Red Hat Linux Essentials
Presented By Haitham Raik
Linux System Architecture
Linux Ideas and History
What is Open Source?
 Open source: software and source code available to
all
 The freedom to distribute software and sou...
Linux Origins
 1984: The GNU Project and the Free Software
Foundation
 Creates open source version of UNIX utilities
 C...
Red Hat Distributions
 Red Hat Enterprise Linux
 Stable, thoroughly tested software
 Professional support services
 Ce...
Linux Principles
 Everything is a file (including hardware)
 Small, single-purpose programs
 Ability to chain programs ...
Unit 1: Linux Usage Basics
Logging into a Linux System
 Login Prompt displayed:
 When linux first loads after booting the system
 After another us...
Switching Between Virtual Consoles and the
Graphical Environment
 A typical Linux system will run six virtual consoles
an...
Linux Command Line
 The shell is where commands are invoked
 A command is typed at a shell prompt
 Prompt usually ends ...
Changing Your Password
 Passwords control access to the system
 Change the password the first time you log in
 Change i...
Root User
 The root user: a special administrative account
 Also called the superuser
 root has near complete control o...
Changing Identity
 su – creates new shell as root
 sudo command runs command as root
 id shows information on the curre...
Unit 2: Running Commands and
Getting Help
Running Commands
 Commands under Linux are files, stored in
directories like /bin and /usr/bin
 Run them from the shell,...
Running Command (cont.)
 Arguments are filenames or other data needed by
the command
 Multiple commands can be separated...
Running Command (cont.)
 For example, echo simply displays its arguments:
$echo
$echo Hello there
Hello there
$ECHO SHOUT...
Running Command (cont.)
 Other simple examples:
 date: display date and time
 cal: display calendar
 who: lists the us...
Chaining Commands Together
 The | symbol makes a pipe between two commands
 For example to count how many users are logg...
Unix Command Feedback
 Typically, successful commands do not give any
output
 Messages are displayed in the case of erro...
Command History
 Often it is desired to repeat a previously-executed
command
 The shell keeps a command history for this...
Command History (cont.)
 Use !! to refer to the previous command, for example
$ rm index.html
$ echo !!
echo rm index.htm...
Command History (Cont.)
 The event designator !$ refers to the last argument
of the previous command
$ ls -l long_file_na...
Getting Help
 Don’t try to memorize everything!
 Many levels of help:
 whatis
 command --help
 man and info
 /usr/sh...
whatis
 Finds manual pages with the given name and lists
them
 Displays short descriptions of commands
 Uses a database...
The --help Option
 Displays usage summary and argument list
 Used by most, but not all, commands
$ date --help
Usage: da...
Reading Usage Summaries
 Printed by --help, man and others
 Used to describe the syntax of a command
 Arguments in [] a...
The man Command
 Provides documentation for commands
 Almost every command has a man "page"
 Pages are grouped into "ch...
Navigating man Pages
 While viewing a man page
 Navigate with arrows, PgUp, PgDn
 /text searches for text
 n/N goes to...
The info Command
 Similar to man, but often more in-depth
 Run info without args to list all page
 info pages are struc...
Navigating info Pages
 While viewing an info page
 Navigate with arrows, PgUp, PgDn
 Tab moves to next link
 Enter fol...
Extended Documentation
 The /usr/share/doc directory
 Subdirectories for most installed packages
 Location of docs that...
Red Hat Documentation
 Available on docs CD or Red Hat website
 Installation Guide
 Deployment Guide
 Virtualization G...
Unit 3: Browsing the Filesystem
Files
 Data can be stored in a file
 Each file has a filename
 A label referring to a particular file
 Permitted chara...
Linux File Hierarchy
 Because a directory can contain other directories,
we get a directory hierarchy
 The ‘top level’ o...
File and Directory Names
 Names may be up to 255 characters
 All characters are valid, except the forward slash
 Names ...
Absolute and Relative Pathnames
 Absolute pathnames
 Begin with a forward slash
 Complete "road map" to file location
...
Current Working Directory
 Each shell and system process has a current
working directory.
 pwd displays the absolute pat...
Changing Directories
 cd changes directories
 To an absolute or relative path:
 cd /home/raik/work
 cd project/docs
 ...
Changing Directories (cont.)
 The symbol ˜ (tilde) is an abbreviation for your home
directory
 For user ‘fred’, the foll...
Listing Directory Contents
 Lists the contents of the current directory or a
specified directory
 Usage:
 ls [options] ...
Some Important Directories
 Home Directories: /root,/home/username
 User Executables: /bin, /usr/bin, /usr/local/bin
 S...
Copying Files and Directories
 To copy the contents of a file into another file, use
the cp command:
 cp - copy files an...
Copying Files and Directories: The
Destination
 If the destination is a directory, the copy is placed
there
 If the dest...
Moving and Renaming Files and Directories
 mv can rename files or directories, or move them to
different directories
 It...
Moving and Renaming Files and Directories
(cont.)
 For example, to rename poetry.txt to poems.txt:
$ mv poetry.txt poems....
Creating and Removing Files
 touch – create empty files or update file timestamps
$touch shopping_list
 To delete a file...
Creating and Removing Files (cont.)
