Technology transfer: Changes in Materials and Containers used to Store and Transport WinePresentation Transcript
Technology Transfer: Changes inMaterials and Containers used to Store & Transport Wine Sourced from: http://www.sha.org/b ottle/wine.htm By Haidee Johnson 200900209
Before the Wine Bottle Existed Glassware from 1710.(Sourced from: http://www.wineintro.com/history/glassware/genera l.html)
Before the Wine Bottle Existed• Egyptian clay pots were used to store wine.• Clay is the perfect material as it can be formed into many shapes and sizes and when fired is indestructible.• Wine stored in these vessels are then buried in the ground for temperature control or put into smaller vessels for easier transportation.
Before the Wine Bottle Existed• Amphorae developed long vase, tapered at the bottom with two handles.• Designed to fit economic needs of that time. Sourced from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amp hora
The Bottle Shape is Born • Initially hand blown glass • Bottle has a small capacity suitable for one drinking session • Glass as a material allowed the wine to age and mature.Sourced from:http://www.nps.gov/museum/exhibits/revwar/image_gal/morrimg/winebottle.html
The Bottle Shape is Born• There was an issue, as each bottle was a different shape and size so the customer never knew exactly how much wine they were getting.• Glass blowing became easier with time and the need for long flat shaped bottle became necessary• 1979 US set law for bottles to be 750mL
Wine Bottle Types• Bordeaux: short neck and high shoulder with punt• Champagne: thick to handle pressure• German Riesling: Green, tall, and slender• Italy: Onion shape wrapped in straw• Bottles were marked instead of labels
Bottle Stoppers• Old: Layer of olive oil, soaked rags, wooden stoppers• Corks: French Monk Dom Perignon used for wine in 1600s• Current: Screw Cap. Sourced from: http://www.yemmhart.com/news+/wine No more cork taint corkrecycling.htm but some view as cheap
Wooden Barrels• Earliest known cooper tools date back to 100 B.C• Romans recognized barrels are better for storing liquid than wine• Bow shape makes it easy to roll• Today French and American oak used Sourcedfrom:http://www.clker.com/cl ipart-10574.html
Wooden barrels• Initial Problems:• Initially the wood used for the barrels stripped the wine of all its fruit• As soon as the cask was opened the wine would become contaminated and undrinkable if not consumed within a couple days.
Conditions for Transporting Wine• Wine is perishable so the amount of movement needs to minimal• Humidity should remain around 70%• Temperature needs to be in between 13- 16degrees Celsius
Modern Ways to Transport Wine• Bulk: in ISO tanks (for international) and flexitank where wine is in bladder• Bottles: tightly with cardboard dividers or polystyrene as glass is fragile
Current and Future Storage Containers Sourced from: http://www.wineanorak. com/wine_in_pet_bottle s.htm
Current Wine Storage Materials• Stainless Steel Tanks in wineries• PET bottles: cheap, light, recyclable but short shelf life• Light weight glass bottles: lighter and more economical• Bag in Box: from 1960s for bulk wine cost efficient packaging• Tetrapak: made from recyclable products, will reduce gas emissions.
References• Before the Wine Bottle Existed. April 2009. Retrieved from: http://salutwineco.wordpress.com/2009/04/27/historyofbottles/A Short History of Wine Bottles• History of Glass Wine Bottles. (n.d). Retrieved from: http://www.wineintro.com/history/glassware/general.html• The History of Wine Part 3: Wine Storage-Barrels. (2009). Retrieved from: http://www.snooth.com/articles/the-history-of-wine-part-ii-wine-storage- barrels/?viewall=1• Pendleton, J. (2007). Wine History-When the Cork Met the Bottle. Retrieved from: http://thewinehistorian.blogspot.co.nz/2007/09/wine-history-when-cork-met- bottle.html• The History of Wine Part 2- Wine Storage- The Early Days. (2009). Retrieved from: http://www.snooth.com/articles/the-history-of-wine-part-ii-wine-storage-the- early-days/?viewall=1#ixzz21bSBszLd• Wine in PET Bottles: Will Plastic Replace Glass?. (n.d). Retrieved from: http://www.wineanorak.com/wine_in_pet_bottles.htm