Speeches, week 3
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Speeches, week 3

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Lecture on "general purposes," "topics," and "specific purposes" for giving speeches, plus identifying the issues in a thesis statement.

Lecture on "general purposes," "topics," and "specific purposes" for giving speeches, plus identifying the issues in a thesis statement.

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    Speeches, week 3 Speeches, week 3 Presentation Transcript

    • The Art ofEnglishSpeechesWeek 3
    • good job.
    • Commi t to your story
    • When should I say more?When s hould I say less?
    • Break long thoughts int o smaller parts
    • Your Introduction ChecklistAm I… gaining the attention and interest of my audience? influencing the audience to view me and my topic favorably? clarifying the purpose or thesis of my speech? previewing the development of my topic?
    • Your Introduction ChecklistAm I… gaining the attention and interest of my audience? influencing the audience to view me and my topic favorably? clarifying the purpose or thesis of my speech? previewing the development of my topic?
    • Your Introduction ChecklistAm I… gaining the attention and interest of my audience? influencing the audience to view me and my topic favorably? clarifying the purpose or thesis of my speech? previewing the development of my topic?
    • Your Introduction ChecklistAm I… gaining the attention and interest of my audience? influencing the audience to view me and my topic favorably? clarifying the purpose or thesis of my speech? previewing the development of my topic?
    • Your Introduction ChecklistAm I… gaining the attention and interest of my audience? influencing the audience to view me and my topic favorably? clarifying the purpose or thesis of my speech? previewing the development of my topic?
    • Choosinga Topic & Developing a Strategy
    • A Speaker’s Choices and Activities:InventionArrangementStyleDeliveryMemory
    • A Speaker’s Choices and Activities:Invention Producing materials for the speech What could go into the speech? Conduct research. Select the most effective materials for purpose and audience.ArrangementStyleDeliveryMemory
    • A Speaker’s Choices and Activities:InventionArrangement Structuring ideas and materials in the speech Organize materials for each main idea. Order and connect main ideas. Plan the overall structure of the intro, body, and conclusion.StyleDeliveryMemory
    • A Speaker’s Choices and Activities:InventionArrangementStyle The distinctive character of the speech This is achieved through language. Showing: Evoke emotions Telling: Convey descriptive meaning (Both are useful, when appropriate)DeliveryMemory
    • A Speaker’s Choices and Activities:InventionArrangementStyleDelivery The presentation of the speech Share the message with the audience. A good speaker makes effective use of: voice, gesture, facial expression, movement, visual aidsMemory
    • A Speaker’s Choices and Activities:InventionArrangementStyleDeliveryMemory Memorize, make notes, read a script, or speak extemporaneously Keep track of main ideas. Phrase ideas so listeners will remember them. Precisely word the intro and conclusion.
    • INVENTIONdeciding whatto talk about
    • UNDERSTANDTHE RHETORICALSITUATION
    • Rhetoricthe art of effective or persuasive speaking orwriting, especially the use of figures of speechand other compositional techniques.
    • Elements of a rhetorical situation audience occasion speaker speech
    • What makesa good topic?
    • good topic =one that matters to you
    • good topic = one that matters to youIMPORTANCE TO THE SPEAKERIf you do not care about the subject, it will be very hard tomake it interesting or important to the audience. If you careabout it, it will be relatively easy.
    • good topic =one that matters to your audience
    • good topic = one that matters to your audienceINTEREST FOR THE AUDIENCEAudiences will be interested if your topic…- provides new information they can use- offers a solution to a puzzle or problem that affects them- connects what is unfamiliar to what they know- reports stories or experiences similar to their own.
    • good topic =one that is worth hearing about
    • good topic =one that can be talked about in the time allowed
    • good topic = one that can be talked about in the time allowedAPPROPRIATENESS OF SCOPEAvoid topics that include too many points and can only becovered superficially. Likewise, too narrow topics onlydeserve a short amount of time. A good speech will find away to engage both the breadth and depth of a topic.
    • good topic =one that is suited for oral delivery
    • good topic =one that is clear
    • Purposes
