Research method - How to interview?

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This slide will guide other researchers that wants to collect data using Interview method. It teaches how to analyse the data as well. This was a presentation that was carried out in our research …

This slide will guide other researchers that wants to collect data using Interview method. It teaches how to analyse the data as well. This was a presentation that was carried out in our research method class by our group.

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  • 1. INTERVIEW
  • 2. 1) Definition of interview 1) Types of interview a) Personal interview b) Telephone interview c) Focus Group d) Depth interview e) Project techniques 3) Roles of interviewer. 4) How to conduct an interview? 4) How to create interview questions? 5) How to analyze data gathered from an interview? 6) Advantages and disadvantages of interview? FLOW OF THE PRESENTATION
  • 3. What is an interview? •Interview is commonly used survey method in social sciences. •It involves the gathering of data through direct verbal interaction between the interviewer and interviewee.
  • 4. Definition • It is an interactional communication process which involves the asking of questions by the interviewer for the specific purpose of obtaining research-relevant information and answering of questions by the interviewee.
  • 5. Types of interview Personal Interview Telephone interview Focus group interview Depth interview Projective techniques
  • 6. Personal interview • A face to face two way communication between the interviewer and the respondents • carried out in a planned manner and is referred to as „structured interview‟. Structured Interview? An interview which all the questions asked are all planned beforehand.
  • 7. (cont) Personal interview Rapport building Introduction ProbingRecording Closing
  • 8. (cont) Personal interview A) Rapport Building Important for the interviewer to build rapport with the interviewee. This will enables greater and easier communication between the two people. Interviewer must try to make the respondent feels comfortable before starting the interview.
  • 9. (cont.) Personal Interview b) Introduction interviewer identifying himself by giving him his name and the purpose of the interview. c) Probing technique of encouraging the respondents to answer completely, freely and relevantly.
  • 10. (cont.) Personal interview d) Recording The interviewer will do the writing of the response, either during the interview or after that. e)Closing interviewer should thank the respondent and assure him about the worth of his answers Assure him the confidentiality of his responses.
  • 11. Telephone Interview Collecting data by asking the interviewee questions via telephone. Save time and eliminate the uncomfortable feeling.
  • 12. Focus Group Interview DEFINITION A research method that brings together a small group of consumers to discuss the product or advertising, under the guidance of a trained interviewer.
  • 13. (cont.) Focus Group Interview • Respondents for a focus group interview are carefully recruited. • Members for this interview is normally between to 5-10, but 6-8 persons per group is preferred.
  • 14. Projective Techniques Interview • Allow respondents to express themselves in a different way. • They speak indirectly by projecting their thoughts and ideas- by talking about other people, objects, or situations. • Provides better understanding about human needs and emotional values.
  • 15. Roles of interviewer
  • 16. Roles of an interviewer • To locate and enlist cooperation of respondents. - Know how to find respondents, locate them. - Work on how to find the suitable time when the respondents are most readily available.
  • 17. • Motivator - Motivate respondents to do good job. If the interviewer does not take the work seriously, why would the respondent. - Must be motivated and able to communicate that motivation to the respondent. - Must be very attuned and responsive – what interviewee is doing and saying.
  • 18. • Clarify any confusions / concerns. - Interviewers have to be able to think on their feet. Respondents may raise objections or concerns that were not anticipated. - The interviewer has to be able to respond candidly and informatively.
  • 19. • Observe quality of responses - Whether the interview is personal or over the phone, the interviewer is in the best position to judge the quality of the information that is being received.
  • 20. • Conduct a good interview. - Has to conduct a good interview. - Every interview has a life of its own. Some respondents are motivated and attentive, others are distracted or disinterested. The interviewer also has good or bad days. - An ethically sensitive interviewer will not want to place undue pressure on the person he/she is talking to.
  • 21. CONDUCTING THE INTERVIEW • Interviewers must be trained in the procedures for conducting the specific interview, and these procedure must be “standardized” so that the respondents receive as consistent and identical interviews as possible. • To schedule the interview, a mutually convenient time for the potential respondent and the interviewer must be identified.
  • 22. • Interviewers should have flexible schedules so they are available at times convenient for the respondents. • After the interview is scheduled or initiated, it is necessary to obtain the respondent’s cooperation. • An advance letter informing the respondent about the study can be effective in obtaining cooperation. • The respondents should be informed about the purposes of the study and the importance of their contributions.
