Chapter 6


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Chapter 6

  2. 2. THE DEFINITION OF DATA,INFORMATION AND INFORMATIONSYSTEM. • Data: data are the raw, unprocessed facts, including text, numbers, images and sound. It is not organised and has little value. • Information is organised data that is valuable and meaningful to a specific user. • Information system: information system is a collection of hardware, software, data, people and procedures that collects data, processes data and provides information.
  3. 3. THE USAGE OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN VARIOUSFIELD. EDUCATION • Keep track of students statistics and grades. • Help students and teachers in online learning and discussion. • Store subject content.
  4. 4.  BUSINESS• Carry our online buying and selling• Help plan the delivery of goods and services.• Make room booking and for checking the best rates. MANAGEMENT• See employee records• Analyse products, services and product prices• Process customer orders, organise production times and keep track of product inventory
  5. 5. FIVE COMPONENTS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM:Human, procedure, software, hardware anddata.Component DefinitionData Data are the raw, unprocessed facts, including text, numbers, images and sound. Processed data is called informationHardware Hardware is the equipment that processes the data to create information. It includes the keyboard, mouse, monitor, system unit, and other devices. Hardware is controlled by software
  6. 6. Component DefinitionSoftware Software is series of instructions that tells a computer what to do. The purpose of software is to convert data into informationPeople People is anyone who communicate with(human) computer system or utilizes the information it generates such as customers, employees, students, data entry clerks, accountants and sales manager.Procedure A procedure is operating instructions for people (user) to follow when using software, hardware, and data. Procedures can be in the form of guidelines in the user manuals.
  7. 7. Interrelation between Information System components. Data Hardware Procedure Software Human
  8. 8. TYPES OF INFORMATION SYSTEM• Transaction Processing System (TPS)• Management Information System (MIS)• Decision Support System (DSS)• Executive Information System (EIS)• Expert System (ES)/ Artificial Intelligence (AI)
  9. 9. Information UsageSystemExecutive Executive Information System is anInformation information system that provides strategicSystem (EIS) / information tailored to the needs of topExecutive management. EIS is a highly interactive MISSupport combined with DSS and AI that present,System (ESS) summarize and analyze data from organizations database. ESS is designed to be easy to use. So an executive with little spare time can obtain information without extensive trainingDecision A Decision Support System is an informationSupport system that analyzes business data andSystem (DSS) presents it so that users can make business decisions more easily. DSS analyze data.
  10. 10. Information UsageSystemManagement Management Information System is anInformation information system that producesSystem (MIS) standardized reports in summarized structured form. MIS summarizes data and presents them in reports.Transaction Transaction Processing System is anProcessing information system that helps an organizationSystem (TPS) keep track of daily operations and records these events in database; e.g. sales, payroll, reservations, shipping, and worker tracking. TPS is simply records data.
  11. 11. Information UsageSystemExpert System A type of application program that makes(ES)/ Artificial decisions or solves problems in a particularIntelligence field by using knowledge and analytical rules(AI) defined by experts in the field.
  12. 12. EIS Make decision Top managementDSS Analyze Middle managementMIS Summarize SupervisorTPS Record
  13. 13. Hierarchy of dataData Meaningbit A binary digit, the smallest piece of information that a computer can hold. A bit is always one of two values, written as 0 and 1byte A byte is a series of 8 bits, which represent a single character (number, letter or symbol)field A field is a combination of one or more characters or bytes. Each field is represented by a column in the table. In database system fields are the smallest units of information you can access and each field name for examples name, address and age.
  14. 14. Data Meaningrecord A record is a collection of related fields. Each record is represented by a row in the table.file A file is a collection of related fields.(table)database A database is a collection of related files stored in storage medium
  15. 15. THE DEFINITION OF DATABASE & DBMS• Database: a database is structured collection of data that is organized so that enables people to add, find, sort, group, summarize, and print the data.• DBMS: is a software that can manage a database. DBMS allows you to use a computer to create a database; add, change, and delete data in the database; sort the data in the database; retrieve data in the database; and create forms and reports using the data in the database. E.g. Microsoft Access, MySQL, Oracle, DB2, Informix, SQL Server, Visual Foxpro, Corel Paradox, Kexi, Base.
  16. 16. BENEFITS OF USING DBMS• Improve data integrity.• Avoid data redundancy• Data can be shared over a network, by a whole organisation.• Information can be accessed easily.• Data security. Data are not accessible to unauthorised users.
  17. 17. THE RELATION BETWEEN FIELD,RECORD AND FILE.• A file or table is a collection of records.• Records are composed of files.
  18. 18. PRIMARY KEY & FOREIGN KEY• Primary key: Primary key is a field that contains a value uniquely identifies each record in the table.• Foreign key: A foreign key is a field in a relational table that matches the primary key column of another table.
  19. 19. THE IMPORTANCE OF PRIMARY KEY• The primary key ensures that no two records in a database contain the same value for that field. It is the field that uniquely identifies the record.• For example IC Number field uniquely identifies each student because no two students can have the same IC number.
  21. 21. DATABASE OBJECTS• Table• Form• Query• Report• Relationship
  22. 22. BASIC OPERATIONS IN DATA MANIPULATION:• Update• Insert• Delete• Modify• Retrieve• Sort• Filter• Search
  23. 23. PHASES OF SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT• Analysis• Design• Implementation• Testing• Documentation• Maintenance