q He is a good student.q He studies well.q She is a good pianist.q She plays the piano well.q They are good swimmers.q They swim well.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  67. 67. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARATIVE FORMS OF ADVERBSIn general, comparative and superlative forms of adverbs are the same as foradjectives:q add -er or -est to short adverbs:Adverb Comparative Superlativehardlatefastharderlaterfasterthe hardestthe latestthe fastestExample:q Jim works harder than his brother.q Everyone in the race ran fast, but John ran the fastest of all.with adverbs ending in -ly, use more for the comparative and most for thesuperlative:Adverb Comparative Superlativequietlyslowlyseriouslymore quietlymore slowlymore seriouslymost quietlymost slowlymost seriouslyExample:q The teacher spoke more slowly to help us to understand.q Could you sing more quietly please?Some adverbs have irregular comparative forms:Adverb Comparative Superlativebadlyfarlittlewellworsefarther/furtherlessbetterworstfarthest/furthestleastbestExample:q The little boy ran further than his friends.q Youre driving worse today than yesterday !BE CAREFUL! Sometimes most can mean very:q We were most grateful for your help
  68. 68. q I am most impressed by this application.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  69. 69. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSThere are several classes or kinds of adverbs that we use for specificfunctions:1. Adverbs of manner2. Adverbs of place3. Adverbs of time4. Adverbs of certainty5. Adverbs of degree6. Interrogative adverbs7. Relative adverbs8. Viewpoint and commenting adverbsThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  70. 70. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSADVERBS OF MANNERAdverbs of manner tell us how something happens. They are usually placedafter the main verb or after the object.Examples:q He swims well, (after the main verb)q He ran... rapidly, slowly, quickly..q She spoke... softly, loudly, aggressively..q James coughed loudly to attract her attention.q He plays the flute beautifully. (after the object)q He ate the chocolate cake greedily.BE CAREFUL! The adverb should not be put between the verb and theobject:q He ate greedily the chocolate cake [incorrect]q He ate the chocolate cake greedily [correct]If there is a preposition before the object, e.g. at, towards, we can placethe adverb either before the preposition or after the object.Example:q The child ran happily towards his mother.q The child ran towards his mother happily.Sometimes an adverb of manner is placed before a verb + object to addemphasis:q He gently woke the sleeping woman.Some writers put an adverb of manner at the beginning of the sentence tocatch our attention and make us curious:q Slowly she picked up the knife.(We want to know what happened slowly, who did it slowly, why they did itslowly)However, adverbs should always come AFTER intransitive verbs (=verbswhich have no object).Example:q The town grew quicklyq He waited patiently
  71. 71. Also, these common adverbs are almost always placed AFTER the verb:q wellq badlyq hardq fastThe position of the adverb is important when there is more than one verb ina sentence. If the adverb is placed after a clause, then it modifies the wholeaction described by the clause.Notice the difference in meaning between the following pairs of sentences:q She quickly agreed to re-type the letter (= her agreement was quick)q She agreed to re-type the letter quickly (= the re-typing was quick)q He quietly asked me to leave the house (= his request was quiet)q He asked me to leave the house quietly (= the leaving was quiet)The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  72. 72. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSADVERBS OF PLACEAdverbs of place tell us where something happens.They are usually placed after the main verb or after the object:Example:after the main verb:q I looked everywhereq John looked away, up, down, around...q Im going home, out, backq Come inafter the object:q They built a house nearbyq She took the child outsideHere and thereWith verbs of movement, here means towards or with the speaker:q Come here (= towards me)q Its in here (= come with me to see it)There means away from, or not with the speaker:q Put it there (= away from me)q Its in there (= go by yourself to see it)Here and there are combined with prepositions to make many commonadverbial phrases:down here, down there;over here, over there;under here, under there;up here, up thereHere and there are placed at the beginning of the sentence in exclamationsor when emphasis is needed.They are followed by the verb if the subject is a noun:q Here comes the bus. (followed by the verb)Or by a pronoun if this is the subject (it, she, he etc.):
  73. 73. q Here it is! (followed by the pronoun)q There she goes! (followed by the pronoun)NOTE: most common adverbs of place also function as prepositions.Examples:about, across, along, around, behind, by, down, in, off, on, over, round,through, under, up.Go to Prepositions or Phrasal VerbsOther adverbs of place: ending in -wards, expressing movement in aparticular direction:backwardsforwardsdownwardsupwardsinwardsoutwardsnorthwardssouthwardseastwardswestwardshomewardsonwardsExample:q Cats dont usually walk backwards.q The ship sailed westwards.BE CAREFUL! Towards is a preposition, not an adverb, so it is alwaysfollowed by a noun or a pronoun:q He walked towards the car.q She ran towards me.expressing both movement and location:ahead, abroad, overseas, uphill, downhill, sideways, indoors, outdoorsExample:q The child went indoors.q He lived and worked abroad.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  74. 74. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSADVERBS OF TIMEAdverbs of time tell us when an action happened, but also for how long, andhow often.Examples:q When: today, yesterday, later, now, last yearq For how long: all day, not long, for a while, since last yearq How often: sometimes, frequently, never, often, yearly"When" adverbs are usually placed at the end of the sentence:q Goldilocks went to the Bears house yesterday.q Im going to tidy my room tomorrow.This is a "neutral" position, but some "when" adverbs can be put in otherpositions to give a different emphasisCompare:q Later Goldilocks ate some porridge. (the time is more important)q Goldilocks later ate some porridge. (this is more formal, like apolicemans report)q Goldilocks ate some porridge later. (this is neutral, no particularemphasis)"For how long" adverbs are usually placed at the end of the sentence:q She stayed in the Bears house all day.q My mother lived in France for a year.Notice: for is always followed by an expression of duration:q for three days,q for a week,q for several years,q for two centuries.since is always followed by an expression of a point in time:q since Monday,q since 1997,q since the last war."How often" adverbs expressing the frequency of an action are usuallyplaced before the main verb but after auxiliary verbs (such as be, have, may,must):