  • 23. • Respondents should not be threatened by the interview or subsequent use of data. • Making the respondent informed and comfortable about the interview does much to enhance cooperation. • The interviewer must know the extent of probing desirable and the extent of elaboration allowed if the respondent has questions. • Because interview is a social encounter, it is important that interviewer establish a good rapport with the respondent.
  • 24. • Confidentiality of information should be assured, and the respondent should not be threatened by the questions. • The data-recording procedures used in the interview should be efficiently structured so that they do not interfere with the process of conducting the interview. • A tape recorder can retain the entire oral communication, but the interviewer should get the respondent‟s consent before using one.
  • 25. KEY STEPS TO CONDUCT AN INTERVIEW • Making contact with interviewee • Preparing for the interview - Coming up with questions • Meeting with your interviewee • Following up on your interview
  • 26. SETTING UP THE INTERVIEW • Contact the potential interviewee in advance • Be sure that you ask for the interview. This person is doing you a favour. • Arrange a specific time and place, and let the interviewee know how much time it will take. • Identifying the topic that you will be discussing during the interview.
  • 27. PREPARING FOR THE INTERVIEW • Be sure to write out a list of questions in advance. • Find out whatever information you can about the person you’re interviewing. • Decide which questions are highest priority if time runs short. • Decide what your goals are for the interview.
  • 28. COMING UP WITH QUESTIONS • Ask yourself : “What is it that I need to know?” • Write down a list of things that you are hoping to find out. • Write a list of questions that you think will lead to these answers. • Check the questions carefully to see if the wording could be offensive to your interviewee.
  • 29. INTERVIEW QUESTIONS • The kind of questions asked in qualitative interviews are highly variable. • Kvale (1996) has suggested 9 different kinds of questions; 1) Introducing questions : “Have you ever...?” “Why did you go to...?” “Please tell me about when your interest in X first began?”
  • 30. 2) Follow-up questions: getting the interviewee to elaborate his / her answer, such as ‘Could you say some more about that?’; ‘What do you mean by that.....?’; even ‘Yeeees?’ 3) Probing questions: following up what has been said through direct questioning. 4) Specifying questions : ‘ What did you do then?’; ‘How did X react to what you said?’
  • 31. 5) Direct questions : „Do you find it easy to keep smiling when serving customers?‟; „Are you happy with the way you and your husband decide how money should be spent?‟ Such question are perhaps best left until towards the end of the interview, in order not to influence the direction of the interview too much. 6) Indirect questions : „What do most people round here think of the ways that management treats its staff?‟, followed up by „Is that the way you feel too?‟, in order to get at the individual‟s own view.
  • 32. 7) Structuring questions : „I would now like to move on to different topic‟. 8) Silence : Allow pauses to signal that you want to give the interviewee the opportunity to reflect and amplify an answer. 9) Interpreting questions : „Do you mean that your leadership role has had to change from one of encouraging others to a more directive one?‟;
  • 33. • ‘Is it fair to say that what you are suggesting is that you don’t mind being friendly towards customers most of the time, but when they are unpleasant or demanding you find it more difficult?’
  • 34. FORMULATING QUESTIONS FOR AN INTERVIEW GUIDE General Research Area Specific Research Questions Interview Topics Review / Revise Questions Finalise
  • 35. ANALYZING THE DATA FROM INTERVIEW
  • 36. TRANSCRIBING THE INTERVIEW PLEMINARY EXLPORATORY ANALYSIS MAKING CONNECTIONS WITH THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS INTER-RATER RELIABILITY INTERPRET FINDINGS
  • 37. TRANSCRIBE THE INTERVIEW  Creating a complete, written copy of the recorded interview by playing the recording back and typing each word that is spoken on the recording, noting who spoke which words.  Better: if includes non- verbal communication: gestures and intonations  Can follow transcription conventions.
  • 38. Consider the following questions when transcribing data: •Is special formatting needed to meet the requirements of qualitative analysis software? •Will the transcription be verbatim (every utterance recorded) or only include complete thoughts and useful information? •How will background noises, interruptions, and silences be recorded, if at all? •How will non-standard grammar, slang, and dialects be recorded? If you hire a transcriber, explain how to format documents following your transcription rules. Be sure to check the transcription against the audio recording for accuracy. Providing transcribers with your interview questions is also helpful.
  • 39. PLEMINARY EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS 1)- Exploring the data to become familiar with the interview information - Identify some patterns across the data 2) Kristen Exterberg (2002) suggested that there are two types of coding: open coding and close coding 3) Do coding: identify themes across the interview data by reading and rereading the data Do open coding : Make a note of whatever themes seem to jump out to you -4) Require multiple rounds - You will begin to see some commonalities in the data
  • 40. MAKING CONNECTIONS TO THE RESEARCH DO FOCUS CODING 1) Identify themes that seem to be related, perhaps merging some by referring back to Research Questions 2) Give each emerged theme a name (code) Code: A shorthand representation of some more complex set of issues or ideas. 1) Identify the passages of data that represent the codes For example: RQ: What are the major perceptual barriers to bilingual programs in public schools?
