01 academic report writing iec 2011


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Academic Report Writing for IEC Intermediate Level

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01 academic report writing iec 2011

  1. 1. 1<br />INTENSIVE ENGLISH COURSEAcademic Report Writing<br />Instructor:<br />Mr Norhaizal Ramley<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />INTRODUCTION<br />What is research report writing?<br />Emotional<br />VS. <br />Factual<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH?<br />Follow these<br />5 steps!<br />
  5. 5. 5<br />HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH?<br />Identify the Issue or Problem<br />What do I want to know?<br />Who are involved?<br />Where?<br />Why?<br />
  6. 6. 6<br />HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH?<br />2. Determine the Purpose<br />What exactly do I want to do here?<br />What is my statement of purpose?<br />To evaluate? To investigate? <br />To compare? To describe?<br />
  7. 7. 7<br />HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH?<br />3. Draw a Plan or a Strategy<br />Who, where and what are going to be involved in the research?<br />How do I collect the data?<br />What are the deadlines?<br />
  8. 8. 8<br />HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH?<br />4. Search and Collect the Data<br />Do I need primary data?<br />Do I need secondary data?<br />What are the instruments to be used to collect the data?<br />
  9. 9. 9<br />HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH?<br />5. Analyze Data<br />How do I process, record, analyze and interpret the data?<br />How do I make connections among the data?<br />How do I draw conclusions from the data?<br />
  10. 10. 10<br />So what is the problem?<br />
  11. 11. 11<br />RESEARCH PROPOSAL<br />
  12. 12. 12<br />WHAT IS A RESEARCH PROPOSAL?<br />A Plan of Action<br />Why?<br />To seek funding<br />To seek commitment <br />
  13. 13. 13<br />2 TYPES OF PROPOSAL<br />INTERNAL <br />VS. <br />EXTERNAL<br />SOLICITED <br />VS. <br />UNSOLICITED<br />
  14. 14. 14<br />10 COMPONENTS OF A PROPOSAL<br />Title<br />Background Information<br />Statement of Problem<br />Research Objectives<br />Research Questions<br />
  15. 15. 15<br />10 COMPONENTS OF A PROPOSAL (Cont’d)<br />6. Significance of the Study<br />7. Scope<br />8. Methodology<br />9. Work Schedule<br />10. Call to Action<br />
  16. 16. 16<br />DATA COLLECTION<br />
  17. 17. 17<br />WHAT IS DATA COLLECTION?<br />A process of collecting data (primary & secondary) from different sources<br />PRIMARY DATA – obtained through questionnaires, interviews, observations & experiments <br />SECONDARY DATA – obtained through reading others’ works <br />
  18. 18. 18<br />COLLECTING SECONDARY DATA<br />Conducted at the beginning of a research to get a better picture of what you are going to investigate<br />Gathered from various written resources (offline/online)<br />Used in various sections of research report esp. Literature Review<br />Must be properly cited <br />
  20. 20. 20<br />1.QUESTIONNAIRES<br />A systematic compilation of questions distributed to respondents from which information is needed<br />Administered through survey, mail, telephone & internet<br />
  21. 21. 21<br />2 TYPES OF QUESTIONS<br />1. Open-ended Questions<br />2. Close-ended Questions<br />Yes/No <br />Scale <br />Listing/Choice<br />Ranking<br /> Category<br />
  22. 22. 22<br />2.INTERVIEW<br />A two-communication which permits an exchange of ideas and information<br />3 types of interviews:<br />1.Structured<br /> 2. Semi-structured<br /> 3. Unstructured<br />
  23. 23. 23<br />3.OBSERVATION<br />To get firsthandinformation <br />To strengthen existing data<br />
  24. 24. 24<br />4.EXPERIMENTS<br />To test various techniques, assumptions or products (esp. in engineering & agriculture)<br />
  25. 25. 25<br />SAMPLING & POPULATION<br />SAMPLING– a group of respondents who provide information that may be generalised to general population<br />POPULATION– a target group to which the results of a research are applicable<br />
  26. 26. 26<br />2 TYPES OF SAMPLING<br />RANDOM<br />Respondents are selected randomly without criteria<br />3 Categories:<br /><ul><li>Simple