 Examples with options:
 rm -i file (interactive)
 rm -r directory (recursive)
 rm...
Creating and Removing Directories
 mkdir creates new, empty directories
 For example, to make a directory for storing
co...
Filename Completion
 The shell can making typing filenames easier
 Once an unambiguous prefix has been typed,
pressing T...
Specifying Files with Wildcards
 Use the * wildcard to specify multiple filenames to a
program:
$ ls -l *.txt
 Just usin...
Specifying Multiple Files
 Most programs can be given a list of files
 For example, to delete several files at once:
$ r...
Determining File Content
 Files can contain many types of data
 Check file type with file before opening to determine
ap...
Using Nautilus
 Graphical filesystem browser
 Accessed via...
 Desktop icons
 Home: Your home directory
 Computer: Ro...
Unit 4: Users, Groups and
Permissions
Users
 Anyone using a Linux computer is a user
 The system keeps track of different users, by username
 Every user is a...
Groups
 Users are assigned to groups
 Each group is assigned a unique Group ID number
(gid)
 Groups allowing security t...
Linux File Security
 Every file is owned by a UID and a GID
 Every process runs as a UID and one or more GIDs
 Usually ...
Permissions Precedence
 If UID matches, user permissions apply
 Otherwise, if GID matches, group permissions apply
 If ...
Permission Types
 Four symbols are used when displaying permissions:
 r: permission to read a file or list a directory's...
Examining Permissions
 File permissions may be viewed using ls –l
$ ls -l /bin/login
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 19080 Apr 1 1...
Changing File Ownership
 Only root can change a file's owner
 Only root or the owner can change a file's group
 Ownersh...
Changing Permissions – Symbolic Method
 To change access modes:
 chmod [-R] mode file
 Where mode is (comma-separated):...
Change Permission – Numeric Method
 Uses a three-digit mode number
 first digit specifies owner's permissions
 second d...
Changing Permissions - Nautilus
 Nautilus can be used to set the permissions and
group membership of files and directorie...
Unit 5: Using the bash Shell
bash Shell
 Linux’s most popular command interpreter is called
bash
 The Bourne-Again Shell
 More sophisticated than th...
Command Line Wildcards
 * - matches zero or more characters
 ? - matches any single character
 [0-9] - matches a range ...
The Tab Key
 Type Tab to complete command lines:
 For the command name, it will complete a command
name
 For an argumen...
History
 bash stores a history of commands you've entered,
which can be used to repeat commands
 Use history command to ...
History Tricks
 Use the up and down keys to scroll through
previous commands
 Type Ctrl-r to search for a command in com...
The tilde
 Tilde ( ~ )
 May refer to your home directory
$ cat ~/.bash_profile
 May refer to another user's home direct...
Commands and Braced Sets
 Command Expansion: $() or ``
 Prints output of one command as an argument to another
$ echo "T...
Commands Editing Tricks
 Ctrl-a moves to beginning of line
 Ctrl-e moves to end of line
 Ctrl-u deletes to beginning of...
gnome-terminal
 A shell runs in the terminal window
 gnome-terminal is a graphical interface terminal
 Applications->Ac...
Shell Variables
 Shell variables can be used to store temporary
values
 Set a shell variable’s value as follows:
$ files...
Environment Variables
 Shell variables are private to the shell
 A special type of shell variables called environment
va...
Finding Files
 find can find files by any combination of a wide
number of criteria, including name
 Structure: find dire...
Finding Files (cont.)
 find accepts many different criteria; two of the most
useful are:
 -name pattern: selects files w...
Scripting Basics
 Shell scripts are text files that contain a series of
commands or statements to be executed.
 Shell sc...
Creating Shell Scripts
 Step 1: Use such as vi to create a text file containing
commands
 First line contains the magic ...
Sample Shell Script
#!/bin/bash
# This script displays some information
about your environment
echo "Greetings. The date a...
Unit 6: Standard I/O and Pipes
Standard Input and Output
 Linux provides three I/O channels to Programs:
 Standard input (STDIN) - keyboard by default
...
Standard Input and Output (cont.)
Standard Input
 Programs can read data from their standard input
file
 Abbreviated to stdin
 By default, this reads fro...
Standard Output
 Programs can write data to their standard output
file
 Abbreviated to stdout
 Used for a program’s nor...
Standard Error
 Programs can write data to their standard error
output
 Standard error is similar to standard output, bu...
Redirecting Command Input From a File
 The < symbol indicates the file to read input from:
$ wc < thesis.txt
 The file s...
Sending Multiple Lines to STDIN
 Redirect multiple lines from keyboard to STDIN with
<<WORD
 All text until WORD is sent...
Redirecting Command Output to a File
 STDOUT and STDERR can be redirected to files:
 command operator filename
 Support...
Redirecting Command Output to a File
(cont.)
 More Examples:
 > and < can be used at the same time:
$ filter < input-fil...
Redirecting Command Output to Another
Command - Piping
 Pipes (the | character) can connect commands:
command1 | command2...
Redirecting Command Output to Another
Command – Piping (cont.)
 More Examples:
 less: View input one page at a time:
$ l...
Combining Output and Errors
 Some programs affect both STDOUT and STDERR
 &>: Redirects all output:
$ find /etc -name pa...
