Modul 1 knowledge management fundamentals


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Modul 1 knowledge management fundamentals

  1. 1. Knowledge ManagementStrategy & ProgramBandung, 10-11 April 2012 Moh. Haitan Rachman E : W : FB: T :
  2. 2. Agenda1. Day – 1 Fundamental, Concept, Systems a) Knowledge Management Fundamentals b) Knowledge Management Tools c) Knowledge Mapping d) Knowledge Management System 2. Day – 2 Penyusunan KM Programs a) KM Strategy b) KM Roadmap c) K-Map d) KM
  3. 3. MODULE 1: KM
  4. 4. We are now in Knowledge Era“We believe that the future belongs tocompanies that can take the best of theEast and the West and start building auniversal model to create new knowledgewithin their organizations.” (I. Nonaka and H. Takeuchi)
  5. 5. Without Knowledge Strategyv We will lose our investments in people, research, development, experiences I bring myv We will lose our opportunities in knowledge markets and businesses died or move tov We will lose our vision and other mission company
  6. 6. Knowledge Agendav Making knowledge and knowledge processes more explicit.v The development of strategic frameworks to guide the exploitation of knowledge – in products, services and processes.v The introduction of more systematic methods to the management of
  7. 7. Importance of KMv Knowledge and Information transfer have become increasingly important to organizations everywherev Knowledge is now recognized as a valuable intangible assetv The building of knowledge generation capabilities within the firm creates an organization with the flexibility to meet new challengesv Information and knowledge have become key drivers for competitive advantage – how can organizations harness these drivers for operational efficiencies and innovation?
  8. 8. Benefits of KMv The expected outcome of KM initiatives is to enhance individual, team, and organizational capability and thereby increase social capacityv Together, these outcomes will spur overall productivity, improve the quality of products and services, and contribute to profitability and
  9. 9. Benefits of KM - Individualv Increase knowledge and skills of individuals – arising out of learning and innovation in the knowledge processv Positive attitudes, strong moral and ethical values – foundations of individual capability developmentv Individual capabilities collectively contribute to organizational capability and societal
  10. 10. Benefits of KM - TeamvIncreased knowledge and skills of individual members enhance the entire team’s capabilityvWhen members of a team are constantly learning and sharing knowledge with each other, the team capability is
  11. 11. Benefits of KM - Organizationv Organizational capability focuses on these aspects to achieve sustainable growth and competitive advantage: - Improving internal processes and systems - Developing core competencies - Designing innovative strategiesv Organizational capability to create, reorganize, disseminate widely, and embody knowledge in new products and services is critical when faced with - Shifting markets - Rapid product obsolescence - Hyper-competition - Financial
  12. 12. Benefits of KM - Societyv Societal capacity = Collective knowledge of individuals + Organizations (that can be harnessed for inclusive growth)v Networking and collaboration can stimulate the creative potential of individuals and organizations to seize the enormous opportunities in society for growth and developmentv Enhanced public and private sector collaboration raises KM awareness and heightens the positive effects of knowledge and technology across all sectors of
  13. 13. KM Implementation /
  14. 14. Differences Knowledge Management Projects Information Management ProjectsGoals emphasize value-added for Goals emphasize delivered andusers accessibility of informationSupport operational improvement Support existing operationsand innovationAdds value to content by filtering, Delivers available content with littlesynthesizing, interpreting, pruning value addedcontentUsually requires ongoing user Emphasis on one-way transfer ofcontributions and feedback informationBalanced focus on technology and Heavy technology focusculture issues in creating impactsVariance in inputs to system Assumes information capture can beprecludes automating capture automatedprocess
  15. 15. Knowledge management Implementation Structuring and Mapping Knowledge Needed to Capturing and reusing Enhance Performance structured knowledge B C Identifying Sources A and Networks of Capturing and sharing Expertise D lessons learned from KM practice Project Synthesizing and Sharing Knowledge Gfrom External Sources Measuring and Managing E the Economic Value of Knowledge F Embed Knowledge in Products and Processes
  16. 16. Knowledge management Implementationv Identifying Sources and Networks of Expertise. Some projects are designed merely to make expertise more visible and accessible to employees. The underlying strategy here is to facilitate connections between those people who possess and those who need knowledge.v Structuring and Mapping Knowledge Needed to Enhance Performance. Another type of project impacts efforts like new product development or process redesign by making explicit the specific knowledge needed at particular stages of the initiative. www.mobilesk