  27. 27. Stratified
  28. 28. Cluster</li></ul>NON-RANDOM<br />Respondents are selected based on certain criteria<br />3 Categories:<br /><ul><li>Systematic
  29. 29. Convenience
  30. 30. Purposive</li></li></ul><li>27<br />DATA PROCESSING & DATA PRESENTATION<br />
  31. 31. 28<br />WHAT IS DATA PROCESSING?<br />To convert raw data into meaningful statements that could help answer research questions <br />Raw data are systematically organised so that their meanings can be understood<br />Procedures for quantitative and<br /> qualitative data are different<br />
  33. 33. 30<br />1.ORGANISING, RECORDING & CATEGORISING AND/OR CODING<br />Organise manually or using computer<br />Record using ‘keyword’<br />Categorise to see the ‘picture’<br />Coding helps processing the data statistically (using SPSS)<br />
  34. 34. 31<br />2.PRESENTING<br />Turn data into comprehensible ‘pictures’ through<br />1. Table<br /> 2. Graph<br /> 3. Chart<br />
  35. 35. 32<br />3.ANALYSING<br />Analyse manually or using computer <br />Involves the interpretation of frequencies based on data presentation<br />
  37. 37. 34<br /> 1.ORGANISING, CATEGORISING AND/OR CODING, <br />Organise by using transcriptions<br />Categorise by listing the responses <br />Coding by using flexible codes <br />
  38. 38. 35<br />2.PRESENTING<br />Usually presented in original forms <br />Can also be presented using tables <br />
  39. 39. 36<br />3.ANALYSING<br />Involves finding commonalities, regularities or emerging patterns among the responses <br />
  40. 40. 37<br />WRITING RESEARCH REPORT<br />
  41. 41. 38<br />3 SECTIONS<br />PRELIMINARY<br />MAIN<br />SUPPLEMENTARY<br />
  42. 42. 39<br />1.PRELIMINARY<br />Title Page<br />Abstract<br />Acknowledgement<br />Table of Content<br />List of Figures/ Tables<br />List of Abbreviation & Symbols<br />
  43. 43. 40<br />2.MAIN<br />Introduction<br />Literature Review<br />Methodology<br />Findings & Discussions<br />Conclusion & Recommendation<br />
  44. 44. 41<br />3.SUPPLEMENTARY<br />References<br />Appendices<br />
  45. 45. 42<br />1.INTRODUCTION<br />
  46. 46. 43<br />7 ELEMENTS<br />Background of the Study<br />Statement of Problem<br />Purpose of the Study<br />Research Objectives<br />Research Questions<br />Significance of the Study<br />Scope of the Study<br />
  47. 47. 44<br />1.Background of the Study<br />Three steps:<br />To state general statements of facts related to the field of study<br />To state specific statements about issues studied by other researchers<br />To state statements that indicate the need for more investigation<br />
  48. 48. 45<br />2.Statement of Problem<br />To define the issue or problem investigated in the study<br />To refer to problem statement in the proposal<br />
  49. 49. 46<br />3.Purpose of the Study<br />To include a broad discussion on the reasons why the study was carried out and intentions of the study<br />
  50. 50. 47<br />4.Research Objectives<br />To show the extent and the expected outcome of the study<br />To begin with a leading statement followed by the objectives written in point forms<br />
  51. 51. 48<br />5.Research Questions<br />To guide the discussion about the topic<br />To stimulate readers’ interests<br />To turn the objectives of the study into research questions <br />
  52. 52. 49<br />6.Significance of the Study<br />To justify the reason for conducting the study<br />To emphasize the potential benefits that it would bring<br />
  53. 53. 50<br />7.Scope of the Study<br />To indicate the direction of the study<br />To map out the boundaries of the study<br />To outline the method of investigation<br />To give a preview of the written report<br />
  54. 54. 51<br />2.LITERATURE REVIEW<br />
  55. 55. 52<br />WHAT IS LITERATURE REVIEW?<br />It is an account of what has been published on a research area<br />It describes, summarizes, evaluates and clarifies the studies reviewed<br />It outlines a framework and a theoretical base of a research <br />
  56. 56. 53<br />WHY?<br />To guide you through others’ works<br />To prepare for your own research<br />To provide a context for your research<br />To justify the research<br />To illustrate how the subject has been studied before<br />To outline gaps in previous research <br />
