Rapid, low-cost production of goods and services that cater to constantly changing unique customer desires.
Under mass customization the three process models become so flexible that distinctions between them blur, making variety and volume issues less significant.
5- OPM 533
Process Strategies 5- OPM 533 Rapid throughput techniques Mass Customization Modular techniques Repetitive Focus Modular design Flexible equipment Product-focused Low variety, high volume High utilization (70% - 80%) Specialized equipment Process-focused High variety, low volume Low utilization (5% - 20%) General purpose equipment Effective scheduling techniques
A Comparison (1) 5- OPM 533 Process Focus (Low volume, High variety) Repetitive Focus (Modular) Product focus (High-volume, low-variety) Mass Customization (High-volume, high-variety 1. Small quantity, large variety of products Long runs, standardized product, from modules Large quantity, small variety of products Large quantity, large variety of products 2. General purpose equipment Special equipment aids in use of assembly line Special purpose equipment Rapid changeover on flexible equipment
A Comparison (2) 5- OPM 533 Process Focus Repetitive Focus Product focus Mass Customization 3 Broadly skilled operators Modestly trained employees Operators less broadly skilled Flexible operators trained for customization 4 Many instructions because of change in jobs Reduced training and number of job instructions Few work orders and job instructions Custom orders require many instructions 5 Raw material high relative to product value JIT techniques used Raw material low relative to product value Raw material low relative to product value
A Comparison (3) 5- OPM 533 Process Focus Repetitive Focus Product focus Mass Customization 6 WIP high relative to output JIT techniques used WIP low relative to output WIP driven down by JIT, kanban, lean production 7 Units move slowly thru plant Movement measured in hours & days Units move swiftly thru facility Goods move swiftly thru facility 8 Finished goods made to order, not stored Finished goods made to frequent forecasts Finished goods made to forecast, then stored Finished goods made to order
A Comparison (4) 5- OPM 533 Process Focus Repetitive Focus Product focus Mass Customization 9 Scheduling complex and concerned with trade-off between inventory, capacity, and customer service Scheduling based on building models from a variety of forecasts Scheduling relatively simple, concerns establishing sufficient rate of output to meet forecasts Scheduling sophisticated to accommodate customization 10 Fixed costs low, variable costs high Fixed costs dependent on flexibility of facilities Fixed costs high, variable costs low Fixed costs high; variable costs must be low
A Comparison (5) 5- OPM 533 Process Focus Repetitive Focus Product focus Mass Customization 11 Costing, done by job, is estimated prior to doing job but only known after doing job Costs usually known based on experience Because of high fixed costs, cost dependent on utilization of capacity High fixed costs and dynamic variable costs
Flow Diagrams – A drawing used to analyze movement of people or material.
Time-Function Mapping – A flow diagram but with time added on horizontal axis. It indicates the activities and flow direction with time on the horizontal axis. Allows users to identify and eliminate waste.
Value-Stream Mapping – takes an expanded look at where value is added (and not added) in the entire production process, including the supply chain. Helps managers to understand how to add value in the flow of material and information through the production process.
5. Process Charts – chart using symbols, time and distance to provide an objective and structured way to analyze and record the activities that make up a process. Allow us to focus on value added activities.
6. Service Blueprinting – A process analysis technique that focuses on customer and the provider’s interaction with the customer.
5- OPM 533
Production Process Flow Diagram 5- OPM 533 Shipping Customer Customer sales representative take order Prepress Department (Prepare printing plates and negatives) Printing Department Collating Department Gluing, binding, stapling, labeling Polywrap Department Purchasing (order inks, paper, other supplies) Vendors Receiving Warehousing (ink, paper, etc.) Accounting Information flow Material flow
Process Chart Example 5- OPM 533 SUBJECT: Request tool purchase Dist (ft) Time (min) Symbol Description D Write order D On desk 75 D To buyer D Examine = Operation; = Transport; = Inspect; D = Delay; = Storage
Time Function Map (Target) 5- OPM 533 1 day 1 day 1 day 1 day 2 days Customer Sales Production control Plant Warehouse Transport Order Product Process Order Print Extrude Receive product Wait Wait Move Order Order Product Product WIP 6 days
Service by nature requires some interaction and customization.
