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  • 1. A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN HOME SCHOOLED AND TRADITIONALLY EDUCATED STUDENTS IN THE REGULAR TERTIARY LEVEL OF EDUCATION OF ATENEO DE MANILA UNIVERSITY A research paper submitted to the Humanities Division University of the Philippines Cebu Lahug, Cebu City In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in Communication II Researchers: Tambangan, Astrud Mae P. Melicor, Ruth F. Adviser: Prof. Crina Escabarte Tanongon March 2012
  • 2. I Curriculum Vitae Personal Data Name : Astrud Mae P. Tambangan Address : Greenhills Subdivision, Cabancalan, Mandaue City, Cebu Contact Number : 09333681875 Date of Birth : October 31, 1993 Civil Status : Single Name of Father : Meindrado S. Tambangan Name of Mother : Eunice P. Tambangan Educational Background Tertiary : University of the Philippines Cebu Bachelor of Science in Management Expected Graduation Date: March 2015 Secondary : Marie Ernestine School – North Campus March 2011 Elementary : Marie Ernestine School – Talamban Campus March 2007
  • 3. II Personal Data Name : Ruth F. Melicor Address : 9-53 Greenland Street, Alta Vista Subdivision, Pardo, Cebu City, Cebu Contact Number : 09328734085 Date of Birth : November 04, 1995 Civil Status : Single Name of Father : Pat Rio Melicor Name of Mother : Cynthia F. Melicor Educational Background Tertiary : University of the Philippines Cebu Bachelor of Science in Management Expected Graduation Date: March 2015 Secondary : Cebu City National Science High School March 2011 Elementary : Bob Hughes Christian Academy March 2007
  • 4. III ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We, the researchers of this study, would like to extend our deepest gratitude to the following people who have contributed to the success of this study. First and foremost to our beloved professor, Ms. Crina Tanongon, who guided us from the initial drafts until the final chapters of this research. This study would not have been possible without her encouragement, support and patience in checking and bringing out the best of this research. To Mr. Gerry Argosino, the president of the Home-schooling Association of the Philippine Islands, we extend our thanks for referring credible respondents. We would also like to thank the respondents of this study for their willingness and cooperation to spare us their time and knowledge in answering our questions. Without them, we would not have provided credible results in this research. To our beloved family and friends who never failed to support and uplift ourselves in pushing through this study. Their love and guidance keep us determined in giving our best. Above all, to the Lord Almighty for the giving us the strength to perform our responsibilities and the will to pursue this research study.
  • 5. IV ABSTRACT This study was conducted to determine if home-schooled children and traditionally educated ones are academically and socially competitive enough in the field of regular tertiary education. The researchers wanted to find out the positive and negative effects of the different types of education. There were 6 college students from the Ateneo de Manila University used as respondents for this study to answer the questionnaire. The results confirm that both home-educated and traditionally educated students relate well with other people on a personal setting. However, home-educated students have a larger need for adjustment once they enter college, due to the fact that they now learn academically with others as well. With regard to the academic aspect, traditionally educated students have an edge when it comes to practical performance, such as deadlines and difficult teachers. However, home-educated students are better in the aspect of social development. The researchers found out that home-educated students are competitive enough in the tertiary level of education in the Philippine setting since they are used to the same style of teaching during their secondary years. Home-educated students, on the other hand, are more sociable and used to talking with more mature people (their parents), and with people their age as well (homeschoolers in extra-curricular activities).
  • 6. V Table of Contents Curriculum Vitae………………………………………………......……………… I Acknowledgement………….……………………………………..……………… III Abstract……………………………………………………………..……………... IV Table of Contents…………………………………………………..…………….. V List of Tables…………………………………………………………..………….. VI List of Figures…………………………………………………………..………….VII Chapter I. Introduction Rationale of the Study………………………………………………….. 1 Statement of the Problem………………………………………………. 4 Significance of the Study………………………………………………...5 II. Review of Related Literature……………………………………………………7 III. Study Framework Theoretical Framework…………………………………………………17 Conceptual Framework…………………………………………………20 Operational Framework………………………………………………...23 IV. Methodology Research Design, Sampling Procedure………………………………25 Research Respondents………………………...………………………25 Research Instruments………..…………………………………………26 Data Collection, Data Analysis………………………………………...26
  • 7. VI V. Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data…………………………..28 VI. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation Summary of Findings…………...………………………………………55 Conclusion…………………………………………………………..…...57 Recommendation……………………………………………………….58 Works Cited…………………………………………………………………………….59 Apendix…………………………………………………………………………………62 Questionnaire…………………………………………………………………64 List of Table Table 1 Academic Background of Respondents 28 Table 2 Number of Years Home-schooled 29 Table 3.1 Age of Home-schooled Respondent 31 Table 3.2 Age of Regularly-Educated Respondent 31 Table 4.1 Number of Siblings of Home-schooled Respondent 33 Table 4.2 Number of Siblings of Traditionally-educated 34 Respondents Table 5.1 Sex of Home-schooled Respondents 35 Table 5.2 Sex of Traditionally-educated Respondents 36 Table 6.1 Religion of Home-schooled Respondents 37 Table 6.2 Religion of Traditionally-educated Respondents 37
  • 8. VII List of Figures Figure 1 Theoretical Framework 19 Figure 2 Conceptual Framework 22 Figure 3 Operational Framework 24
  • 9. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 1 Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Tim Tebow is one of the world’s most popular athletes. The world is abuzz with the Denver Broncos' star quarterback; not only is he full of athletic prowess, he's full of surprises as well. No one expected him to be the youngest player to ever win a Heismann trophy, the most prestigious award ever given in college football, as a sophomore in the University of Florida. No one expected a jock to be doing so well academically during his stay in the University. Most of all, no one expected such a well rounded young man, to be a previous home schooler. Tebow's success has not only inspired home schoolers around the globe, it has also revamped the world's already changing perspective of homeschooling. The Philippines' local homeschooling community, on the other hand, proudly boasts of Paul Tan-chi, the former captain-ball of the Ateneo Blue Eagle's Varsity Basketball team, and one of the most prominent members of the UAAP Basketball Hall of Fame. The home-educated athlete was one of the most popular students in Ateneo, and managed to grab high grades as well. Rationale of the Study Most people think that homeschooling one's child often leads to his/her isolation, considering, there is less socialization involved compared to the traditional way of education. A homeschooler usually learns alone or in small groups of other homeschoolers. Thus, the stereotype of them being shy, relative to those traditionally educated, once entering a new environment is conferred upon them.
