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01 academic report writing iec 2011
 

01 academic report writing iec 2011

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Academic Report Writing for IEC Intermediate Level

Academic Report Writing for IEC Intermediate Level

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    01 academic report writing iec 2011 01 academic report writing iec 2011 Presentation Transcript

    • 1
      INTENSIVE ENGLISH COURSEAcademic Report Writing
      Instructor:
      Mr Norhaizal Ramley
    • 2
      INTRODUCTION
      What is research report writing?
      Emotional
      VS.
      Factual
    • 3
    • 4
      HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH?
      Follow these
      5 steps!
    • 5
      HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH?
      Identify the Issue or Problem
      What do I want to know?
      Who are involved?
      Where?
      Why?
    • 6
      HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH?
      2. Determine the Purpose
      What exactly do I want to do here?
      What is my statement of purpose?
      To evaluate? To investigate?
      To compare? To describe?
    • 7
      HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH?
      3. Draw a Plan or a Strategy
      Who, where and what are going to be involved in the research?
      How do I collect the data?
      What are the deadlines?
    • 8
      HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH?
      4. Search and Collect the Data
      Do I need primary data?
      Do I need secondary data?
      What are the instruments to be used to collect the data?
    • 9
      HOW DO I CONDUCT A RESEARCH?
      5. Analyze Data
      How do I process, record, analyze and interpret the data?
      How do I make connections among the data?
      How do I draw conclusions from the data?
    • 10
      So what is the problem?
    • 11
      RESEARCH PROPOSAL
    • 12
      WHAT IS A RESEARCH PROPOSAL?
      A Plan of Action
      Why?
      To seek funding
      To seek commitment
    • 13
      2 TYPES OF PROPOSAL
      INTERNAL
      VS.
      EXTERNAL
      SOLICITED
      VS.
      UNSOLICITED
    • 14
      10 COMPONENTS OF A PROPOSAL
      Title
      Background Information
      Statement of Problem
      Research Objectives
      Research Questions
    • 15
      10 COMPONENTS OF A PROPOSAL (Cont’d)
      6. Significance of the Study
      7. Scope
      8. Methodology
      9. Work Schedule
      10. Call to Action
    • 16
      DATA COLLECTION
    • 17
      WHAT IS DATA COLLECTION?
      A process of collecting data (primary & secondary) from different sources
      PRIMARY DATA – obtained through questionnaires, interviews, observations & experiments
      SECONDARY DATA – obtained through reading others’ works
    • 18
      COLLECTING SECONDARY DATA
      Conducted at the beginning of a research to get a better picture of what you are going to investigate
      Gathered from various written resources (offline/online)
      Used in various sections of research report esp. Literature Review
      Must be properly cited
    • 19
      COLLECTING PRIMARY DATA
      FOUR INSTRUMENTS:
      1.QUESTIONNAIRES
      2.INTERVIEW
      3.OBSERVATION
      4.EXPERIMENTS
    • 20
      1.QUESTIONNAIRES
      A systematic compilation of questions distributed to respondents from which information is needed
      Administered through survey, mail, telephone & internet
    • 21
      2 TYPES OF QUESTIONS
      1. Open-ended Questions
      2. Close-ended Questions
      Yes/No
      Scale
      Listing/Choice
      Ranking
      Category
    • 22
      2.INTERVIEW
      A two-communication which permits an exchange of ideas and information
      3 types of interviews:
      1.Structured
      2. Semi-structured
      3. Unstructured
    • 23
      3.OBSERVATION
      To get firsthandinformation
      To strengthen existing data
    • 24
      4.EXPERIMENTS
      To test various techniques, assumptions or products (esp. in engineering & agriculture)
    • 25
      SAMPLING & POPULATION
      SAMPLING– a group of respondents who provide information that may be generalised to general population
      POPULATION– a target group to which the results of a research are applicable
    • 26
      2 TYPES OF SAMPLING
      RANDOM
      Respondents are selected randomly without criteria
      3 Categories:
      • Simple
      • Stratified
      • Cluster
      NON-RANDOM
      Respondents are selected based on certain criteria
      3 Categories:
      • Systematic
      • Convenience
      • Purposive
    • 27
      DATA PROCESSING & DATA PRESENTATION
    • 28
      WHAT IS DATA PROCESSING?