  57. 57. 54<br />HOW DO I DO IT?<br />Identify relevant articles and books<br />Read and appraise the text critically<br />Organise the literature around your research questions<br />Synthesize relevant information to current study <br />
  58. 58. 55<br />5 GENERAL STEPS<br />1. Prepare annotated bibliography<br />2. Maintain a reference list<br />3. Organise materials and make notes<br />4. Write individual sections according to themes<br />5. Integrate all sections<br />
  59. 59. 56<br />HOW DO I CITE IN A REPORT?<br />THREE WAYS:<br />1. SUMMARIZING<br />2. DIRECT QUOTATION<br />3. PARAPHRASING<br />
  60. 60. 57<br />1. SUMMARIZING<br />It is a shortened piece of writing by restating main points in your own words<br />General ideas are highlighted <br />Details & examples are excluded<br />
  61. 61. 58<br />2. DIRECT QUOTATION<br />Authors’ exact words are copied directly from original sources<br />It is preferred when citing powerful phrases or interpreting literary works like poems or plays<br />Sources must be properly cited<br />
  62. 62. 59<br />3. PARAPHRASING<br />Authors’ words are rephrased/ reworded in your own words<br />Paraphrased text is usually shorter than original text<br />Paraphrased materials must be properly cited<br />
  63. 63. 60<br />3.METHODOLOGY<br />
  64. 64. 61<br />FIVE PARTS<br />1. Introduction (Short description of purpose, location, respondents & instruments)<br />2. Research Instruments<br />3. Respondents of the Study<br />4. Research Procedure<br />5. Data Analysis<br />
  65. 65. 62<br />4.FINDINGS & DISCUSSION<br />
  66. 66. 63<br />WHAT ARE FINDINGS?<br />Discoveries based on facts, not emotions<br />Presented in the form of statistics (percentages, frequency counts & averages) or illustrations (tables, graphs, diagrams, etc.)<br />
  67. 67. 64<br />ISN’T A PICTURE WORTH A THOUSAND WORDS?<br />
  68. 68. 65<br />HOW TO WRITE IN THE REPORT?<br />Type A<br />Findings<br />Research Question 1<br />Research Question 2<br />Research Question 3<br />Discussion<br />Research Question 1<br />Research Question 2<br />Research Question 3<br />Type B<br /><ul><li>Research Question 1: Findings & Discussion
  69. 69. Research Question 2:</li></ul>Findings & Discussion<br /><ul><li>Research Question 3:</li></ul>Findings & Discussion<br />
  70. 70. 66<br />TAKE A LOOK AT AN EXAMPLE OF FINDING (page 177)<br />
  71. 71. 67<br />12 TIPS ON WRITING FINDINGS<br />1. Introduce the topic<br />2. Point to significant findings<br />3. Use graphics to support findings<br />4. Explain statistics selectively and concisely <br />5. Support statistics with qualitative data (if any)<br />
  72. 72. 68<br />12 TIPS ON WRITING FINDINGS (cont’d)<br />6. Spell out the word ‘percent’ in the text (don’t be confused with ‘percentage’)<br />7. Spell out the number that begins a sentence, and use figure in the middle of a sentence<br />8. Follow correct organisation<br />
  73. 73. 69<br />12 TIPS ON WRITING FINDINGS (cont’d)<br />9. Use concise, grammatically correct statements<br />10. Use correct tenses<br />11. Use language expression correctly (page 180-1)<br />12. Focus on 4Cs - Clarity, Coherence, Conciseness and Correctness <br />
  74. 74. 70<br />4 STRATEGIES IN WRITING DISCUSSION<br />Explain<br />Compare<br />Evaluate<br />Infer<br />
  75. 75. 71<br />1. Explain Findings<br />Give reasons for findings<br />Explain circumstances during data collection<br />Explain limitations<br />
  76. 76. 72<br />2. Compare Findings<br />Relate the different findings to highlight their significance<br />Compare similar findings from related studies<br />
  77. 77. 73<br />3. Evaluate Findings<br />Assess findings as:<br /><ul><li> unexpected or
  78. 78. insignificant or
  79. 79. unsatisfactory</li></li></ul><li>74<br />4. Infer from Findings<br />Make sense of findings<br />Develop ideas and viewpoints<br />Be creative and speculate<br />
  80. 80. 75<br />5.CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION<br />
  81. 81. 76<br />5 ELEMENTS IN A CONCLUSION<br />Overview<br />Restatement<br />Review<br />Implications<br />Limitations<br />
