Methods Direct Best used when teaching knowledge that requires the acquisition of facts Teacher-centered; lecture style with explanations, examples, opportunities for for practice and feedback Largely verbal Sequential - present objectives, present content, model skills, check understanding, corrective feedback, summarize/re-teach Indirect Learner acquires a behavior indirectly by transforming, or constructing material into a meaningful response – synthesis of learning that is unique Best used when teaching concepts, abstractions or patterns Student-centered with teacher as facilitator Small group instruction Involves organizing content, inductive and deductive reasoning, examples and non-examples, student experiences, questions, student’s self-evaluation, and group discussion
Experiential Education Sometimes referred to as expeditionary or discovery learning Inquiry-based learning theory where learning takes place in problem solving situations where the learner draws on their experience or knowledge to “discover facts, relationships and new truths” Learners interact with objects and the world – sorting through information and dealing with questions and controversies Jerome Bruner (1915-) American Psychologist
Experiential Education Advantages Encourages active engagement Promotes motivation & autonomy, learner creates their own path Creativity/problem-solving Disadvantages Learners can misconceive information and it is hard for the teacher to see this Overload of cognition, making it difficult for learner to sort and integrate knowledge
Things to Consider When Planning Instruction Standards Strategies Motivation Accommodation Management & Pacing Media & Materials Assessment Grouping
Standards A statement of what we expect people should know from participating in this class. Goals Objectives Competencies Outcomes Emerging Leaders Standards Course Competencies Upon completion of this course the student should be able to: Describe a non-hierarchical leadership model. Apply the values of equity, social justice, self-knowledge, personal empowerment, collaboration, citizenship, and service. Demonstrate individual qualities that support group functioning and positive social change. Demonstrate commitment to positive social change. Describe effective situational leadership strategies. Apply problem-solving skills to facilitate positive social change. Apply decision-making skills to social change in a collaborative environment. Explain how communication style affects leadership behaviors.
Strategies Methods by which the student is engaged in learning. Styles Variety Creativity Group Engagement Emerging Leaders Strategies List the variety of teaching methods and activities we use. How do we incorporate nature? What is the importance of group work? How do we engage students?
Motivation How do we make the learner want or need to learn? Encouragement Reinforcement Build from ability Relevance Individuality Emerging Leaders Motivation How are we encouraging learning? In what way do we reinforce that learning? How do we address individuality and ability? How do we make the learning relevant to students? Why is relevance important?
Accommodation How do we make the class accessible to everyone? Seating Materials Modifying Requirements Adaptive Strategies Safety Emerging Leaders Accommodation How are we accommodating learners, different learning styles? How do we address safety concerns? How is our physical environment adaptable to different needs, abilities of students? How are we being sustainable in our choices of materials?
Management & Pacing How do we manage the learning environment? Time Management Practice & Preparation Transitions Awareness of Needs Emerging Leaders Management & Pacing Agendas How do we plan for the unpredictable? Are we prepared for teaching? Are the transitions smooth or is learning abruptly halted? How are we made aware of student needs?
Media & Materials What can enhance the learning? Age Variety Relevant Current Sensitive Environment Emerging Leaders Media & Materials What type of technologies are we using? How do they support learning? When we pick videos are we making sure they are sensitive to all students? Are the materials relevant or current? Are the references from their generation? Do the selected media examples enhance the learning?
Assessment How do we measure learning? Formal vs. Informal Self/Peer Assessment Ongoing Re-evaluation Alternative Emerging Leaders Assessment How are we measuring learning? Surveys Journals/Reflection Testing Final Project/Group Project Self/Peer Assessments How are we measuring our environment and methods? Evaluations Interviews
Grouping How do we learn together? By Ability Diversity Relation to Peers Temperaments Cross-Subject Emerging Leaders Grouping How do we group students? By what method(s)? What purpose does the group play in the learning process? How do we monitor group progress?
Classroom Management How will we set expectations? How will we get attention? How will we ensure an inclusive environment where everyone can learn? Power Teaching Strategy When I say Emerging you say Leaders the same way. When I say teach, you say okay the same way and turn to your neighbor to teach back a concept or share an observation as directed. When I say Emerging you say Leaders the same way. When I say teach, you say okay the same way and turn to your neighbor to teach back a concept or share an observation as directed.