Redirecting to Multiple Targets (tee)
 The tee program makes a ‘T-junction’ in a pipeline
 It copies data from stdin to ...
Scripting: for loops
 Performs actions on each member of a set of values
 Structure: for varname in list; do
commands......
Scripting: for loops (cont.)
 Can also use command-output and file lists:
 for num in $(seq 1 10)
 Assigns 1-10 to $num...
Unit 7: Text Processing Tools
Tools for Extracting Text
 File Contents: less and cat
 File Excerpts: head and tail
 Extract by Column: cut
 Extract ...
Viewing File Content
 cat: dump one or more files to STDOUT
 less: view file or STDIN one page at a time
 Useful comman...
Viewing File Excerpts
 head: Display the first 10 lines of a file
 Use -n to change number of lines displayed
 tail: Di...
Extracting Text by Keyword
 Prints lines of files or STDIN where a pattern is
matched:
$ grep 'john' /etc/passwd
$ date -...
Extracting Text by Column
 Display specific columns of file or STDIN data
$ cut -d: -f1 /etc/passwd
$ grep root /etc/pass...
Tools for Analyzing Text
 Text Stats: wc
 Sorting Text: sort
 Spell Check: aspell
Getting Text Statistics
 Counts words, lines, bytes and characters
 Can act upon a file or STDIN
$ wc story.txt
39 237 1...
Sorting Text
 Sorts text to STDOUT - original file unchanged
$ sort [options] file(s)
 Common options:
 -r performs a r...
Eliminating Duplicate Lines
 sort -u: removes duplicate lines from input
 uniq: removes duplicate adjacent lines from in...
Spell Checking
 Interactively spell-check files:
$ aspell check letter.txt
 Non-interactively list mis-spelled words in ...
Tools for Manipulating Text
 Alter (translate) Characters: tr
 Converts characters in one set to corresponding
character...
Tools for Manipulating Text (cont.)
 sed Examples
 Quote search and replace instructions!
 sed addresses
 sed 's/dog/c...
Regular Expression
 ^ represents beginning of line
 $ represents end of line
 Character classes as in bash:
 [abc], [^...
Unit 8: vim An Advanced Text Editor
Red hat linux essentials
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  • Switch to virtual console is important in cases like the display driver is corrupted
  • The dollar represents the prompt in this course — do not type it
  • Terminal is an interface to the shell
  • Each user has a home directory for personal file storage; for the root it is /root for other users it is /home/username
  • Red hat linux essentials

    1. 1. Red Hat Linux Essentials Presented By Haitham Raik
    2. 2. Linux System Architecture
    3. 3. Linux Ideas and History
    4. 4. What is Open Source?  Open source: software and source code available to all  The freedom to distribute software and source code  The ability to modify and create derived works  Integrity of author's code
    5. 5. Linux Origins  1984: The GNU Project and the Free Software Foundation  Creates open source version of UNIX utilities  Creates the General Public License (GPL)  1991: Linus Torvalds  Creates open source, UNIX-like kernel, released under the GPL  Ports some GNU utilities, solicits assistance online
    6. 6. Red Hat Distributions  Red Hat Enterprise Linux  Stable, thoroughly tested software  Professional support services  Centralized management tools for large networks  Fedora  More, newer applications  Community supported (no official Red Hat support)  For personal systems
    7. 7. Linux Principles  Everything is a file (including hardware)  Small, single-purpose programs  Ability to chain programs together to perform complex tasks  Avoid captive user interfaces  Configuration data stored in text
    8. 8. Unit 1: Linux Usage Basics
    9. 9. Logging into a Linux System  Login Prompt displayed:  When linux first loads after booting the system  After another user has logged out  Login prompt may be:  Graphical login  Text-based (shell or virtual consoles):  Login using username and password  Each user has a home directory for personal file storage
    10. 10. Switching Between Virtual Consoles and the Graphical Environment  A typical Linux system will run six virtual consoles and one graphical console  Switch among virtual consoles by typing: Ctrl-Alt- F[1-6]  Access the graphical console by typing Ctrl-Alt-F7
    11. 11. Linux Command Line  The shell is where commands are invoked  A command is typed at a shell prompt  Prompt usually ends in a dollar sign ($)  After typing a command press Enter to invoke it  The shell will try to obey the command  Another prompt will appear  Example: $ date Thu Feb 14 12:28:05 BST 2011 $
    12. 12. Changing Your Password  Passwords control access to the system  Change the password the first time you log in  Change it regularly thereafter  Select a password that is hard to guess  To change your password using the desktop environment navigate to System -> Preferences -> About Me and then click Password.  To change your password from a terminal: passwd
    13. 13. Root User  The root user: a special administrative account  Also called the superuser  root has near complete control over the system ...and a nearly unlimited capacity to damage it!  Do not login as root unless necessary
    14. 14. Changing Identity  su – creates new shell as root  sudo command runs command as root  id shows information on the current user
    15. 15. Unit 2: Running Commands and Getting Help