  • 10. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 2 Another thought that prevents parents from home-schooling their children, is the fact that they have not received professional training, as compared to the teachers who guide children in regular schools. Parents also think that their child will not be able to perform well in relation to others, once the principle of competition is brought into the picture as they enter college and learn with other people for the first time. However, studies conducted in the United States show that home-schooled children socialize better once played in a heterogeneous group of home schoolers and regular students (Shyers, 1992). It was also proven that in an American setting, home- educated children, get significantly higher scores than those traditionally educated (Ray, 2010). From the results of such, it is seen that the rate of the increase of homeschooling in America is steadfastly growing (Ray, 2010). The graduates of such curriculum have proven to be able to cope academically and socially in an American University, especially if it is a religious one (Klicka, 2003). Home educated children, in the said setting perform as well, if not even better, as those who were regularly educated in a traditional system of education. With proof of such, homeschooling is becoming more and more accepted as a normative form of education in the United States. In the perspective of globalization, the growing influence on the positive attributes home-schooling brings to one's child has also reached the Philippines. In a country with a lower standard of public education, ranking 7th out of 9 in the Southeast Asian region (de Leon, 2011), parents are very particular with the type of education subjected to their children, making sure that they have the best of what their money can buy. Various
  • 11. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 3 curricula have been introduced, outside the offered public system, one of which is home-education. The researchers formulated this study, in order to find out if home-educated students in the Philippines are able to cope up academically and socially upon entering college in a Philippine setting. The study involves an in-depth discussion taken from interviews with various respondents, who are graduates of the traditional and home- education curricula. The social and academic backgrounds, as well as the current social and academic college performances are taken into consideration.
  • 12. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 4 Statement of the Problem The study was able to determine if home schooled children are competitive enough in the field of regular tertiary education, compared to traditionally educated ones. It addresses the following sub-problems: 1.) Are home-educated children academically competitive compared to traditionally educated ones? 2.) Are home-educated children socially competitive compared to traditionally educated ones? This study also involves the main objective: To be able to compare the home-educated graduates and regularly educated ones in the various aspects of a tertiary level of education in a Philippine setting.
  • 13. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 5 The study about the comparison of both home-school and traditional-school types of education benefit the following: Significance of the Study This study gives the parents the disadvantages and advantages of both home- school and traditional-school types of education. Every parent wants the best for their children. They want to give them proper education, since education is the best foundation towards a bright future. Parents, especially those who are still young adults, might be confused of which type of education is best for their children. This study helps them understand the types of education. This helps them weigh the pros and cons of each type. In this study, parents also learn insights from students who have undergone the aforementioned types of education. Lastly, this study helps parents decide which type of education is more financially wise when it comes to spending for the education of the children. The main point is to make sure that the amount they will be spending is worth it. Parents Home-school Owners This study benefits the home-school owners. Home-school owners do not really hear the sides of their students since they rarely see them. Through this study, they will be able to hear their opinions towards home-schooling. They will be able to understand and realize the negative sides of home-school, which will let owners, think of ways to improve their curriculum especially for the child’s benefit.
  • 14. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 6 This study helps students understand their peers more. The actions of each individual may be influenced by their background of education during their secondary years. This study helps the students know the reason behind the attitudes and reactions of another student. There are times when we do not really understand why one acts differently. As a curious individual, we can be responsible enough to look for research papers that would explain such doubt. This study answers the questions about the similarities and differences of the types of education, focusing on their academic and social perspectives. Students in the Tertiary Level
  • 15. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 7 Chapter II Review of Related Literature and Past Studies This chapter will discuss information gathered from books, journals, and past studies. The data and information obtained in this chapter will serve as a basis and provide the foundation for the study that is being conducted by the researchers. This chapter is divided into various subtopics such as family influence, socialization, comparison of academic standards and the like, which are inter-related variables of the present study. Family Influence on the Choice and Effect of Home-schooling Ray (2011) determined the relationship of an American home-schooled child's academic achievement with his family background. According to Ray, people in the United States often question the capability of homeschooling parents to teach their own children, considering that they are not licensed teachers. However from his previous studies, he discovered that home-schooled children in the United States have equal or better SAT scores as compared to students from regular American public schools. He also mentioned that there are several factors that may possibly affect a home-schooled child’s success such as his parent’s educational attainment, family income, and the like. According to the author, time spent mainly with the family does not hinder the child’s socialization or his adaptation to adulthood since they naturally develop “self- actualization” when placed in certain situations. For this study, the author gathered 11,739 students along with their respective parents. Ray sent out standard academic achievement tests to each student online while he simultaneously dispatched questionnaires, which contained questions such as
  • 16. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 8 income, family size, and the like, to their parents. These questionnaires were composed of five parts: (a) qualifiers, (b) student demographics, (c) parent and family demographics, (d) scholastic information and (e) other information. A student number of 10 digits was assigned to each student in order to match the given data with that of their parents. He then subjected the data to an Analysis of Variance, commonly known as an ANOVA, and gained the z-scores for each category. From analyzing the data, Ray saw that the scores of the home-schooled students were higher than those students who were traditionally educated. He also stated that the average income of the families were at level with the others in America. He also stressed the fact that 97.1% of these children were born to white families (i.e. non- Hispanic, Black American, etc.) and that 66.3% of home-school fathers and 62.5% of home-school mothers have managed to attain at least a bachelor's degree, which is less than that of the general population. He likewise mentioned that 97.9% of the participants in his study came from “married-couple families.” Ray generalized that parents who show great commitment towards their family are able to provide an environment suitable for great academic achievement. Another study was conducted by Rudner (1999) regarding the scholastic achievements and demographic characteristics of home-schooled children in the United States. The study sought to find out how home-schooled children fare academically and who among the general American population opted to do home schooling. Rudner contracted with Bob Jones University Press Testing and Evaluation Service to assess the home-schooled students through the IOWA Tests of Basic Skills (grades K-8); on the other hand, their parents answered a questionnaire entitled