      To convert raw data into meaningful statements that could help answer research questions
      Raw data are systematically organised so that their meanings can be understood
      Procedures for quantitative and
      qualitative data are different
    • 29
      3 STAGES (QUANTITATIVE DATA)
      ORGANISING, RECORDING AND CATEGORISING AND/OR CODING
      PRESENTING
      ANALYSING
    • 30
      1.ORGANISING, RECORDING & CATEGORISING AND/OR CODING
      Organise manually or using computer
      Record using ‘keyword’
      Categorise to see the ‘picture’
      Coding helps processing the data statistically (using SPSS)
    • 31
      2.PRESENTING
      Turn data into comprehensible ‘pictures’ through
      1. Table
      2. Graph
      3. Chart
    • 32
      3.ANALYSING
      Analyse manually or using computer
      Involves the interpretation of frequencies based on data presentation
    • 33
      3 STAGES (QUALITATIVE DATA)
      ORGANISING, CATEGORISING AND/OR CODING, AND RECORDING
      PRESENTING
      ANALYSING
    • 34
      1.ORGANISING, CATEGORISING AND/OR CODING,
      Organise by using transcriptions
      Categorise by listing the responses
      Coding by using flexible codes
    • 35
      2.PRESENTING
      Usually presented in original forms
      Can also be presented using tables
    • 36
      3.ANALYSING
      Involves finding commonalities, regularities or emerging patterns among the responses
    • 37
      WRITING RESEARCH REPORT
    • 38
      3 SECTIONS
      PRELIMINARY
      MAIN
      SUPPLEMENTARY
    • 39
      1.PRELIMINARY
      Title Page
      Abstract
      Acknowledgement
      Table of Content
      List of Figures/ Tables
      List of Abbreviation & Symbols
    • 40
      2.MAIN
      Introduction
      Literature Review
      Methodology
      Findings & Discussions
      Conclusion & Recommendation
    • 41
      3.SUPPLEMENTARY
      References
      Appendices
    • 42
      1.INTRODUCTION
    • 43
      7 ELEMENTS
      Background of the Study
      Statement of Problem
      Purpose of the Study
      Research Objectives
      Research Questions
      Significance of the Study
      Scope of the Study
    • 44
      1.Background of the Study
      Three steps:
      To state general statements of facts related to the field of study
      To state specific statements about issues studied by other researchers
      To state statements that indicate the need for more investigation
    • 45
      2.Statement of Problem
      To define the issue or problem investigated in the study
      To refer to problem statement in the proposal
    • 46
      3.Purpose of the Study
      To include a broad discussion on the reasons why the study was carried out and intentions of the study
    • 47
      4.Research Objectives
      To show the extent and the expected outcome of the study
      To begin with a leading statement followed by the objectives written in point forms
    • 48
      5.Research Questions
      To guide the discussion about the topic
      To stimulate readers’ interests
      To turn the objectives of the study into research questions
    • 49
      6.Significance of the Study
      To justify the reason for conducting the study
      To emphasize the potential benefits that it would bring
    • 50
      7.Scope of the Study
      To indicate the direction of the study
      To map out the boundaries of the study
      To outline the method of investigation
      To give a preview of the written report
    • 51
      2.LITERATURE REVIEW
    • 52
      WHAT IS LITERATURE REVIEW?
      It is an account of what has been published on a research area
      It describes, summarizes, evaluates and clarifies the studies reviewed
      It outlines a framework and a theoretical base of a research
    • 53
      WHY?
      To guide you through others’ works
      To prepare for your own research
      To provide a context for your research
      To justify the research
      To illustrate how the subject has been studied before
      To outline gaps in previous research
    • 54
      HOW DO I DO IT?
      Identify relevant articles and books
      Read and appraise the text critically
      Organise the literature around your research questions
      Synthesize relevant information to current study
    • 55
      5 GENERAL STEPS
      1. Prepare annotated bibliography
      2. Maintain a reference list
      3. Organise materials and make notes
      4. Write individual sections according to themes
      5. Integrate all sections
    • 56
      HOW DO I CITE IN A REPORT?
      THREE WAYS:
      1. SUMMARIZING
      2. DIRECT QUOTATION
      3. PARAPHRASING
    • 57
      1. SUMMARIZING
      It is a shortened piece of writing by restating main points in your own words
      General ideas are highlighted
      Details & examples are excluded
    • 58
      2. DIRECT QUOTATION
      Authors’ exact words are copied directly from original sources
      It is preferred when citing powerful phrases or interpreting literary works like poems or plays
      Sources must be properly cited
    • 59
      3. PARAPHRASING
      Authors’ words are rephrased/ reworded in your own words
      Paraphrased text is usually shorter than original text
      Paraphrased materials must be properly cited
    • 60
      3.METHODOLOGY
    • 61
      FIVE PARTS
      1. Introduction (Short description of purpose, location, respondents & instruments)
      2. Research Instruments
      3. Respondents of the Study
      4. Research Procedure
      5. Data Analysis
    • 62
      4.FINDINGS & DISCUSSION
    • 63
      WHAT ARE FINDINGS?