    16. 16. Running Commands  Commands under Linux are files, stored in directories like /bin and /usr/bin  Run them from the shell, simply by typing their name  Commands have the following syntax:  command options arguments  Each item is separated by a space  Options modify a command’s behavior  Single-letter options usually preceded by –  For example: -abc or –a –b –c  Full word options usually preceded by –  For example: --help
    17. 17. Running Command (cont.)  Arguments are filenames or other data needed by the command  Multiple commands can be separated by ; time-consuming-program; ls  Alternatively, use && to arrange for subsequent commands to run only if earlier ones succeeded:  Commands are case-sensitive (usually lower-case)
    18. 18. Running Command (cont.)  For example, echo simply displays its arguments: $echo $echo Hello there Hello there $ECHO SHOUT bash: ECHO: command not found
    19. 19. Running Command (cont.)  Other simple examples:  date: display date and time  cal: display calendar  who: lists the users currently logged in  wc: counts bytes, words, and lines in its input  cat: displays files’ content
    20. 20. Chaining Commands Together  The | symbol makes a pipe between two commands  For example to count how many users are logged in: $ who | wc –l  Another example, to join all the text files together and count the words, lines and characters in the result: $ cat *.txt | wc
    21. 21. Unix Command Feedback  Typically, successful commands do not give any output  Messages are displayed in the case of errors  The rm command is typical  If it manages to delete the specified file, it does so silently  There is no ‘File shopping_list has been removed’ message  But if the command fails for whatever reason, a message is displayed
    22. 22. Command History  Often it is desired to repeat a previously-executed command  The shell keeps a command history for this purpose  Use the Up and Down cursor keys to scroll through the list of previous commands  Press Enter to execute the displayed command  Commands can also be edited before being run  Use the built-in command history to display the lines remembered
    23. 23. Command History (cont.)  Use !! to refer to the previous command, for example $ rm index.html $ echo !! echo rm index.html rm index.html  More often useful is !string, which inserts the most recent command which started with string  Useful for repeating particular commands without modification: $ ls *.txt notes.txt report.txt $ !ls ls *.txt notes.txt report.txt
    24. 24. Command History (Cont.)  The event designator !$ refers to the last argument of the previous command $ ls -l long_file_name.html -rw-r--r-- 1 jeff users 11170 Oct 31 10:47 long_file_name.html $ rm !$ rm long_file_name.html  Similarly, !ˆ refers to the first argument
    25. 25. Getting Help  Don’t try to memorize everything!  Many levels of help:  whatis  command --help  man and info  /usr/share/doc  Red Hat Documentation
    26. 26. whatis  Finds manual pages with the given name and lists them  Displays short descriptions of commands  Uses a database that is updated nightly  The database can be updated using makewhatis  Often not available immediately after install $whatis cal cal (1) - displays a calendar
    27. 27. The --help Option  Displays usage summary and argument list  Used by most, but not all, commands $ date --help Usage: date [OPTION]... [+FORMAT] or: date [-u|--utc|--universal] [MMDDhhmm[[CC]YY][.ss]] Display the current time in the given FORMAT, or set the system date. ...argument list omitted...
    28. 28. Reading Usage Summaries  Printed by --help, man and others  Used to describe the syntax of a command  Arguments in [] are optional  Arguments in CAPS or <> are variables  Text followed by ... represents a list  x|y|z means "x or y or z"  -abc means "any mix of -a, -b or -c"
    29. 29. The man Command  Provides documentation for commands  Almost every command has a man "page"  Pages are grouped into "chapters"  Collectively referred to as the Linux Manual  man [<chapter>] <command>
    30. 30. Navigating man Pages  While viewing a man page  Navigate with arrows, PgUp, PgDn  /text searches for text  n/N goes to next/previous match  q quits  Searching the Manual  man -k keyword lists all matching pages
    31. 31. The info Command  Similar to man, but often more in-depth  Run info without args to list all page  info pages are structured like a web site  Each page is divided into "nodes"  Links to nodes are preceded by *  info [command]
    32. 32. Navigating info Pages  While viewing an info page  Navigate with arrows, PgUp, PgDn  Tab moves to next link  Enter follows the selected link  n/p /u goes to the next/previous/up-one node  s text searches for text (default: last search)  q quits info
    33. 33. Extended Documentation  The /usr/share/doc directory  Subdirectories for most installed packages  Location of docs that do not fit elsewhere  Example configuration files  HTML/PDF/PS documentation  License details
    34. 34. Red Hat Documentation  Available on docs CD or Red Hat website  Installation Guide  Deployment Guide  Virtualization Guide
    35. 35. Unit 3: Browsing the Filesystem
    36. 36. Files  Data can be stored in a file  Each file has a filename  A label referring to a particular file  Permitted characters include letters, digits, hyphens (-), underscores (_), and dots (.)  Case-sensitive — NewsCrew.mov is a different file from NewScrew.mov  A directory is a collection of files and/or other directories  The ls command lists the names of files