  • 17. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 9 “Voluntary Home Demographic Survey.” The researcher gathered 20,760 students from 11,930 families who submitted usable data for analysis. After subjecting the data to statistical measurements, Rudner was able to come up with the following findings: 88% of parents who home-educate their children have attained a bachelor’s degree as opposed to 50% of the general population who was not able to reach that level of educational attainment. He also noticed that 77% of home- schooling mothers do not work while 97% of homeschooling fathers do. Aside from that, he saw that there was a significant difference in the median of the family income of home-schooling families ($52,000) and the family income of the United States ($36,000). He also mentioned that 65% of home-schooled students watch television in a span of one hour or less as opposed to the national statistic result of 25%. In relation to this, Lymann (1998) stated that the second reason parents home- educate their children is that they desire to teach religious beliefs, to encourage “academic excellence” and to develop stronger family ties. Moreover, Rothermel (2002) stated two reasons why parents prefer home- education rather than traditional education. These reasons include the following: (a) there was an interest in alternative education and (b) the presence of school-related problems. Because of psychological imbalances in a child due to his previous attendance at several schools, home-education became the preferred option. The student is more comfortable if he is educated at home because he is given more freedom to participate in lessons since there is no fear of judgment. Likewise, Rothermel (2002) also found out that home-education was an alternative for private school education in terms of educational fees. Most of the parents
  • 18. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 10 who decided to home-educate their children are teachers in profession. They prefer to teach their children within the confines of the home rather than to bring him or her to a private school. According to Jerry (2007), home-education is more advantageous than the traditional way because it gives better outcomes to the relationship of the parents and the child. Through home-education, the bond between parent and child will be stronger because parents are more focused on their children and they spend more time together. They will also be more competitive because parents may craft their own curriculum that would best suit the child’s personality. There is more attention given to a child receiving a home-education because he does not have classmates to compete for attention. Moreover, home-education provides children with more time to learn and understand each lesson that is included in the curriculum. Comparison of Academic Standards and Achievements in the American Setting According to Lymann (1998), the American public has become unsatisfied with the standard level of public education. She pointed out the fact that graduates from the said system have mathematical skills equal to that of a thirteen year old and poor knowledge such as that of important historical facts. The author mentioned that as a result, American companies are forced to spend for their employees’ remedial education. In a previously mentioned study by Ray (2011), he concluded that the scores of the home-schooled students were exceptionally higher, at least in the 80th percentile, than those students who were traditionally educated in the American public school
  • 19. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 11 system (50th percentile). In relation to this, Rudner (1999) in a previous study concluded that 25% of home-educated students are ahead of their age group by a grade or two. In another study Ray (2011) found the growth of number in the United States when it came to home-schooled children. Through the data recorded by The USA Department of Education and some leading home-schooling groups Ray determined that as of 2011 2.04 million children are under the curriculum of homeschooling in the United States. He affirmed that 10% of such is not recorded by the government through underground education. However, Reich (2011) insisted that very little is actually known of how home- educated children fare in comparison to those who were traditionally educated. He mentioned that the researchers who have researched about the topic were paid by home-schooling advocacy groups to perform the study. He compared this to tobacco companies that employ researchers to investigate on nicotine addiction. He mentioned that for children to participate in the study, they needed the consent of their parents. He pointed out that possibly, home-schooling parents would not allow their children to participate in this endeavor, knowing that he does not do well when it comes to academic performance. Reich moved on to say that the various study samples were not properly selected since some children volunteered themselves; this in turn shows high confidence with regards to their performance in the test. Reich summed it up by saying that these home-educated children involved in various studies would likely render the same result when subjected to traditional education.
  • 20. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 12 How Curriculum Affects Social Development Shyers (1992) conducted a study which compared home-educated children and traditionally educated ones in terms of the social aspect. He mentioned that parents are often apprehensive with the idea of home-schooling; they fear that it may promote less interaction of the child with his peers thus, may lead to poor social development. He was able to find a significant difference in socialization skills between home-educated children and traditionally educated ones. Shyers gathered 140 American children, half of which were home-educated and the remaining half of which were traditionally educated; the age of the subjects ranged from 8-10 years old. These children were subjected to social development tests. Afterwards, Shyers led the children into one room and taped the interaction between them. He employed a group of trained counselors who were not informed of each child’s educational background to observe the data which was recorded. The social development test showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of assertiveness; however, data interpreted by the counselors show that traditionally-educated children had more behavioral problems. The author mentioned that children subjected to regular education were noticeably “aggressive, loud and competitive”. On the other hand, the home-educated children involved in the study were perceived to be quiet, comfortable in groups and had the initiative to invite other children to play with them. Despite the fact that home-educated children do not interact with their peers as much as the traditionally educated ones do, Shyers concluded that they still manage to develop socialization skills. Shyers mentioned that the development of character in