      Discoveries based on facts, not emotions
      Presented in the form of statistics (percentages, frequency counts & averages) or illustrations (tables, graphs, diagrams, etc.)
    • 64
      ISN’T A PICTURE WORTH A THOUSAND WORDS?
    • 65
      HOW TO WRITE IN THE REPORT?
      Type A
      Findings
      Research Question 1
      Research Question 2
      Research Question 3
      Discussion
      Research Question 1
      Research Question 2
      Research Question 3
      Type B
      • Research Question 1: Findings & Discussion
      • Research Question 2:
      Findings & Discussion
      • Research Question 3:
      Findings & Discussion
    • 66
      TAKE A LOOK AT AN EXAMPLE OF FINDING (page 177)
    • 67
      12 TIPS ON WRITING FINDINGS
      1. Introduce the topic
      2. Point to significant findings
      3. Use graphics to support findings
      4. Explain statistics selectively and concisely
      5. Support statistics with qualitative data (if any)
    • 68
      12 TIPS ON WRITING FINDINGS (cont’d)
      6. Spell out the word ‘percent’ in the text (don’t be confused with ‘percentage’)
      7. Spell out the number that begins a sentence, and use figure in the middle of a sentence
      8. Follow correct organisation
    • 69
      12 TIPS ON WRITING FINDINGS (cont’d)
      9. Use concise, grammatically correct statements
      10. Use correct tenses
      11. Use language expression correctly (page 180-1)
      12. Focus on 4Cs - Clarity, Coherence, Conciseness and Correctness
    • 70
      4 STRATEGIES IN WRITING DISCUSSION
      Explain
      Compare
      Evaluate
      Infer
    • 71
      1. Explain Findings
      Give reasons for findings
      Explain circumstances during data collection
      Explain limitations
    • 72
      2. Compare Findings
      Relate the different findings to highlight their significance
      Compare similar findings from related studies
    • 73
      3. Evaluate Findings
      Assess findings as:
      • unexpected or
      • insignificant or
      • unsatisfactory
    • 74
      4. Infer from Findings
      Make sense of findings
      Develop ideas and viewpoints
      Be creative and speculate
    • 75
      5.CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION
    • 76
      5 ELEMENTS IN A CONCLUSION
      Overview
      Restatement
      Review
      Implications
      Limitations
    • 77
      1.Overview of the study
      Summarize what the research is all about (do not introduce new ideas)
      Explain briefly why & how you conduct the study
    • 78
      2. Restatement of the objectives
      Rephrase the objectives
      Start with the most significant one
    • 79
      3. Review of the findings
      Draw conclusions for each major issues
      Use discourse markers to connect the findings
      Start with the most important one
    • 80
      4. Implications of the findings
      Deduce some ideas based on findings (do not exaggerate)
      Implicate some ideas that can support further actions
    • 81
      5. Limitations of research (optional)
      State the weaknesses (do not apologize)
      E.g. Small sample size, limited time, improper instrument, etc.
    • 82
      Conclusion can be written in paragraph/ point form(page 192-3)
    • 83
      WHAT IS A RECOMMENDATION?
      It suggests actions to be taken based on findings
      It is related to conclusions
      It is NOT based on biases or beliefs that are not supported by data
    • 84
      2 TYPES OF RECOMMENDATION
      To recommend actions to be taken based on findings
      To recommend actions to other researchers for further research
    • 85
      Recommendation can be written in paragraph/ point form(page 196)
    • 86
      LANGUAGE INPUT:Modal Auxiliary Verbs
      Use appropriate modals when making recommendations:
      1. May/Could/Might – mild suggestion
      2. Should/Ought to – strong suggestion
      3. Must/Have to – extreme suggestion
    • 87
      ORAL PRESENTATION
    • 88
      SALES!50%!SALES!70%!SALES!!120%!
    • 89
      I HATE PUBLIC SPEAKING!
    • 90
      WHAT IS AN ORAL PRESENTATION?
      A type of communication that involves speaking & listening
      Can be formal/ informal
      Essential for professionals
      A requirement for students
    • 91
      3 PURPOSES OF ORAL PRESENTATION
      Informative
      Demonstrative
      Persuasive
    • 92
      4 TYPES OF ORAL PRESENTATION
      Impromptu
      Manuscript
      Memorised
      Extemporaneous
    • 93
      7 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE ORAL PRESENTATIONS
    • 94
      1. Planning Your Oral Presentation Well
      What is the purpose?
      Who is the audience?
      What is the topic?
      Where?
    • 95
      2. Knowing Your Content Well
      What is the content?
      Have I included all the relevant information?
    • 96
      3. Analysing Your Audience
      What is the background of audience?
      Are they educated?
      What is the reason for attending?