  17. 17. Knowledge management Implementationv Capturing and reusing structured knowledge. Knowledge is often embedded in component parts of organizational outputs, such as product designs, project proposals and reports, documented implementation procedures, and software code that can be reused to reduce the time and resources needed to produce a new output.v Capturing and sharing lessons learned from practice. It captures softer, more experiential knowledge that must be interpreted and adapted by the user in a new context. These efforts often involve sharing learning through a data base, and they may also take on a more interpersonal approach, using face-to-face sharing of stories and experiences. www.mobilesk
  18. 18. Knowledge management Implementationv Measuring and Managing the Economic Value of Knowledge. The firms possess structured intellectual assets, such as patents, copyrights, software licenses, and customer data bases. Recognizing that these assets create both revenues and costs for the firm, another type of project seeks to manage these assets more judiciously.v Embed Knowledge in Products and Processes. It seeks to enhance or create new knowledge-intensive products, services, and processes. By recognizing the potential market value of knowledge that the firm is generating, the value of existing offerings can be enhanced or new revenue sources created. www.mobilesk
  19. 19. Knowledge management Implementationv Synthesizing and Sharing Knowledge from External Sources. Traditionally, these systems have been little more than information delivery “clipping services” that routed articles and reports to executives. But the electronic information avalanche, combined with increasing complexity, specialization, and the speed of market changes has raised the knowledge component of these systems. They will require editors, reporters, and analysts to synthesize and provide context to the tremendous volume of market information available. www.mobilesk
  20. 20. KM Definition &
  21. 21. KM Definition KM is an integrated approach for indentifying, creating classifying, storing, sharing, and applying knowledge to enhance organizational productivity, quality, profitability, and
  22. 22. What’s Really New About KM? Knowledge Management is the discipline of enabling individuals, teams, and entire organizations to collectively and systematically create, share, and apply knowledge to better achieve their
  23. 23. Data, Information, Knowledge
  24. 24. What is data?v Refers to a collection of factsv A unit of data comprises two elements. One is the name of the attribute referred to; the other is the value of that attribute for a given entity.v Examples are: § attribute – monthly salary; value - $3,000; § attribute – personal name; value – Debra; § attribute – name of a car; value – Cadillac; § attribute – cost of a car; value – $35,000;
  25. 25. What is information?v A set of information is a collection of facts together with definitions of relationships between them.v A relationship can be expressed as: if condition then fact.v The cheapness attribute of a car will be defined as cheap if the cost is below $12,000, medium-priced if the cost is from $12,001 to $25,000 and expensive if the cost is $25,001 and above. if cost < 12,001 then cheapness = cheap else if cost > 12,000 and cost < 25,001 then cheapness = medium-priced else cheapness = expensive
  26. 26. What is knowledge?“a fluid mix of framed experience, values,contextual information, and expert insight thatprovides a framework for evaluating andincorporating new experiences and information.It originates and is applied in the minds ofknower. In organizations, it often becomesembedded not only in documents orrepositories but also in organizational routines,processes, practices, and norms” Davenport and Prusak
  27. 27. Information and Knowledge We communicate information to one another in explicit forms (inform). We can chose to turn that information into knowledge (learning process) in our heads (tacit knowledge). When we make our internal tacit knowledge explicit in some form, in becomes information to
  28. 28. The SECI Model – Modes of Knowledge
  29. 29. Knowledge Transfersv Socialization. § Individuals have a wealth of tacit knowledge that they share with other organizational members. This knowledge exchange may be a one-to-one, one-to-many, or a many-to- many interaction. Traditionally, same place/same time face- to-face meetings have been the medium for exchange.v Externalization. § Explicit knowledge is knowledge that is stored on paper, audio or videotape, computer disks, etc. Organizations have traditionally documented standard operating procedures, created periodic reports, ‘white papers’, etc. www.mobilesk
  30. 30. Knowledge Transfers (cont.)v Combination. § Explicit to explicit interactions, or knowledge transferv Internalization § This form of knowledge creation depends on an individual’s ability to make sense out of explicit information. Successful internalization is a function of the sense-maker’s individual attributes, including personal expertise, experiences, and mindset. www.mobilesk
  31. 31. 6 Steps in the KM Process1. Identify2. Create3. Classify4. Store5. Share6.