  75. 75. q I often eat vegetarian food. (before the main verb)q He never drinks milk. (before the main verb)q You must always fasten your seat belt. (after the auxiliary must)q She is never sea-sick.(after the auxiliary is)q I have never forgotten my first kiss. (after the auxiliary have andbefore the main verb forgotten)Some other "how often" adverbs express the exact number of times anaction happens and are usually placed at the end of the sentence:q This magazine is published monthly.q He visits his mother once a week.When a frequency adverb is placed at the end of a sentence it is muchstronger.Compare:q She regularly visits France.q She visits France regularly.Adverbs that can be used in these two positions:q frequently,q generally,q normally,q occasionally,q often,q regularly,q sometimes,q usuallyYet and stillYet is used in questions and in negative sentences, and is placed at the endof the sentence or after not.q Have you finished your work yet? (= a simple request for information)No, not yet. (= simple negative answer)q They havent met him yet. (= simple negative statement)q Havent you finished yet? (= expressing slight surprise)Still expresses continuity; it is used in positive sentences and questions, andis placed before the main verb and after auxiliary verbs (such as be, have,might, will)q I am still hungry.q She is still waiting for youq Are you still here?q Do you still work for the BBC?ORDER OF ADVERBS OF TIMEIf you need to use more than one adverb of time at the end of a sentence,use them in this order:1: how long2: how often3: when (think of low)
  76. 76. Example:q 1 + 2 : I work (1) for five hours (2) every dayq 2 + 3 : The magazine was published (2) weekly (3) last year.q 1 + 3 : I was abroad (1) for two months (3) last year.q 1 + 2 + 3 : She worked in a hospital (1) for two days (2) every week(3) last year.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  77. 77. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSADVERBS OF CERTAINTYThese adverbs express how certain or sure we feel about an action or event.Common adverbs of certainty:certainly, definitely, probably, undoubtedly, surelyAdverbs of certainty go before the main verb but after the verb to be:q He definitely left the house this morning.q He is probably in the park.With other auxiliary verb, these adverbs go between the auxiliary and themain verb:q He has certainly forgotten the meeting.q He will probably remember tomorrow.Sometimes these adverbs can be placed at the beginning of the sentence:q Undoubtedly, Winston Churchill was a great politician.BE CAREFUL! with surely. When it is placed at the beginning of the sentence,it means the speaker thinks something is true, but is looking forconfirmation:Example:q Surely youve got a bicycle?See also ADVERBS OF ATTITUDEThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  78. 78. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSVIEWPOINT AND COMMENTING ADVERBSThere are some adverbs and adverbial expressions which tell us about thespeakers viewpoint or opinion about an action, or make some comment onthe action.ViewpointFrankly, I think he is a liar. (= this is my frank, honest opinion)Theoretically, you should pay a fine. (= from a theoretical point of view butthere may be another way of looking at the situation)These adverbs are placed at the beginning of the sentence and areseparated from the rest of the sentence by a comma.Some common Viewpoint adverbs:honestly, seriously, confidentially, personally, surprisingly, ideally,economically, officially, obviously, clearly, surely, undoubtedly.Examples:q Personally, Id rather go by train.q Surprisingly, this car is cheaper than the smaller model.q Geographically, Britain is rather cut off from the rest of Europe.Commentingq She is certainly the best person for the job.q You obviously enjoyed your meal.These are very similar to viewpoint adverbs, and often the same words, butthey go in a different position - after the verb to be and before the mainverb.Some common Commenting adverbs:definitely, certainly, obviously, simply.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  79. 79. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSADVERBS OF DEGREEAdverbs of degree tell us about the intensity or degree of an action, anadjective or another adverb.Common adverbs of degree:Almost, nearly, quite, just, too, enough, hardly, scarcely, completely,very, extremely.Adverbs of degree are usually placed:1. before the adjective or adverb they are modifying:e.g. The water was extremely cold.2. before the main verb:e.g. He was just leaving. She has almost finished.Examples:q She doesnt quite know what shell do after university.q They are completely exhausted from the trip.q I am too tired to go out tonight.q He hardly noticed what she was saying.Enough, very, tooEnough as an adverb meaning to the necessary degree goes after adjectivesand adverbs.Example:q Is your coffee hot enough? (adjective)q He didnt work hard enough. (adverb)It also goes before nouns, and means as much as is necessary. In this case itis not an adverb, but a determiner.Example:q We have enough bread.q They dont have enough food.Too as an adverb meaning more than is necessary or useful goes beforeadjectives and adverbs, e.g.q This coffee is too hot. (adjective)q He works too hard. (adverb)Enough and too with adjectives can be followed by for someone/something.