  82. 82. 77<br /> 1.Overview of the study<br />Summarize what the research is all about (do not introduce new ideas)<br />Explain briefly why & how you conduct the study<br />
  83. 83. 78<br /> 2. Restatement of the objectives<br />Rephrase the objectives<br />Start with the most significant one<br />
  84. 84. 79<br />3. Review of the findings<br />Draw conclusions for each major issues<br />Use discourse markers to connect the findings<br />Start with the most important one<br />
  85. 85. 80<br /> 4. Implications of the findings<br />Deduce some ideas based on findings (do not exaggerate)<br />Implicate some ideas that can support further actions<br />
  86. 86. 81<br /> 5. Limitations of research (optional)<br />State the weaknesses (do not apologize)<br />E.g. Small sample size, limited time, improper instrument, etc.<br />
  87. 87. 82<br />Conclusion can be written in paragraph/ point form(page 192-3)<br />
  88. 88. 83<br />WHAT IS A RECOMMENDATION?<br />It suggests actions to be taken based on findings<br />It is related to conclusions <br />It is NOT based on biases or beliefs that are not supported by data <br />
  89. 89. 84<br />2 TYPES OF RECOMMENDATION<br />To recommend actions to be taken based on findings<br />To recommend actions to other researchers for further research<br />
  90. 90. 85<br />Recommendation can be written in paragraph/ point form(page 196)<br />
  91. 91. 86<br />LANGUAGE INPUT:Modal Auxiliary Verbs<br />Use appropriate modals when making recommendations:<br />1. May/Could/Might – mild suggestion<br />2. Should/Ought to – strong suggestion<br />3. Must/Have to – extreme suggestion<br />
  92. 92. 87<br />ORAL PRESENTATION<br />
  93. 93. 88<br />SALES!50%!SALES!70%!SALES!!120%!<br />
  94. 94. 89<br />I HATE PUBLIC SPEAKING!<br />
  95. 95. 90<br />WHAT IS AN ORAL PRESENTATION?<br />A type of communication that involves speaking & listening<br />Can be formal/ informal<br />Essential for professionals<br />A requirement for students<br />
  96. 96. 91<br />3 PURPOSES OF ORAL PRESENTATION<br />Informative<br />Demonstrative<br />Persuasive<br />
  97. 97. 92<br />4 TYPES OF ORAL PRESENTATION<br />Impromptu <br />Manuscript <br />Memorised <br />Extemporaneous<br />
  99. 99. 94<br />1. Planning Your Oral Presentation Well<br />What is the purpose?<br />Who is the audience?<br />What is the topic?<br />Where?<br />
  100. 100. 95<br />2. Knowing Your Content Well<br />What is the content?<br />Have I included all the relevant information?<br />
  101. 101. 96<br />3. Analysing Your Audience<br />What is the background of audience?<br />Are they educated?<br />What is the reason for attending?<br />How many of them?<br />
  102. 102. 97<br />4. Knowing the Presentation Room<br />What is the size of the room?<br />How is the seating arrangement?<br />What are the facilities provided?<br />
  103. 103. 98<br />5. Knowing the Time Allotted<br />How long do I have to present?<br />
  104. 104. 99<br />6. Writing the Outline of Your Delivery<br />What are the main ideas?<br />(Prepare short notes, either linear or non-linear - do not outline them word by word) <br />
  105. 105. 100<br />7. Deciding on the Appropriate Style of Delivery<br />Do I have to be casual?<br />Is there a large audience that requires a formal presentation?<br />
  106. 106. 101<br />ORGANISING YOUR ORAL PRESENTATION<br />Introduction<br />Body<br />Conclusion<br />
  107. 107. 102<br />1.Introduction<br />Start with attention grabbers (Question, humour, quotation, statistics, stories, etc)<br />Use correct language expressions (examples - page 209)<br />
  108. 108. 103<br />2.Body<br />For report presentation, follow the pattern in the report <br />Support with details and evidence<br />Ensure clarity by keeping message simple <br />Ensure cohesion by using linking words (examples – page 216)<br />
  109. 109. 104<br />3.Conclusion<br />End it by using:<br /> >> a summary of key points<br /> >> a recommendation<br /> >> an “umphh”final thought<br />Use correct expressions <br /> (examples – page 221) <br />
  110. 110. 105<br />Prepare the outline (linear/non-linear) for the introduction, body & conclusionof your presentation.(refer to Tables 7.1 – 7.8)<br />