  • 21. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 13 home-educated children is derived from their parents; on the other hand, the attitudes of children who are subjected to a regular school system are obtained from their peers. Shyers finally generalized that the best way for children to develop socially is to have more contact with adults (i.e. their parents) rather than contact with their peers. In contrast, Bowditch (2003) insisted that home-schooling is not a very good form of education when it comes to its capacity to develop children in the social aspect. She insisted that children need to be with peer groups and not rely solely on their parents for social interaction. While she admitted that home schooled children excel academically, she also pointed out that they do not have a proper sense of independence and self- maturity that other children acquire from a traditional method of education. She said that some social and practical characteristics such as problem solving skills are not easily learned outside the bounds of a regular education. Similarly de Acosta (2003), stated that although home schooled children succeed academically they may fail to develop nationalistic ideals. He reasoned out that due to social isolation and limited interaction the children may not be able to value their cultural heritage. This in turn, could possibly hinder their spirit of patriotism with regards to their country. He then pointed out that if a child is traditionally educated, he/she may be able to branch out and see different issues by being with different people in the same culture, while being educated by professionals who make it a point to instill the American spirit within. With another form of opinion, Jersild (1946) believed that traditional schools treat social concerns equally with intellectual ones. He stated that school takes up only a meager portion in a child's life and that there are a lot of “out-of-school” forces which
  • 22. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 14 can pose as a much stronger influence; hence, there is not much a school program can do, whether positively or negatively. However, Jersild also recognized that the school is still part of a child's social development; this is because since at this stage in life, failures and successes usually occur on school grounds. He affirmed that it is the school environment of adversity and competition that give strength to a child and satisfactorily molds him into a responsible citizen. Home-School Graduates in an American College According to Klicka (2003), home-schooled children in the United States place very well in college entrance examinations. He mentioned the fact that homeschoolers are well accepted in Christian colleges due to their Christian background. He then reports that colleges find home-schooled children better than those educated by the American public school system. Aside from that, he points out the fact that professors in different universities find home-schooled students better when it comes to academic performance as compared to those who were traditionally-educated. In knowledge of this, Klicka predicted that the population home-schooling families will continue to grow due to their positive results. Standard of Philippine Education According to de Leon (2011), the Philippines ranks 7th out of 9 with regards to educational standards in the Southeast Asian region. He mentioned that based on the regular primary education in the Philippines, the country has been ranked 99th out of 138 counties. He also stated that the traditional educational curriculum has caused the country to garner a meager 69th place in educational system and a shameful 112th
  • 23. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 15 when it came to Science and Math. Luz (as cited by de Leon), stressed that the educational system of the Philippines requires “rationalization.” Sinco (1959) pointed out that the country is in great need of an improved standard of public education. He believed that the government should concentrate on the assessment of the competence of teachers rather than focusing on the population of those available to teach. He also stated that public approval for financial aid is important. As cited by Sinco (1959), the American Rockfeller Report which was compiled by a reputable group of analysts produced some negative results regarding the educational system of the Philippines. The report, as mentioned by the author, stated that the educational system in the Philippines is in need of “an unsparing re-examination of current practices patterns of organizations and objectives”. Shortcomings and Needed Improvements in the System of Philippine Education Constantino (1967) emphasized a need for better teachers and administrators in order to improve the quality of education. According to him, being part of the clergy or a religious order does not automatically make one qualified to run an educational institution. He also mentioned that administrators must develop a positive approach that keeps in mind the dignity of the teachers; in doing so, those they supervise will know that they are truly respected. On the other hand, Constantino also believed that proper evaluation of the educator’s performance should regularly be given because it would aid in identification of the negative aspects, give credit to the positive and portray the overall improvement in the “teaching process”. He also pointed out that if the administrators do
  • 24. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 16 a good job in selecting competent educators, they would less likely encounter problems during the evaluation. In relation to this, the author insisted that administrators should not employ professionals who are incapable of teaching. He reasoned out that knowledge without the skill of teaching does not equate to giving good education. Another drawback cited by Sinco (1959) was the common act of automatic grade-to-grade promotion of students in the Philippines. According to the author, this affects the character of both the students and their parents. In his opinion, students expect simpler procedures of educational application; on the other hand, parents tend to pressure teachers into issuing passing grades for their children without regard for the performance of the child or his lack thereof. Based on the information gathered from various sources, it can be seen that home-schooling has become popular over the years; its methods and processes has been used by parents worldwide. The comparison, made by previous studies, of home- educated graduates and those who have been regularly educated has yielded various results. However, there has been virtually no information regarding the effects that the two curricula have on the Philippine setting, thus prompting the researchers to conduct this comparative study. The proponents have decided to compare home-education and traditional education in the Philippine setting.
  • 25. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 17 Chapter III Study Framework I. Theoretical Framework In his theory regarding the politics of education, Kliebard (2004) states that there are various forms of education which separately lead to a positive change in the human being. He also stresses out that through education, a person's ability and intelligence is constantly developed and improved; this then becomes catalyst to a positive change in himself towards the environment. According to the author, there are four ways of subjecting one's self to education. First, Kliebard mentions Social Efficiency which deals with equipping the students with a proper working attitude in order to become an asset to the economy. Humanism, on the other hand, as stated by the author, focuses on the cultural and social values such as literature and the arts. Social Meliorism, which is a common belief among education theorists such as Kliebard, insists that education should be taught in a manner that encourages students to improve the society. Lastly Kliebard mentions Developmentalism, which focuses on the needs of an individual learner. These four ways, as stated by Kliebard, do not need to be separated. In fact, he suggests that it should be synthesized with each other, in order to give a form of education deemed proper or needed by a society. Therefore, despite its variance in method, education still sets forth to bring a positive change in an individual through intellectual, social, and artistic improvement. This would then act as catalyst to the accomplishments a learner has done or will do.
  • 26. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 18 Figure 1 on the next page shows that when subjected to an education which articulates the combination of various subjection, humans tend to achieve more than what they could have without it. Through education humans greatly improve themselves, thus causing them to fulfill great achievements in his/her present time of learning and even beyond.