  80. 80. Example:q The dress was big enough for me.q Shes not experienced enough for this job.q The coffee was too hot for me.q The dress was too small for her.We can also use to + infinitive after enough and too withadjectives/adverb.Example:q The coffee was too hot to drink.q He didnt work hard enough to pass the exam.q Shes not old enough to get married.q Youre too young to have grandchildren!Very goes before an adverb or adjective to make it stronger.Example:q The girl was very beautiful. (adjective)q He worked very quickly. (adverb)If we want to make a negative form of an adjective or adverb, we can use aword of opposite meaning, or not very.Example:q The girl was ugly OR The girl was not very beautifulq He worked slowly OR He didnt work very quickly.BE CAREFUL! There is a big difference between too and very.q Very expresses a fact:He speaks very quickly.q Too suggests there is a problem:He speaks too quickly (for me to understand).Other adverbs like veryThese common adverbs are used like very and not very, and are listed inorder of strength, from positive to negative:extremely, especially, particularly, pretty, rather, quite, fairly, rather,not especially, not particularly.Note: rather can be positive or negative, depending on the adjective oradverb that follows:Positive: The teacher was rather nice.Negative: The film was rather disappointing.Note on inversion with negative adverbs:Normally the subject goes before the verb:
  81. 81. SUBJECT VERBISheleftgoesHowever, some negative adverbs can cause an inversion - the order isreversed and the verb goes before the subjectExample:I have never seen such courage. Never have I seen such courage.She rarely left the house. Rarely did she leave the house.Negative inversion is used in writing, not in speaking.Other adverbs and adverbial expressions that can be used like this:seldom, scarcely, hardly, not only .....but also, no sooner .....than, not until, under no circumstances.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  82. 82. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSINTERROGATIVE ADVERBSThese are:why, where, how, whenThey are usually placed at the beginning of a question.Examples:q Why are you so late?q Where is my passport?q How are you?q How much is that coat?q When does the train arrive?Notice that how can be used in four different ways:1. meaning in what way?:How did you make this sauce?How do you start the car?2. with adjectives:How tall are you?How old is your house?3. with much and many:How much are these tomatoes?How many people are coming to the party?4. with other adverbs:How quickly can you read this?How often do you go to London?The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  83. 83. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |KINDS OF ADVERBSRELATIVE ADVERBSThe following adverbs can be used to join sentences or clauses. They replacethe more formal structure of preposition + which in a relative clause:where, when, whyExamples:q Thats the restaurant where we met for the first time.(where = at/in which)q I remember the day when we first met.(when = on which)q There was a very hot summer the year when he was born.(when = in which)q Tell me (the reason) why you were late home.(why = for which, but could replace the whole phrase the reason forwhich)The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  84. 84. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |ADJECTIVESSection MenuFORM AND FUNCTION OF ADJECTIVESs Forms Functions OrderCOMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESs Forming the Comparative and Superlatives Irregular Comparatives and Superlativess the + Superlatives The Comparative + thans As + adjective + ass Not as + adjective + ass Comparisons of quantityThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  85. 85. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESCOMPARATIVE + THANTo compare the difference between two people, things or events.Examples:q Mt. Everest is higher than Mt. Blanc.q Thailand is sunnier than Norway.q A car is more expensive than a bicycle.q Albert is more intelligent than Arthur.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  86. 86. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESAS + ADJECTIVE + ASTo compare people, places, events or things, when there is no difference,use as + adjective + as:q Peter is 24 years old. John is 24 years old. Peter is as old as John.More examples:q Moscow is as cold as St. Petersburg in the winter.q Ramona is as happy as Raphael.q Einstein is as famous as Darwin.q A tiger is as dangerous as a lion.