    37. 37. Linux File Hierarchy  Because a directory can contain other directories, we get a directory hierarchy  The ‘top level’ of the hierarchy is the root directory  Files and directories can be named by a path  The root directory is referred to as /  Paths are delimited by /  If a path refers to a directory it can end in / (optional)
    38. 38. File and Directory Names  Names may be up to 255 characters  All characters are valid, except the forward slash  Names are case-sensitive  Example: MAIL, Mail, mail, and mAiL
    39. 39. Absolute and Relative Pathnames  Absolute pathnames  Begin with a forward slash  Complete "road map" to file location  Can be used anytime you wish to specify a file name  Relative pathnames  Do not begin with a slash  Can be used as a shorter way to specify a file name  Specify location relative to your current working Directory
    40. 40. Current Working Directory  Each shell and system process has a current working directory.  pwd displays the absolute path to the shell’s current working directory.  For example: $pwd /home/raik
    41. 41. Changing Directories  cd changes directories  To an absolute or relative path:  cd /home/raik/work  cd project/docs  Every directory contains two special directories (Special Dot Directories)  The directory .. points to the parent directory $ls .. Will list the files in the parent directory  The directory . points to the current directory $ls ./foo is the same file as foo  Previous working directory $cd -
    42. 42. Changing Directories (cont.)  The symbol ˜ (tilde) is an abbreviation for your home directory  For user ‘fred’, the following are equivalent: $ cd /home/fred/documents/ $ cd ˜/documents/  You can get the paths to other users’ home directories using ˜, for example: $ cd ˜alice/documents  The following are all the same for user ‘fred’: $ cd $ cd ˜ $ cd /home/fred
    43. 43. Listing Directory Contents  Lists the contents of the current directory or a specified directory  Usage:  ls [options] [files_or_dirs]  Example:  ls -a (include hidden files)  ls -l (display extra information)  ls -R (recurse through directories)  ls -ld (directory and symlink information)
    44. 44. Some Important Directories  Home Directories: /root,/home/username  User Executables: /bin, /usr/bin, /usr/local/bin  System Executables: /sbin, /usr/sbin, /usr/local/sbin  Other Mountpoints: /media, /mnt  Configuration: /etc  Temporary Files: /tmp  Kernels and Bootloader: /boot  Server Data: /var, /srv  System Information: /proc, /sys  Shared Libraries: /lib, /usr/lib, /usr/local/lib
    45. 45. Copying Files and Directories  To copy the contents of a file into another file, use the cp command:  cp - copy files and directories  Usage:  cp [options] file destination  More than one file may be copied at a time if the destination is a directory:  cp [options] file1 file2 destination
    46. 46. Copying Files and Directories: The Destination  If the destination is a directory, the copy is placed there  If the destination is a file, the copy overwrites the destination  If the destination does not exist, the copy is renamed $ cp CV.pdf old-CV.pdf $ cp CV.pdf /home/raik/myCVs/
    47. 47. Moving and Renaming Files and Directories  mv can rename files or directories, or move them to different directories  It is equivalent to copying and then deleting  Usage:  mv [options] file destination  Options:  -f, force overwrite, even if target already exists  -i, ask user interactively before overwriting files  More than one file may be moved at a time if the destination is a directory:
    48. 48. Moving and Renaming Files and Directories (cont.)  For example, to rename poetry.txt to poems.txt: $ mv poetry.txt poems.txt  To move one file in the current directory to somewhere else: $ mv file1 ˜/old-stuff/file1  To move more than one file in the current directory to another directory: $ mv file1 ˜file2 /old-stuff/
    49. 49. Creating and Removing Files  touch – create empty files or update file timestamps $touch shopping_list  To delete a file, use the rm (‘remove’) command  Usage:  rm [options] <file>...  Simply pass the name of the file to be deleted as an argument: $ rm shopping_list  The file and its contents are removed  There is no recycle bin  There is no ‘unrm’ command  The ls command can be used to confirm the deletion
    50. 50. Creating and Removing Files (cont.)  Examples with options:  rm -i file (interactive)  rm -r directory (recursive)  rm -f file (force)
    51. 51. Creating and Removing Directories  mkdir creates new, empty directories  For example, to make a directory for storing company accounts: $mkdir Accounts  rmdir removes empty directories $rmdir OldAccounts  rm -r recursively removes directory trees $rm -r OldAccounts  Be careful — rm can be a dangerous tool if misused
    52. 52. Filename Completion  The shell can making typing filenames easier  Once an unambiguous prefix has been typed, pressing Tab will automatically ‘type’ the rest  For example, after typing this: $ rm sho pressing Tab may turn it into this: $ rm shopping_list  This also works with command names:  For example, da may be completed to date if no other commands start ‘da’
    53. 53. Specifying Files with Wildcards  Use the * wildcard to specify multiple filenames to a program: $ ls -l *.txt  Just using * on its own will expand to all the files in the current directory: $ rm * (All the files, that is, except the hidden ones)  The wildcard ? matches exactly one character: $ rm -v data.? removing data.1 removing data.2 removing data.3