  • 27. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 19 Figure 1: Theoretical Framework S1 = subjected through Social Efficiency S2 = subjected through Humanism S3 = subjected through Social Meliorism S4 = subjected through Developmentalism Education S1 S2 S3 S4 Humans Improved Ability Great Achievement
  • 28. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 20 II. Conceptual Framework From the theory regarding the politics of education, it is clear that education greatly affects the human mind. From it, it can be said that man must receive proper education in order to develop critical thinking. The theories included various curricula used by different schools to ensure quality education. There are several curricula which are being used by schools that may be helpful to the students and may develop and improve their abilities as well. There are three curricula that were mentioned in the theoretical framework. One style of subjecting a certain curriculum is Social Efficiency, which aims to teach and prepare the students to serve the needs of the economy. In this curriculum, students are taught how to manage their time and put their abilities to work. It focuses on the workforce of the community thus, it prepares each student to cope with economic problems. On the other hand, Humanism is another form of subjection that teaches students about the cultural aspects of the community. It aims to prepare students to help and contribute in the fields of literature, history, arts, and science. Lastly, Developmentalism is a curriculum’s basis which focuses on the needs of the student. It is a curriculum specially designed to meet the intellectual capability of the student. It focuses on developing the student’s weaknesses. The aforementioned curricula greatly affect the way of thinking of every student. Students become who they are because of the lessons imparted to them. For example, if a student’s previous school focused on the Social Efficiency Curriculum, he will surely be ready to face the economic and practical world. If his education was based on the Humanism Curriculum, it is likely for him to excel in the fields of art, history and science. He is most likely to be very creative and innovative. On the other hand, if he was taught
  • 29. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 21 based on the Developmentalism Curriculum, he may most likely excel in his own field of interest. Students under this curriculum usually excel in their preferred field of work; the situation may vary based on their interest. Figure 2 on the next page illustrates the flow of the fundamental concepts of the study. As shown, the curriculum used develops and improves a student’s distinct abilities. This in turn may serve as a catalyst for further accomplishments in the student’s lifetime.
  • 30. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 22 Figure 2: Conceptual Framework S1 = subjected through Social Efficiency S2 = subjected through Humanism S3 = subjected through Social Meliorism S4 = subjected through Developmentalism Curriculum S1 S2 S3 S4 Students Improved Ability Scholastic Achievement
  • 31. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 23 III. Operational Framework This framework shows the relationship between the theories and concepts previously presented with the specific variables involved in this study. Having established that curriculum improves human ability and ultimately causes great achievements, it is clearly seen that not only is curriculum important, so is the type induced. In today's society, traditional schooling is known as the most common form of educational curriculum subjected to students. It is used as a basic standard of education worldwide, and has produced competent, if not excellent graduates into society. Homeschooling on the other hand, is considered as an unusual paradigm of an educational curriculum, producing occasional achievements that become more often as the years go by. Although currently used by a relative few in the Philippines, the numbers are currently growing in a considerable rate. The two curricula claim to have subjected their students to intellectual, social, cultural, and artistic awareness, while targeting individual development at the same time. If so, those who have graduated from such curricula be it home-school or traditional education, are assumed to have a considerable amount of improvement in their various abilities. Such betterment could possibly be catalyst to their academic and social performance in a regular college education in an affluent school such as Ateneo de Manila University. Figure 3 on the next page specifies that homeschooling or traditional education causes an improvement in their graduates' abilities. The results of such are seen in their academic and social performance in regular tertiary education in Ateneo de Manila University.
  • 32. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 24 Figure 3: Operational Framework S1 = subjected through Social Efficiency S2 = subjected through Humanism S3 = subjected through Social Meliorism S4 = subjected through Developmentalism Traditional/Home-schooled Curriculum S1 S2 S3 S4 Graduates Improved Ability Academic and Social Performance in Ateneo de Manila University
  • 33. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 25 Chapter IV Research Methodology The proponents chose the qualitative research design, which aims to achieve an in depth understanding regarding the topic, mainly making use of the case-study method. This is a detailed study that deals with an in depth analysis of a particular unit which is descriptive and directly related to a certain context. This was chosen due to the fact that the study aimed to find the informants' thoughts and opinions regarding the effects their previous method of education has on their academic and social performance in college. Research Design The study made use of non-probability sampling. The non-probability sampling procedure leaves the choice of respondents up to the proponents, instead of chance, thus not all members of the population are given an opportunity to participate in the study. Under such procedure the study made use snowballing method which gained respondents through a referral network. Sampling Method The participants in this study are six (6) students who spent their freshman year in Ateneo de Manila University; three (3) of them were home school graduates, while the other three (3) graduated from a regular high-school educational system. These six (6) informants were chosen according to a referral network. Research Participants
  • 34. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 26 A profile form contained basic data for the purpose of identification and general information, such as name, age, etc. The interview guide, however, was a set of 15 open-ended questions with various follow-up questions of the same kind, and was divided into two categories, specifically: (a) academic and (b) social. Research Instrument The basic profile form was sent to the informants via email on February 8, 2012. The interview, which was done via Skype, a voice-over internet software, with a simultaneous recording, was conducted on February 9 – February 19. Data Collection The informants were asked to answer questions, to cite experiences, and to express their opinions with regards to the effect their previous method of education have on their current college life, both in the social and academic aspect. With regards to the latter, aside from gathering in-depth views of their perspective, the proponents submitted a certified true copy of their grades for the first semester of school year 2011- 2012. The recorded interview was then transcribed into notes which served as the data in this study. The researchers then matched the provided basic information ( i.e. sex, name, age etc.) given by the respondents to the respected data they have provided through the interview. The data was then separated into two groups: (a) home schooled group and (b) traditionally educated group. The intragroup data was then compared for similarities and identified for differences with relation to the basic demographic data from the profile form. On the other hand, the inter-group data was contrasted for Data Analysis
  • 35. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 27 differences and compared for similarities as well. From the gathered analysis the researchers were able to compare the different effects of home-education and traditional education in the tertiary level of the Philippine setting.