Manager must design the process to accommodate the customers unique desires.
The more the process design can meet the customers requirements, the more effective and efficient the process will be.
Techniques for Improving Service Productivity Strategy Technique Example Separation Structure service so customers must go where service is offered Bank customers go to a manager to open a new account, to loan officers for loans, and to tellers for deposits Self-service Self-service so customers examine, compare, and evaluate at their own pace Supermarkets and department stores, internet ordering
Improving Service Productivity Strategy Technique Example Postponement Customizing at delivery Customizing vans at delivery rather than at production Focus Restricting the offerings Limited-menu restaurant Modules Modular selection of service, modular production Investment and insurance selection, prepackaged food modules in restaurants
Improving Service Productivity Strategy Technique Example Automation Precise personnel scheduling Automatic teller machines Scheduling Precise personnel scheduling Scheduling ticket counter personnel at 15-minute intervals at airlines Training Clarifying the service options, explaining how to avoid problems Investment counselor, funeral directors, after-sale maintenance personnel
Assembly Line Balancing Equations 5- OPM 533 Cycle time = Production time available Demand per day Minimum number of work stations Task times Cycle time Efficiency = = Task times * (Cycle time) (Actual number of work stations)
Layout Heuristics for Assigning Tasks in Assembly Line Balancing
Longest task time - choose task with longest operation time
Most following tasks - choose task with largest number of following tasks
Ranked positional weight - choose task where the sum of the times for each following task is longest
Shortest task time - choose task with shortest operation time
Least number of following tasks - choose task with fewest subsequent tasks
5- OPM 533
Copier Example (longest task time approach) This means that tasks B and E cannot be done until task A has been completed Performance Task Must Follow Time Task Listed Task (minutes) Below A 10 — B 11 A C 5 B D 4 B E 12 A F 3 C, D G 7 F H 11 E I 3 G, H Total time 66
Copier Example Figure 9.13 Performance Task Must Follow Time Task Listed Task (minutes) Below A 10 — B 11 A C 5 B D 4 B E 12 A F 3 C, D G 7 F H 11 E I 3 G, H Total time 66 I G F C D H B E A 10 11 12 5 4 3 7 11 3
Copier Example 480 available mins per day 40 units required I G F C D H B E A 10 11 12 5 4 3 7 11 3 Figure 9.13 Performance Task Must Follow Time Task Listed Task (minutes) Below A 10 — B 11 A C 5 B D 4 B E 12 A F 3 C, D G 7 F H 11 E I 3 G, H Total time 66 Cycle time = Production time available per day Units required per day = 480 / 40 = 12 minutes per unit Minimum number of workstations = ∑ Time for task i Cycle time n i = 1 = 66 / 12 = 5.5 or 6 stations
Copier Example Figure 9.14 480 available mins per day 40 units required Cycle time = 12 mins Minimum workstations = 5.5 or 6 Performance Task Must Follow Time Task Listed Task (minutes) Below A 10 — B 11 A C 5 B D 4 B E 12 A F 3 C, D G 7 F H 11 E I 3 G, H Total time 66 I G F H C D B E A 10 11 12 5 4 3 7 11 3 Station 1 Station 2 Station 3 Station 5 Station 4 Station 6
Copier Example Performance Task Must Follow Time Task Listed Task (minutes) Below A 10 — B 11 A C 5 B D 4 B E 12 A F 3 C, D G 7 F H 11 E I 3 G, H Total time 66 480 available mins per day 40 units required Cycle time = 12 mins Minimum workstations = 5.5 or 6 Efficiency = ∑ Task times (actual number of workstations) x (largest cycle time) = 66 minutes / (6 stations) x (12 minutes) = 91.7%