    54. 54. Specifying Multiple Files  Most programs can be given a list of files  For example, to delete several files at once: $ rm oldnotes.txt tmp.txt stuff.doc  To make several directories in one go: $ mkdir Accounts Reports  For example, to remove two files, one after another: $ rm notes.txt morenotes.txt  If a filename contains spaces, or characters which are interpreted by the shell (such as *), put single quotes around them: $ rm ’Beatles - Strawberry Fields.mp3’
    55. 55. Determining File Content  Files can contain many types of data  Check file type with file before opening to determine appropriate command or application to use  Usage:  file [options] <filename> …
    56. 56. Using Nautilus  Graphical filesystem browser  Accessed via...  Desktop icons  Home: Your home directory  Computer: Root filesystem, network resources and removable media  Applications->System Tools->File Browser
    57. 57. Unit 4: Users, Groups and Permissions
    58. 58. Users  Anyone using a Linux computer is a user  The system keeps track of different users, by username  Every user is assigned a unique User ID number (UID)  Users' names and UIDs are stored in /etc/passwd  Users are assigned a home directory and a shell  Users cannot read, write or execute each others' files without permission  Use su to switch to a different user  Quicker than logging off and back on again  su prompts you for the user’s password: $ su - bob Password:
    59. 59. Groups  Users are assigned to groups  Each group is assigned a unique Group ID number (gid)  Groups allowing security to be managed for collections of people with different requirements  GIDs are stored in /etc/group  Each user is given their own private group  Can be added to other groups for additional access  All users in a group can share files that belong to the group
    60. 60. Linux File Security  Every file is owned by a UID and a GID  Every process runs as a UID and one or more GIDs  Usually determined by who runs the process  Three access categories  Processes running with the same UID as the file  Processes running with the same GID as the file  All other processes
    61. 61. Permissions Precedence  If UID matches, user permissions apply  Otherwise, if GID matches, group permissions apply  If neither match, other permissions apply
    62. 62. Permission Types  Four symbols are used when displaying permissions:  r: permission to read a file or list a directory's contents  w: permission to write to a file or create and remove files from a directory  x: permission to execute a program or change into a directory and do a long listing of the directory  -: no permission (in place of the r, w, or x)
    63. 63. Examining Permissions  File permissions may be viewed using ls –l $ ls -l /bin/login -rwxr-xr-x 1 root root 19080 Apr 1 18:26 /bin/login  File type and permissions represented by a 10- character string  Interpreting Permissions  -rwxr-x--- 1 andersen trusted 2948 Oct 11 14:07 myscript  Read, Write and Execute for the owner, andersen  Read and Execute for members of the trusted group  No access for all others
    64. 64. Changing File Ownership  Only root can change a file's owner  Only root or the owner can change a file's group  Ownership is changed with chown:  chown [-R] user_name file|directory  Example: $ chown aaronc logfile.txt (Makes logfile.txt be owned by the user aaronc) $ chown -R root /usr/local/share/misc/  Group-Ownership is changed with chgrp  chgrp [-R] group_name file|directory  Example: $ chgrp staff report.txt (Makes staff be the group owner of the file logfile.txt) $ chgrp -R staff shared-directory
    65. 65. Changing Permissions – Symbolic Method  To change access modes:  chmod [-R] mode file  Where mode is (comma-separated):  u,g or o for user, group and other  + or - for grant or deny  r, w or x for read, write and execute  Examples:  chmod u+rwx, g-rw, o-rwx my-file  chmod -R u+rwx, g-rw, o-rwx my-directory
    66. 66. Change Permission – Numeric Method  Uses a three-digit mode number  first digit specifies owner's permissions  second digit specifies group permissions  third digit represents others' permissions  Permissions are calculated by adding  4 (for read)  2 (for write)  1 (for execute)  Example:  chmod 640 myfile
    67. 67. Changing Permissions - Nautilus  Nautilus can be used to set the permissions and group membership of files and directories.  In a Nautilus window, right-click on a file  Select Properties from the context menu  Select the Permissions tab
    68. 68. Unit 5: Using the bash Shell
    69. 69. bash Shell  Linux’s most popular command interpreter is called bash  The Bourne-Again Shell  More sophisticated than the original sh by Steve Bourne  Can be run as sh, as a replacement for the original Unix shell  Gives you a prompt and waits for a command to be entered
    70. 70. Command Line Wildcards  * - matches zero or more characters  ? - matches any single character  [0-9] - matches a range of numbers  [abc] - matches any of the character in the list  [^abc] - matches all except the characters in the list
    71. 71. The Tab Key  Type Tab to complete command lines:  For the command name, it will complete a command name  For an argument, it will complete a file name  Examples $ xte<Tab> $ xterm $ ls myf<Tab> $ ls myfile.txt
    72. 72. History  bash stores a history of commands you've entered, which can be used to repeat commands  Use history command to see list of "remembered" commands $ history 14 cd /tmp 15 ls -l 16 cd 17 cp /etc/passwd . 18 vi passwd ... output truncated ...