  • 36. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 28 Chapter V Presentation, Interpretation, and Analysis of Data In this chapter, the data gathered from selected informants will be presented, interpreted and analyzed. They are then divided into five parts. The first is the informant’s academic background, followed by their personal background, which both identify factors that could possibly affect their current opinions. The third and fourth part show their social outlooks and academic experiences respectively. I. Informant’s Academic Background In this section, the informant’s academic background was asked for the researchers to be able to compare the advantages and disadvantages of the methods of education Table 1 Academic Background of the Informants Name of Informants Academic Background Ram Nicholas S. Guevara Home – educated Mark Justin Reyes Home – educated Joshua Argosino Home – educated Roy Roberto Felipe Traditionally Educated Yanna Lopez Traditionally Educated Joshua Aguila Traditionally Educated
  • 37. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 29 Table 1 shows the method of education of each informant in the secondary level. Joshua Argosino, Ram Nicholas Guevara, and Mark Justin Reyes are all home-school graduates, while the remaining informants Joshua Aguila, Roy Roberto Felipe, and Yanna Lopez are graduates from a traditional method of education. Their previous methods of education have affected their performances in the tertiary level academically and socially. Number of Years Home-schooled The number of years a homeschooler was homeschooled prior to entering college is a factor in his performance in the latter field. A larger number of years suggest a greater amount of subjection to the said curriculum. On the other hand, a lesser number of years suggest a smaller amount of subjection to homeschooling, and a greater amount of subjection to traditional education. Table 2 Number of Years Home-schooled Name of Informant Years Home-schooled Joshua Argosino 9 Ram Nicholas Guevara 8 Mark Justin Reyes 5 Presented in Table 2 is the number of years each home-schooled informant was homeschooled prior to entering college, in decreasing order. Joshua Argosino is noted
  • 38. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 30 to have the most number of years, having had 9 years of homeschooling before entering college. From this, it can be assumed that the said informant has a greater need for adjustment in the social and academic aspect of college. It was noticeable that this certain respondent had the most inputs as compared to the other two. On the other hand Mark Justin Reyes is seen to have only 5 years of homeschooling prior to college. The 5 years, imply that his other years were spent in a regular system of education, therefore this informant can be considered to have more exposure to the method of education in a regular tertiary level, in a Philippine setting. His answers were often very similar ot those traditionally educated, but it still held a slight difference. II. Informant’s Personal Background Age Upon interviewing the informants, the researchers placed great significance in their respective ages. Age, is considered a significant factor since it is co-relational to a student’s adaptation skills. This is supported by a study conducted by Knapp (2006), which concluded that upon reaching the age of 18, the brain starts to change its structure around the areas that store emotions and information. Therefore, as a person gets older his or her mental capabilities are assumed to get better and better. The researchers believe that the older the informant, the more likely he or she will be able to adapt better socially and academically to a new environment, specifically entering a tertiary level of education.
  • 39. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 31 Table 3.1 Age of Homeschooled Informants Name of Informant Age Ram Nicholas Guevara 20 Joshua Argosino 18 Mark Justin Reyes 18 Table 3.1 shows the homeschooled informant’s ages in decreasing order, with Ram Nicholas Guevara being the eldest at 20 years old, and Joshua Argosino, and Mark Justin Reyes being younger at 18 years old. In this case Ram Nicholas Guevara is considered to have greater mental development in comparison to the remaining informants, Joshua Argosino and Mark Justin Reyes, who are two years younger than him. Table 3.2 Age of Traditionally Educated Informants Name of Informant Age Joshua Aguila 19 Roy Roberto Felipe 19 Yanna Lopez 18
  • 40. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 32 Table 3.2 shows the ages of traditionally educated informants in decreasing order. Joshua Aguila and Roy Roberto Felipe are both older at 19 years old, while Yanna Lopez remains the youngest at 18. From the gathered data it can be said that Joshua Aguila has developed the most mentally, while Yanna Lopez, has developed the least. Annual Family Income An informant’s family income indirectly plays a factor, since it determines one’s social class. A social class has a certain effect on a child’s environment and upbringing, thus possibly affecting his socialization. From the data gathered, it is noticeable that all of the informants range from the upper-middle class (500,000 – 2,000,000 pesos) to the upper class (2,000,000 pesos onwards). This is clearly manifested in the fact that all of the informants attend Ateneo de Manila, one of the country’s most expensive schools, with an average tuition fee of 75,000 pesos per semester, which is dependent on one’s course. According to Peirce (2009), people from the upper and upper-middle class have mannerisms distinct from others of the other social classes. She states that they are socialized for a higher culture, which includes playing musical instruments. All of the informants play classical musical instruments, most commonly the violin. They also belong to a higher level of musical learning, ranging from Grades 4-10 of the Suzuki method, a musical curriculum established by a Japanese virtuoso of the same name. At the same time, Miller, as cited by Pierce (2009), conducted a study that proved how a student’s social class affected his/her aspirations. He also concluded that materials, opportunities, as well as one’s attitude towards education, is associated with
  • 41. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 33 one’s social class, making it a factor for the informants’ academic and social performance in college. A sibling could be a factor when it comes to one’s socialization. For the homeschooled informants, it could provide more social interaction with a person relatively close to his/her age. In the case of those traditionally educated, it provides additional interaction outside the bounds of their educational system. Aside from that it brings more variety when it comes to the age and maturity level of the people they interact with. Siblings Table 4.1 Number of Siblings of Home-schooled Informants Name of Informant Number of Sibling(s) Ram Nicholas Guevara 5 Joshua Argosino 2 Mark Justin Reyes 1 Table 4.1 shows the number of sibling the home-schooled informants have. This is shown in decreasing order with Ram Nicholas Guevara having the most with 5 siblings, and Mark Justin Reyes having the least with 1 sibling.
  • 42. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 34 Table 4.2 Number of Siblings of Traditionally Educated Informants Name of Informant Number of Sibling(s) Joshua Aguila 3 Roy Roberto Felipe 1 Yanna Lopez 1 In decreasing order, Table 4.2 shows the number of siblings traditionally educated informants’ have. Joshua Aguila appears to have the most with three siblings; this shows a great deviance in the socialization of different ages and perspectives. On the other hand Roy Roberto Felipe and Yanna Lopez both have 1 sibling each, which implies a limited deviance. Parents Marital Status According to Keith & Finlay (1998), parental divorce has an effect on a child’s educational attainment. They also mentioned that it could possibly affect their self- esteem and social outlook in terms of trusting other people. Therefore, the researchers have decided to include the marital status of the informants’ parents as a factor in tertiary academic and social performance. However there was no significant difference, since of all the informants’ parents are currently married to each other.