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  87. 87. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESNOT AS + ADJECTIVE + ASDifference can also be shown by using not so/as ...as:q Mont Blanc is not as high as Mount Everestq Norway is not as sunny as Thailandq A bicycle is not as expensive as a carq Arthur is not as intelligent as AlbertThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  88. 88. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESCOMPARISONS OF QUANTITYTo show difference: more, less, fewer + thanTo show no difference: as much as , as many as, as few as, as little asThe Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  89. 89. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESCOMPARISONS OF QUANTITYTo show difference: more, less, fewer + thanExamples:With countable nouns: more / fewerq Eloise has more children than Chantal.q Chantal has fewer children than Eloise.q There are fewer dogs in Cardiff than in Bristolq I have visited fewer countries than my friend has.q He has read fewer books than she has.With uncountable nouns: more / lessq Eloise has more money than Chantal.q Chantal has less money than Eloise.q I spend less time on homework than you do.q Cats drink less water than dogs.q This new dictionary gives more information than the old one.So, the rule is:MORE + nouns that are countable or uncountableFEWER + countable nounsLESS + uncountable nounsTo show no difference see next page.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  90. 90. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVESCOMPARISONS OF QUANTITYTo show no difference: as much as , as many as, as few as, as little asq as many as / as few as + countable nounsq as much as / as little as + uncountable nounsExamples:With countable nouns:q They have as many children as us.q We have as many customers as them.q Tom has as few books as Jane.q There are as few houses in his village as in mine.q You know as many people as I do.q I have visited the States as many times as he has.With uncountable nouns:q John eats as much food as Peter.q Jim has as little food as Sam.q Youve heard as much news as I have.q Hes had as much success as his brother has.q Theyve got as little water as we have.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website
  91. 91. |A |B |C |D |E |F |G |H |I |J |K |L |M |N |O |P |Q |R |S |T |U |V |W |X |Y |Z |NOUNSNATIONALITIESa. Country: I live in England.b. Adjective: He reads English literature.c. Noun: She is an Englishwoman.COUNTRY ADJECTIVE NOUNAfrica African an AfricanAmerica American an AmericanArgentina Argentinian an ArgentinianAustria Austrian an AustrianAutralia Australian an AustralianBangladesh Bangladesh(i) a BangladeshiBelgium Belgian a BelgianBrazil Brazilian a BrazilianBritain British a Briton/BritisherCambodia Cambodian a CambodianChile Chilean a ChileanChina Chinese a ChineseColombia Colombian a ColombianCroatia Croatian a Croatthe Czech Republic Czech a CzechDenmark Danish a DaneEngland English anEnglishman/EnglishwomanFinland Finnish a FinnFrance French a Frenchman/FrenchwomanGermany German a GermanGreece Greek a GreekHolland Dutch a Dutchman/DutchwomanHungary Hungarian a HungarianIceland Icelandic an IcelanderIndia Indian an IndianIndonesia Indonesian an IndonesianIran Iranian an IranianIraq Iraqi an IraqiIreland Irish an Irishman/IrishwomanIsrael Israeli an IsraeliJamaica Jamaican a Jamaican
  92. 92. Japan Japanese a JapaneseMexico Mexican a MexicanMorocco Moroccan a MoroccanNorway Norwegian a NorwegianPeru Peruvian a Peruvianthe Philippines Philippine a FilipinoPoland Polish a PolePortugal Portuguese a PortugueseRumania Rumanian a RumanianRussia Russian a RussianSaudi Arabia Saudi, Saudi Arabian a Saudi, a Saudi ArabianScotland Scottish a ScotSerbia Serbian a Serbthe Slovak Republic Slovak a SlovakSweden Swedish a SwedeSwitzerland Swiss a SwissThailand Thai a ThaiThe USA American an AmericanTunisia Tunisian a TunisianTurkey Turkish a TurkVietnam Vietnamese a VietnameseWales Welsh a Welshman/WelshwomanYugoslavia Yugoslav a YugoslavNote: We use the + nationality adjective ending in -ese or -ish with aplural verb, to refer to all people of that nationality:The Chinese are very hard-working.The Spanish often go to sleep in the afternoon.The Full PDF Online English Grammar V1.1 © copyright - all rights reserved 1995-2001, Anthony HughesThe English4Today Members Website

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