    73. 73. History Tricks  Use the up and down keys to scroll through previous commands  Type Ctrl-r to search for a command in command history
    74. 74. The tilde  Tilde ( ~ )  May refer to your home directory $ cat ~/.bash_profile  May refer to another user's home directory $ ls ~julie/public_html
    75. 75. Commands and Braced Sets  Command Expansion: $() or ``  Prints output of one command as an argument to another $ echo "This system's name is $(hostname)” This system's name is server1.example.com  Brace Expansion: { }  Shorthand for printing repetitive strings $ echo file{1,3,5} file1 file3 file5 $ rm -f file{1,3,5}
    76. 76. Commands Editing Tricks  Ctrl-a moves to beginning of line  Ctrl-e moves to end of line  Ctrl-u deletes to beginning of line  Ctrl-k deletes to end of line  Ctrl-arrow moves left or right by word
    77. 77. gnome-terminal  A shell runs in the terminal window  gnome-terminal is a graphical interface terminal  Applications->Accessories->Terminal  Graphical terminal emulator that supports multiple "tabbed" shells  Ctrl-Shift-t creates a new tab  Ctrl-PgUp/PgDn switches to next/prev tab  Ctrl-Shift-c copies selected text  Ctrl-Shift-v pastes text to the prompt
    78. 78. Shell Variables  Shell variables can be used to store temporary values  Set a shell variable’s value as follows: $ files="notes.txt report.txt“  The double quotes are needed because the value contains a space  Easiest to put them in all the time  Print out the value of a shell variable with the echo command: $ echo $files  Use the set command (with no arguments) to list all the shell variables
    79. 79. Environment Variables  Shell variables are private to the shell  A special type of shell variables called environment variables are passed to programs run from the shell  A program’s environment is the set of environment variables it can access  use export to export a shell variable into the environment: $ files="notes.txt report.txt" $ export files  Or combine those into one line: $ export files="notes.txt report.txt"  The env command lists environment variables
    80. 80. Finding Files  find can find files by any combination of a wide number of criteria, including name  Structure: find directories criteria  Simplest possible example: find .  Finding files with a simple criterion: $ find . -name manual.html Looks for files under the current directory whose name is manual.html  The criteria always begin with a single hyphen, even though they have long names
    81. 81. Finding Files (cont.)  find accepts many different criteria; two of the most useful are:  -name pattern: selects files whose name matches the shell-style wildcard pattern  -type d, -type f: select directories or plain files, respectively  You can have complex selections involving ‘and’, ‘or’, and ‘not’
    82. 82. Scripting Basics  Shell scripts are text files that contain a series of commands or statements to be executed.  Shell scripts are useful for:  Automating commonly used commands  Performing system administration and troubleshooting  Creating simple applications  Manipulation of text or files
    83. 83. Creating Shell Scripts  Step 1: Use such as vi to create a text file containing commands  First line contains the magic shebang sequence: #!  #!/bin/bash  Comment your scripts!  Comments start with a #  Step 2: Make the script executable: $ chmod u+x myscript.sh  To execute the new script:  Place the script file in a directory in the executable path -OR-  Specify the absolute or relative path to the script on the command line
    84. 84. Sample Shell Script #!/bin/bash # This script displays some information about your environment echo "Greetings. The date and time are $(date)" echo "Your working directory is: $(pwd)"
    85. 85. Unit 6: Standard I/O and Pipes
    86. 86. Standard Input and Output  Linux provides three I/O channels to Programs:  Standard input (STDIN) - keyboard by default  Standard output (STDOUT) - terminal window by default  Standard error (STDERR) - terminal window by default
    87. 87. Standard Input and Output (cont.)
    88. 88. Standard Input  Programs can read data from their standard input file  Abbreviated to stdin  By default, this reads from the keyboard  Characters typed into an interactive program (e.g., a text editor) go to stdin
    89. 89. Standard Output  Programs can write data to their standard output file  Abbreviated to stdout  Used for a program’s normal output  By default this is printed on the terminal
    90. 90. Standard Error  Programs can write data to their standard error output  Standard error is similar to standard output, but used for error and warning messages  Abbreviated to stderr  Useful to separate program output from any program errors  By default this is written to your terminal  So it gets ‘mixed in’ with the standard output
    91. 91. Redirecting Command Input From a File  The < symbol indicates the file to read input from: $ wc < thesis.txt  The file specified becomes the program’s standard input (STDIN)
    92. 92. Sending Multiple Lines to STDIN  Redirect multiple lines from keyboard to STDIN with <<WORD  All text until WORD is sent to STDIN $ mail -s "Please Call" jane@example.com <<END > Hi Jane, > > Please give me a call when you get in. We may need > to do some maintenance on server1. > > Details when you're on-site, > Boris > END
    93. 93. Redirecting Command Output to a File  STDOUT and STDERR can be redirected to files:  command operator filename  Supported operators include:  > Redirect STDOUT to file  2> Redirect STDERR to file  &> Redirect all output to file  Example: $ who > users.txt  The program’s standard output goes into the file  If the file already exists, it is overwritten  Use >> to append to a file: $ date >> log.txt