      How many of them?
    • 97
      4. Knowing the Presentation Room
      What is the size of the room?
      How is the seating arrangement?
      What are the facilities provided?
    • 98
      5. Knowing the Time Allotted
      How long do I have to present?
    • 99
      6. Writing the Outline of Your Delivery
      What are the main ideas?
      (Prepare short notes, either linear or non-linear - do not outline them word by word)
    • 100
      7. Deciding on the Appropriate Style of Delivery
      Do I have to be casual?
      Is there a large audience that requires a formal presentation?
    • 101
      ORGANISING YOUR ORAL PRESENTATION
      Introduction
      Body
      Conclusion
    • 102
      1.Introduction
      Start with attention grabbers (Question, humour, quotation, statistics, stories, etc)
      Use correct language expressions (examples - page 209)
    • 103
      2.Body
      For report presentation, follow the pattern in the report
      Support with details and evidence
      Ensure clarity by keeping message simple
      Ensure cohesion by using linking words (examples – page 216)
    • 104
      3.Conclusion
      End it by using:
      >> a summary of key points
      >> a recommendation
      >> an “umphh”final thought
      Use correct expressions
      (examples – page 221)
    • 105
      Prepare the outline (linear/non-linear) for the introduction, body & conclusionof your presentation.(refer to Tables 7.1 – 7.8)
    • 106
      WHY VISUAL AIDS?
      To believe (seeing is believing)
      To enhance understanding
      To enable better retention
      To ensure continuity
      To build presenter’s credibility
      To have more fun!
    • 107
      19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS
    • 108
      19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS
      Arrange accordingly to the content
      Points form (using key words) is advisable – don’t punctuate!
      Coordinate points in parallel forms (content, grammar, numbering)
      Subordinate major & minor headings appropriately
    • 109
      19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS (cont’d)
      Avoid irrelevant words
      Words must be clearly readable
      Avoid too much info on a single slide (remember to KISS!)
      Avoid too many colours
    • 110
      19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS (cont’d)
      Use animation sparingly
      Introduce a visual before showing it
      Stand to the side of your computer
      Face audience as much as possible
    • 111
      19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS (cont’d)
      Use a pointer to direct audience focus (not your finger)
      Visuals should tally with what you say
      Avoid reading your notes
      Use appropriate language expressions (examples – page 230)
    • 112
      19 TIPS IN USING VISUAL AIDS (cont’d)
      Use visual aids as support only (you are the spotlight!)
      If you have handouts, tell your audience in advance
      Practise, practise, practise!
    • 113
      PREPARE THE SLIDES!
    • 114
      Which is more important? WHAT you say or HOW you say?
    • 115
      25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY
    • 116
      25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY
      Visualise a successful presentation
      Emulate excellent speakers
      Channel your nervousness accordingly
      Do not apologise
      Be well-versed with technology
    • 117
      25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY (cont’d)
      Always have Plan B
      Dress appropriately
      Stand still (don’t slouch!)
      Show your confidence
      Talk to audience (not your notes)
    • 118
      25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY (cont’d)
      Refer to notes sparingly
      Pronounce words correctly
      Use linkers for content traffic
      Use spoken English (not text-book English)
      Be interactive
    • 119
      25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY (cont’d)
      Maintain eye contact
      Be enthusiastic
      Vary your volume, tone & pace
      Minimise crutches
      Use gestures naturally
    • 120
      25 TIPS FOR EFFECTIVE DELIVERY (cont’d)
      Place your hands appropriately
      Use facial expression effectively
      Move around
      End your presentation in time
      Rehearse, rehearse, rehearse!
    • 121
      7 WAYS TO HANDLE Q & A SESSION
    • 122
      7 WAYS TO HANDLE Q & A SESSION
      Invite questions
      Repeat questions from audience
      Look at the questioner
      Answer in short
    • 123
      7 WAYS TO HANDLE Q & A SESSION (cont’d)
      Be straightforward
      Be honest (just admit that you don’t have the answer!)
      Don’t forget to thank the questioner
    • 124
      ARE YOU A GOOD LISTENER?
    • 125
      7 STRATEGIES FOR GOOD AUDIENCE
    • 126
      7 STRATEGIES FOR GOOD AUDIENCE
      Listen actively & selfishly (don’t just hear)
      Focus on the message, not style
      Listen for major ideas (look for cues)
      Listen to body language (they do speak!)
    • 127
      7 STRATEGIES FOR GOOD AUDIENCE (cont’d)
      Be objective (don’t easily get angry)
      Avoid jumping to conclusion (don’t pre-judge)
      Discipline your thoughts!
    • 128
      REMEMBER, A GOOD SPEAKER IS A GOOD LISTENER