  • 41. Theme Subcategories Interview Excerpt Fear 1. Job security “Teacher feel it‟s kind of a one-way system in that the teachers who are in the all-English program are fearful at a real basic visceral level that their jobs and their livelihood are at risk” 2. Lack of knowledge of bilingual programs “When the child needs to come into the first year and has 90% in Spanish and 10% in English, it's easily perceived that we are withholding English from the child. “ 3. Ethnocentric “Based again in the fact that the United States is a very isolated island in that we are closed in by two oceans and we have never had the habit of stretching out beyond our borders much, or valuing much of what is beyond our borders. We are xenophobic in that sense. So we haven't traditionally learned other languages, or been interested in other languages.”
  • 42. Berkowitz (1997) suggests considering these questions when coding qualitative data: •What common themes emerge in responses about specific topics? How do these patterns (or lack thereof) help to illuminate the broader central question(s) or hypotheses? •Are there deviations from these patterns? If so, are there any factors that might explain these deviations? •Are the patterns that emerge similar to the findings of other studies on the same topic? If not, what might explain these discrepancies?
  • 43. INTER-RATER RELIABILITY  Have other’s perspectives  The people will review the transcript and use the mentioned coding scheme to code the data  Results are then shared  Any discrepancies are discussed and resolved  Changes in coding scheme may include additions, deletions, and clarifications.
  • 44. INTERPRET FINDINGS Finalize the data coded that have been divided into themes to produce new insights Software: NVivo Put the cutting passage into each theme. Can have multiple copies of transcripts as data that may be placed into more than one category The data is then reviewed and an understanding of each theme is reached Notes and comments can be written on the index cards to denote the researcher’s ideas while examining the data Interpret the themes in a way that contributes to the development of knowledge, that is in the context of contextual frameworks or theories
  • 45. 1. Opportunity for Feedback – Interviewer can provide direct feedback to the respondent, give clarifications and help alleviate any misconceptions or apprehensions over confidentiality that the respondent may have in answering the interviewer‟s questions 2. Probing Complex Answers – Interviewers can probe if the respondent‟s answer is too brief or unclear. This gives interviewers some flexibility in dealing with unstructured questions and is especially suited for handling complex questions 3. Length of Interview – If the questionnaire is very lengthy, the personal interview is the best technique for getting respondents to cooperate, without overtaxing their patience
  • 46. 4. Complete Questionnaires – Personal ensures ensure that the respondent will answer all questions asked, unlike in telephone interview where the respondent may hang up or in mail questionnaire where some questions may go unanswered 5. Props & Visual Aids – Interviewers have the opportunity of showing respondents items such as sample products, graphs ands sketches, which can aid in their answers 6. High Participation – Interviewing respondents personally can increase the likelihood of their participation, as many people prefer to communicate directly verbally and sharing information and insights with interviewers
  • 47. 1. Cost – Personal interviews are usually more expensive than mail, telephone and internet surveys. Factors influencing the cost of the interview include the respondents‟ geographic proximity, the length and complexity of the questionnaire, and the number of non-respondents 2. Lack of Anonymity – Respondents are not anonymous in a personal (face-to- face) interview and may be reluctant to disclose certain information to the interviewer. Hence, considerable must be expended by the interviewer when dealing with sensitive questions to avoid bias effects on the respondent‟s part 3. Necessity for Callbacks – When a person selected for interview cannot be reached the first time, a callback has to be scheduled which result in extra cost and time spent
  • 48. 4.Variance Effects – It has been shown that the demographic characteristics of the interviewer can influence the answers of the respondents. In one study, male interviewers had a much larger variance of answers than female interviewers in a sample of most female individuals 5. Dishonesty – Interviewers cheat to make their life easier and save time and effort 6. Personal Style – The interviewers individual questioning style, techniques, approach and demeanor may influence the respondents‟ answers 7. Global Considerations – Cultural aspects may influence peoples‟ willingness to participate in an interview (e.g. repressive Middle Eastern cultures discourage females from being questioned by male interviewers)
  • 49. • So we can use the interview technique as one of the data collection methods for the research. • It makes the researcher to feel that the data what he collected is true and honest and original by nature because of the face to face interaction.