  111. 111. 106<br />WHY VISUAL AIDS?<br />To believe (seeing is believing)<br />To enhance understanding<br />To enable better retention<br />To ensure continuity<br />To build presenter’s credibility<br />To have more fun!<br />
  112. 112. 107<br />19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS<br />
  113. 113. 108<br />19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS<br />Arrange accordingly to the content<br />Points form (using key words) is advisable – don’t punctuate! <br />Coordinate points in parallel forms (content, grammar, numbering)<br />Subordinate major & minor headings appropriately<br />
  114. 114. 109<br />19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS (cont’d)<br />Avoid irrelevant words<br />Words must be clearly readable<br />Avoid too much info on a single slide (remember to KISS!)<br />Avoid too many colours<br />
  115. 115. 110<br />19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS (cont’d)<br />Use animation sparingly <br />Introduce a visual before showing it<br />Stand to the side of your computer<br />Face audience as much as possible<br />
  116. 116. 111<br />19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS (cont’d)<br />Use a pointer to direct audience focus (not your finger)<br />Visuals should tally with what you say<br />Avoid reading your notes<br />Use appropriate language expressions (examples – page 230)<br />
  117. 117. 112<br />19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS (cont’d)<br />Use visual aids as support only (you are the spotlight!)<br />If you have handouts, tell your audience in advance<br />Practise, practise, practise!<br />
  118. 118. 113<br />PREPARE THE SLIDES!<br />
  119. 119. 114<br />Which is more important? WHAT you say or HOW you say?<br />
  120. 120. 115<br />25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY<br />
  121. 121. 116<br />25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY<br />Visualise a successful presentation<br />Emulate excellent speakers<br />Channel your nervousness accordingly<br />Do not apologise <br />Be well-versed with technology<br />
  122. 122. 117<br />25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY (cont’d)<br />Always have Plan B<br />Dress appropriately<br />Stand still (don’t slouch!)<br />Show your confidence<br />Talk to audience (not your notes)<br />
  123. 123. 118<br />25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY (cont’d)<br />Refer to notes sparingly<br />Pronounce words correctly<br />Use linkers for content traffic<br />Use spoken English (not text-book English)<br />Be interactive<br />
  124. 124. 119<br />25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY (cont’d)<br />Maintain eye contact<br />Be enthusiastic <br />Vary your volume, tone & pace<br />Minimise crutches<br />Use gestures naturally <br />
  125. 125. 120<br />25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY (cont’d)<br />Place your hands appropriately <br />Use facial expression effectively<br />Move around <br />End your presentation in time <br />Rehearse, rehearse, rehearse!<br />
  126. 126. 121<br />7 WAYS TO HANDLE Q & A SESSION<br />
  127. 127. 122<br />7 WAYS TO HANDLE Q & A SESSION<br />Invite questions <br />Repeat questions from audience<br />Look at the questioner<br />Answer in short<br />
  128. 128. 123<br />7 WAYS TO HANDLE Q & A SESSION (cont’d)<br />Be straightforward<br />Be honest (just admit that you don’t have the answer!)<br />Don’t forget to thank the questioner<br />
  129. 129. 124<br />ARE YOU A GOOD LISTENER?<br />
  130. 130. 125<br />7 STRATEGIES FOR GOOD AUDIENCE<br />
  131. 131. 126<br />7 STRATEGIES FOR GOOD AUDIENCE<br />Listen actively & selfishly (don’t just hear)<br />Focus on the message, not style<br />Listen for major ideas (look for cues)<br />Listen to body language (they do speak!)<br />
  132. 132. 127<br />7 STRATEGIES FOR GOOD AUDIENCE (cont’d)<br />Be objective (don’t easily get angry)<br />Avoid jumping to conclusion (don’t pre-judge)<br />Discipline your thoughts!<br />
  133. 133. 128<br />REMEMBER, A GOOD SPEAKER IS A GOOD LISTENER<br />