    • What is our general purpose?- Providing new information or perspective- Agenda setting- Creating positive or negative feeling- Strengthening commitment- Weakening commitment- Conversion- Inducing a Specific Action
    • Providing new information orperspectiveGive the audience new information, or important informationthey don’t know, about a topic they’re already familiar with.Offer a certain perspective that differs from what they maybe accustomed to thinking about a topic.
    • Setting an agendaCause people to think about a topic that they previouslyknew little about or ignored.
    • Creating positive or negative feelingAbout the occasion, the speaker, or the message.e.g., making listeners generally feel good about themselvesor the world.
    • Strengthening Commitment“Preaching to the converted”Motivate audience members to become even more stronglycommitted to a belief or cause.
    • Weakening CommitmentReduce the intensity of listeners’ commitment to a belief, notnecessarily to change their minds, but to instill a sense ofdoubt.
    • ConversionPersuade listeners to change their minds – to stop believingone thing and to start believing another.The replacement of one set of beliefs with another set that isinconsistent with the first.
    • Inducing a specific actionThe most pragmatic goal: persuade people to take a specificaction.e.g. to make a contribution, to purchase a product, to votefor a specific candidate, etc.The speaker does not have to care whether listeners havethe same reasons for acting, only that they act.
    • Developing thepurpose statementand thethesis statement
    • Topic:Cheating at the university
    • General purpose:To provide new information
    • Specific purpose:To inform listeners ofwidespread cheating on thiscampus!
    • Specific purpose:To inform listeners ofwidespread cheating on thiscampus!The “specific purpose” focuses on the outcome ofthe speech by specifying what you want to achieve.It is “audience centered.”
    • Topic: Cheating at the universityGeneral purpose: To provide new informationSpecific purpose: To inform listeners of widespread cheating on this campus!
    • What is the thesis statement?Topic: Cheating at the universityGeneral purpose: To provide new informationSpecific purpose: To inform listeners of widespread cheating on this campus!The thesis will sum up the speech in asingle sentence you want listeners toremember.
    • Thesis:Far more students engagein cheating than most of usthink.
    • Topic: Cheating at the universityGeneral purpose: To provide new informationSpecific purpose: To inform listeners of widespread cheating on this campus!Thesis: Far more students engage in cheating than most of us think.
    • Analyzing thethesis statement
    • what are theissues?
    • issue:a question raised by the thesis statementthat must be addressed in order for thethesis itself to be addressed effectively.
    • Topic: Cheating at the universityGeneral purpose: To provide new informationSpecific purpose: To inform listeners of widespread cheating on this campus!Thesis: Far more students engage in cheating than most of us think. “Far more students” “Engage in cheating” “Than most of us think”
    • Topic: Cheating at the universityGeneral purpose: To provide new informationSpecific purpose: To inform listeners of widespread cheating on this campus!Thesis: Far more students engage in cheating than most of us think. “Far more students” How many? Is that number more than we think? Is it “far more?” “Engage in cheating” “Than most of us think”
    • Topic: Cheating at the universityGeneral purpose: To provide new informationSpecific purpose: To inform listeners of widespread cheating on this campus!Thesis: Far more students engage in cheating than most of us think. “Far more students” “Engage in cheating” What is covered by the term “cheating?” And what must one do to “engage in” it? “Than most of us think”
    • Topic: Cheating at the universityGeneral purpose: To provide new informationSpecific purpose: To inform listeners of widespread cheating on this campus!Thesis: Far more students engage in cheating than most of us think. “Far more students” “Engage in cheating” “Than most of us think” Who are “most of us”? What do “most of us” think? Why do we think this?
    • Why identify the issues?It lets you determine what the speech must cover.It directs your research.It may lead you to modify your thesis.It can help you organize your speech.
    • Researching the Topic
    • Researching the Topic- Develop or strengthen your own expertise on the topic- Find evidence that will support your ideas- Make your ideas clear, understandable, and pertinent toyour audience
    • Types of supporting material- Personal experience- Common knowledge- Direct observation- Examples- Documents- Statistics- Testimony