  32. 32. Brief Introduction to the Knowledge Process Apply Identify Share Create Store
  33. 33. The KM Process The KM Process, embedded in the work practices, transforms the organization …from “episodic” learning and innovation; …to “continues” learning and
  34. 34. KM
  35. 35. KM
  36. 36. KM Frameworkv Starting point of the KM framework is the Vision and Mission of the organizationv KM meets the business objectives of the organizationv There are four levels in the framework: - Enablers - Knowledge Process - Capabilities -
  37. 37. Enablersv Enablers help to propel and speed up the KM initiative in the organizationv Five enablers can be identified: § Leadership § Organization § People §
  38. 38. Enablers - LEADERSHIPv Drives the KM initiative in the organizationv Ensures alignment of KM strategies and projects with the mission and vision of the organizationv Provides support and resources for the implementation of KM
  39. 39. Enablers - ORGANIZATIONv Determines its core competencies (strategically important capabilities that provide a competitive advantage) and aligns it to their mission and strategic goals.v Implements and manages its key work processes to ensure that customer requirements are met and business results are sustained.v Evaluates and improve its work processes to achieve better performance, to reduce variations, to improve products and services, and to be updated with the latest in the business trends, development, and
  40. 40. Enablers - PEOPLEv People are users as well as generators of knowledgev They create and possess intellectual capitalv Trust is a prerequisite for knowledge
  41. 41. Enablers - TECHNOLOGYv Accelerates the knowledge process through effective tools and techniquesv Tools such as groupware and collaborative workspaces enable participation across time and distancev Provides a platform for retention of organizational
  42. 42. Knowledge
  43. 43. Knowledge ProcessvRefers to knowledge development and conversion processesvSix steps in the knowledge process: § Identify § Create Apply Identify § Classify § Store Share Create § Share § Apply Store
  44. 44. Knowledge Process Step - Identifyv Initial crucial step of the knowledge processv Critical knowledge needed to build the core competencies of the organization is identifiedv The knowledge gaps in the organization are identified in the
  45. 45. Knowledge Process Step - CreatevAddresses knowledge gaps through knowledge conversion and generation of new knowledgevSome ways to create new knowledge § Individual level § Team level § Organizational
  46. 46. Knowledge Process Step - ClassifyvKnowledge identified should be classified in clustersvMind-mapping can be used for classifying knowledgevClassified knowledge can be easily stored and
  47. 47. Knowledge Process Step - StorevCollection and preservation of organizational knowledgevVarious forms of storagevOrganized for easy
  48. 48. Knowledge Process Step - SharevRegular and sustained exchange of knowledgevFosters continuous learning to achieve business goalsvMutual trust and benefit help foster a culture of sharingvTechnology can be used to enhance
  49. 49. Knowledge Process Step - ApplyvThe use and reuse of knowledge in the organizationvTranslates knowledge into actionvKnowledge only adds values when it is used to improve products and
  50. 50. Knowledge Management Implementation
  51. 51. Step One: Project Identificationvto identify the area, process or application which you wish to addressvKM is growing fastest at the grassroots level rather than at the corporate-wide or enterprise levelvIf it is successful, you can always expand it; yet if it fails, it will have minimal impact and you can move on to identifying and trying other areas of
  52. 52. Step Two: Leader and Expert Identificationvknowledge manager should work to identify the thought leaders in her or his organizationvEnlisting these thought leaders at an early stage will reap a couple of benefits. § First, they can help guide the project in a direction that will be most beneficial to the staff who are actually using the system. § Second, they can become your user advocates and
  53. 53. Step Three: Solution IdentificationvWhat technology tools do we use currently to accomplish our organizational mission?vHow can these tools be leveraged quickly and easily to improve knowledge sharing among workers (preferably in a centralized fashion)?
  54. 54. Step Four: Knowledge Capturev knowledge up into two basic categories, Tacit and Explicit. Explicit knowledge is that knowledge that can be codified into written rules, facts and instructions. Tacit knowledge is that knowledge that is more internal and experientialv For the beginning Knowledge Manager, sticking to the explicit and leaving the tacit for later is your best bet. As your project grows and flourishes, tacit information will arise
  55. 55. Step Five: Information Entryv In the beginning of a KM project, the project leaders are going to have to take the initiative and act as the gatekeepers of the systemv your thought leaders identified earlier in the project can be used to maximum advantage. They can either be recruited as data administrators themselves, or they can help enlist other staff members to fill the
  56. 56. Step Six: DeploymentvIncentives of one form or another can be very helpful in spurring staffers to change their habitsvIf a user tries the system a couple of times and gets nothing useful, then chances are they are not going to go
  57. 57. Step Seven: FeedbackvIf you have identified and enlisted your thought leaders from early on in the process, they can become your communication channel.vThey can be the ones who garner the collective feedback of your staff and pass it on to you, while acting as your advocate to your user