  • 43. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 35 Another considerable factor is the informant’s sex. This is considered a factor, since a person’s sex affects the way he/she thinks. Most males are said to be rational, while females tend to act based on their emotions. In turn it also affects the way a informant makes decisions and the way he/she acts upon those decisions. Sex Table 5.1 Sex of Homeschooled Informants Name of Informant Sex Joshua Argosino Male Nicholas Guevara Male Mark Justin Reyes Male Table 5.1 shows the homeschooled informants’ sex. It clearly presents that all informants in this group are male. From this we can assume that the answers they have given are based from a rational perspective.
  • 44. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 36 Table 5.2 Sex of Traditionally Educated Informants Name of Informant Sex Joshua Aguila Male Roy Roberto Felipe Male Yanna Lopez Female Table 5.2 presents the sexes of the traditionally educated informants. It shows that there are two males, namely Joshua Aguila and Roy Roberto Felipe. The remaining informant, Yanna Lopez is female. Religion greatly affects a person’s beliefs. It also shapes a person’s opinions, and his/her outlook towards the situations he/she is currently faced with. Therefore, the informants have decided to include religion as a factor which affects a person’s academic and social performance in college. Religion
  • 45. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 37 Table 6.1 Religion of Homeschooled Informants Name of Informant Religion Joshua Argosino Evangelical Christian Ram Nicholas Guevara Evangelical Christian Mark Justin Reyes Evangelical Christian Table 6.1 shows that all home-educated informants are Evangelical Christians. This shows that the respondents are a conservative group of people who have grown up in modern Protestant families. People of this religion are commonly known to have strong family ties and strong personal convictions. Table 6.2 Religion of Traditionally Educated Informants Name of Informant Religion Roy Roberto Felipe Evangelical Christian Yanna Lopez Evangelical Christian Joshua Aguila Roman Catholic Table 6.2 shows the traditionally educated informant’s religion. Roy Roberto Felipe and Yanna Lopez are both Evangelical Christians, while Joshua Aguila remains to be the only Roman Catholic informant.
  • 46. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 38 III. Informant’s Current Social Outlook The current study’s first sub-problem was about the social capabilities of home educated children in comparison to those traditionally educated, in a Philippine setting of tertiary education, specifically in Ateneo de Manila University. Social Changes upon Entering College The home-schooled informants have common answers to the question on the differences their current social life had with their previous one. Most of them agreed that they had a more active social life upon reaching college, although there were no drastic changes. One informant, namely Mark Justin Reyes, answered with the statement, “Ano, I can honestly say na sa college lang na develop yung social life ko”. (I can honestly say that it was only in college that my social life was developed.) According to them, this was because they had the opportunity to associate themselves with other people specifically their classmates. This is closely related to Bowditch’s (2003) study which concluded that children develop better social characteristics when immersed with more company preferably that of a nearer age range. Furthermore, when asked in what way their social life became more active, one homeschooler, Joshua Argosino responded with the statement, “When I was in high school I only went out during the weekends, but when I got into college parang…BAM! Nag expand siya exponentially…I had more activities” (When I was in high school I only went out during the weekends, but when I got into college it was like…BAM! It expanded exponentially…I had more activities.) Another, Ram Nicholas Guevara,
  • 47. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 39 mentioned, “Back in homeschool I really didn’t have classmates as you would know…now in college I have more friends.” On the other hand, the informants who were traditionally educated stated that there were no noticeable changes in the social aspect. One traditionally educated informant, Roy Roberto Felipe said, “It was like...yeah…normal social life, I mean with classmates with friends.” This could be due to the fact that the social structure in college is not very different with the social structure in a regular high school, since it involves having classmates and learning together with others as well. However, when the home-educated informants were asked if they had a hard time adjusting to the bigger social scale, they claimed to not have had undergone any drastic changes. One of them, Joshua Argosino responded with the statement, “…parang wala lang yung transition, I never felt different from my classmates…” (…the transition was nothing significant, I never felt different from my classmates…). Both sets of statements could imply that traditionally educated students have a lesser need for adjustment in the social aspect of entering college, compared to those who were home-educated. This could be due to the fact that those regularly educated are used to having classmates who learn along with them. However, the homeschoolers, despite not being used to the new social environment, can be perceived to have good coping skills. They admit to having changes, but to adjusting well to a good college social life despite it.
  • 48. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 40 Friendliness As the informants were asked the question regarding how friendly they were, most of them considered themselves as fairly amiable. A certain homeschooler, Ram Nicholas Guevara responded, “I’m a very friendly person…I’m never shy.” which was similar to Mark Justin Reyes’, another homeschooler, response, “I’m very friendly, I just love meeting new people.” Another informant, Roy Roberto Felipe who was educated regularly said, “Most of my friends tell me I’m easy to make friends with.” This was closely related to another answer from an informant of the same educational background, Yanna Lopez, who stated, “I have always been a people person. During org events, I am often assigned to station myself near the venue's entrance so that I may welcome everyone who attends.” However, a certain homeschooled informant, Joshua Argosino, seemed to differ in his answer. He gave himself 4 out of 5 in his own rating of friendliness. He added an additional statement which said, “Sometimes mahihiya ako.” (Sometimes I get shy). Upon given a follow-up question of whether homeschooling has had an effect on his being shy, the informant said, “Regardless talaga. It’s because of my personality, not because I’m homeschooled.” (Definitely regardless; it’s because of my personality, not because I’m homeschooled.) It can be assumed that a method of education does not have a direct effect on a child’s social personality. This coincides with Jersild’s (1946) belief that a school does not necessarily change or create a child’s personality. According to him, there are a lot
  • 49. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 41 of out-of-school factors that affect a child’s personality, and a method of education is a small if often insignificant factor in his social traits. Approaching People The informants were given questions about how they approached people, specifically if they approach people first or wait to be approached. Informants who were traditionally educated gave varying answers. Yanna Lopez said that she was fine with approaching new people, another gave a statement saying, “It depends on the situation.”, while the remaining traditionally educated informant, namely Mark Justin Reyes said, “I don’t approach a person, unless kailangan ko talaga.” (I don’t approach a person unless I really have to.) On the other hand the informants who were homeschooled gave relatively consistent answers. Although the previously mentioned home-schooled informant with a shy personality admitted that he usually allows the other person to speak first, the other two informants, Ram Nicholas Guevara and Mark Justin Reyes, claimed to approach new people all the time. Furthermore, one home-educated informant, Ram Nicholas Guevara said, “Back in home-school, when I entered the swim team, I was new. Nobody approached me but I approached them. Most of them were shy…they were regularly educated kids…” This is actually supported by a study conducted by Shyers (1992), in which he noticed that homeschooled children tended to approach those who regularly educated in a quiet but assertive manner. He also mentioned that the latter group of children tended to be aggressive but failed to approach other children for interaction.