    94. 94. Redirecting Command Output to a File (cont.)  More Examples:  > and < can be used at the same time: $ filter < input-file > output-file  This command generates output and errors when run as non-root: $ find /etc -name passwd  Operators can be used to store output and errors: $ find /etc -name passwd > find.out $ find /etc -name passwd 2> /dev/null $ find /etc -name passwd > find.out 2> find.err
    95. 95. Redirecting Command Output to Another Command - Piping  Pipes (the | character) can connect commands: command1 | command2  A pipe channels the output of one program to the input of another  For example, pipe the output of echo into the program rev: $ echo Happy Birthday! | rev !yadhtriB yppaH  STDERR is not forwarded across pipes  Used to combine the functionality of multiple tools command1 | command2 | command3... etc
    96. 96. Redirecting Command Output to Another Command – Piping (cont.)  More Examples:  less: View input one page at a time: $ ls -l /etc | less  mail: Send input via email: $ echo "test email" | mail -s "test“ user@example.com  lpr : Send input to a printer $ echo "test print" | lpr $ echo "test print" | lpr -P printer_name  The following two commands are equivalent: $ wc < my_file.txt $ cat my_file.txt | wc
    97. 97. Combining Output and Errors  Some programs affect both STDOUT and STDERR  &>: Redirects all output: $ find /etc -name passwd &> find.all  2>&1: Redirects STDERR to STDOUT  Useful for sending all output through a pipe $ find /etc -name passwd 2>&1 | less  (): Combines STDOUTs of multiple programs $ ( cal 2007 ; cal 2008 ) | less
    98. 98. Redirecting to Multiple Targets (tee)  The tee program makes a ‘T-junction’ in a pipeline  It copies data from stdin to stdout, and also to a file  Like > and | combined  $ command1 | tee filename | command2  Stores STDOUT of command1 in filename, then pipes to command2  last | tee everyone.txt | wc > count.txt
    99. 99. Scripting: for loops  Performs actions on each member of a set of values  Structure: for varname in list; do commands...; done  Example: for NAME in joe jane julie do ADDRESS="$NAME@example.com" MESSAGE='Projects are due today!' echo $MESSAGE | mail -s Reminder $ADDRESS done
    100. 100. Scripting: for loops (cont.)  Can also use command-output and file lists:  for num in $(seq 1 10)  Assigns 1-10 to $num  seq X Y prints the numbers X through Y  for file in *.txt  Assigns names of text files to $file
    101. 101. Unit 7: Text Processing Tools
    102. 102. Tools for Extracting Text  File Contents: less and cat  File Excerpts: head and tail  Extract by Column: cut  Extract by Keyword: grep
    103. 103. Viewing File Content  cat: dump one or more files to STDOUT  less: view file or STDIN one page at a time  Useful commands while viewing:  /text searches for text  n/N jumps to the next/previous match  v opens the file in a text editor  less is the pager used by man
    104. 104. Viewing File Excerpts  head: Display the first 10 lines of a file  Use -n to change number of lines displayed  tail: Display the last 10 lines of a file  Use -n to change number of lines displayed  Use -f to "follow" subsequent additions to the file  Very useful for monitoring log files!
    105. 105. Extracting Text by Keyword  Prints lines of files or STDIN where a pattern is matched: $ grep 'john' /etc/passwd $ date --help | grep year  Use -i to search case-insensitively  Use -n to print line numbers of matches  Use -v to print lines not containing pattern  Use -AX to include the X lines after each match  Use -BX to include the X lines before each match
    106. 106. Extracting Text by Column  Display specific columns of file or STDIN data $ cut -d: -f1 /etc/passwd $ grep root /etc/passwd | cut -d: -f7  Use -d to specify the column delimiter (default is TAB)  Use -f to specify the column to print  Use -c to cut by characters $ cut -c2-5 /usr/share/dict/words
    107. 107. Tools for Analyzing Text  Text Stats: wc  Sorting Text: sort  Spell Check: aspell
    108. 108. Getting Text Statistics  Counts words, lines, bytes and characters  Can act upon a file or STDIN $ wc story.txt 39 237 1901 story.txt  Use -l for only line count  Use -w for only word count  Use -c for only byte count  Use -m for character count (not displayed)
    109. 109. Sorting Text  Sorts text to STDOUT - original file unchanged $ sort [options] file(s)  Common options:  -r performs a reverse (descending) sort  -n performs a numeric sort  -f ignores (folds) case of characters in strings  -u (unique) removes duplicate lines in output  -t c uses c as a field separator  -k X sorts by c-delimited field X  Can be used multiple times
    110. 110. Eliminating Duplicate Lines  sort -u: removes duplicate lines from input  uniq: removes duplicate adjacent lines from input  Use -c to count number of occurrences  Use with sort for best effect: $ sort userlist.txt | uniq -c
    111. 111. Spell Checking  Interactively spell-check files: $ aspell check letter.txt  Non-interactively list mis-spelled words in STDIN $ aspell list < letter.txt $ aspell list < letter.txt | wc -l
    112. 112. Tools for Manipulating Text  Alter (translate) Characters: tr  Converts characters in one set to corresponding characters in another set  Only reads data from STDIN $ tr 'a-z' 'A-Z' < lowercase.txt  Alter (stream editor) Strings: sed  Performs search/replace operations on a stream of text  Normally does not alter source file  Use -i.bak to back-up and alter source file
    113. 113. Tools for Manipulating Text (cont.)  sed Examples  Quote search and replace instructions!  sed addresses  sed 's/dog/cat/g' pets  sed '1,50s/dog/cat/g' pets  sed '/digby/,/duncan/s/dog/cat/g' pets  Multiple sed instructions  sed -e 's/dog/cat/' -e 's/hi/lo/' pets  sed -f myedits pets
    114. 114. Regular Expression  ^ represents beginning of line  $ represents end of line  Character classes as in bash:  [abc], [^abc]  [[:upper:]], [^[:upper:]]  [[:alpha:]], [^[:alpha:]]  Used by:  grep, sed, less, others
    115. 115. Unit 8: vim An Advanced Text Editor

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