  • 50. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 42 From this, it can be said that traditional students tend to think twice about approaching a new person; they weigh the situation before choosing to/to not approach a new person. This could probably be a sign of self-consciousness or hesitance. On the other hand home-educated graduates seem to have no problem with approaching new people. They show an innate sense of confidence, and seem to have strong but humble beliefs regarding themselves and their abilities Interaction with the Opposite Sex In response to the questions regarding how comfortable they were with approaching the opposite sex, the researchers received the same answers from all informants of both groups. All informants claim to be comfortable in approaching the opposite sex, and seemed to have no inhibitions in developing friendships with them. They gave answers such as, “I have no problem approaching the opposite sex.”, “I have no inhibitions.”, and “I appreciate close brotherly friendships,” the latter statement coming from a female informant, Yanna Lopez. Therefore, there is no significant difference between the ways informants of both groups view the opposite sex. All the informants, whether home-schooled or traditional seem comfortable with boy-girl interaction and inter-gender friendships. Romantic Relationships When it comes to romantic relationships there are differences not only between the two groups (homeschooling and traditional), but within as well.
  • 51. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 43 Two out of three informants who were traditionally educated have been involved in a romantic relationship. These official relationships, usually last for 8 months or more. On the other hand, most home-educated informants would love to have a relationship, but prefer to wait. One of them, Joshua Argosino responded with the statement, “No, I like someone, we hang out, but I’ve never pursued anyone…I want to, but I want to better myself first before presenting myself to the opposite sex.” However, one home- educated informant Ram Nicholas Guevara claimed to have an M.U., which is an unofficial relationship where both parties are aware of the presence of romantic feelings they have for each other, but they choose not to make it official. That certain informant related his experience by saying, I guess it was kind of natural, because me and the girl were growing close to each other. She was also home-schooled, and our continuous relationship to each other thru text and YM attracted us to each other. I met her in one of the extra-curricular activities which was art class Based on the gathered information traditionally educated students have no inhibitions when it comes to pursuing official relationships. In contrast, home-educated graduates prefer to wait for the “right time” to have a relationship. This can be explained by Fariss’ (2009) article which states that most parents who home-school instill in their children the discipline of delaying romantic relationships until one is ready for marriage. This indicates that home-educated children have strong relationships with their parents, considering they put obedience above their own wants and satisfactions. However, it is clearly seen that despite a relative lack of socialization, home-schoolers are not exempt from romantic feelings, and from acting upon it as well.
  • 52. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 44 Personal Convictions When confronted with the question of whether or not they partied at night, the informants gave a unanimous no. This was followed by an explanation that they attend other parties, such as debuts and block parties, but they draw the line when it comes to partying at night. The home-educated informants were noticed to have a lot to say about the subjects and its related morally questionable areas as well. One informant, Mark Justin Reyes said, “A lot of my classmates like to go on drinking, but for me..., I just refuse to take part of it.” Another one, namely Ram Nicholas Guevara mentioned, Well, personally, once you go to a bar you have to drink, one of my personal preferences was not to drink alcoholic beverages. The type of people in that setting are not exactly the most …I should say, morally upright people. My parents raised me in that sort of way. When I entered into college, I met people that constantly invited me to drinking parties and going to the bar, with my mom being my teacher in home-school who taught me not to succumb to peer pressure. He then goes on to say, “Family is very important. Homeschooling develops greater family ties.” In relation to this another informant mentions a statement, “In home-school personal convictions are ingrained in you because you really learn from your parents. It’s ingrained more strongly.” With these statements, the parent-child relationship is clearly seen once again. This is a manifestation of Shyers’ (1992) study, which concluded that home-educated
  • 53. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 45 children know better since their parents influence them more than their peers. This could also linked to Bowditch’s (2003) article, in which he concluded that homeschoolers tend to lack a sense of maturity and self independence, by relying on their parents decisions. The discussion moved on to another topic which was opened by a certain informant, Joshua Argosino, as he said, “One of the things I couldn't handle socially in college was the cussing. Classmates would usually ask me, ‘Josh, bakit hindi ka nagmumura?’ It always a struggle cause you're around people who say these words all the time.” (One of the things I couldn’t handle in college was the cussing. Classmates would usually ask me, “Josh, why don’t you curse?” It’s always a struggle cause you’re around people who say those words all the time.) The discussion went on and he said some very striking words regarding character. All of the things you learn in school you can learn anywhere. In homeschool you get to develop your character. Math and Biology is only useful until a point. People are always gonna look at your character right? That's who you are and in home-schooling, yun talaga yung focus ng parents at ng system ang developemnt of character. I find it such a help, kasi parang I find myself more confident and more secure in knowing what I should do in any situation. (All of the things you learn in school you can learn anywhere. In homeschool you get to develop your character. Math and Biology is only useful until a point. People are always gonna look at your character right? That's who you are, and in home-schooling,your parents along with the system focus on developing your
  • 54. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 46 character. I find it such a help, cause it’s like I find myself more confident and more secure in knowing what I should do in any situation.) Those who were traditionally educated, on the other hand, never mentioned anything about family ties or personal convictions. Therefore, it can be seen that they are less vocal regarding their beliefs. Homeschoolers on the other hand, seem to have strong family ties, due to the fact that they spend so much time with them. By doing so, they are influenced more and more by their parents. Traditional students spend relatively more time with their peers, but the family relationship depends on a case-to- case basis, specifically on how a family chooses to spend the time they have together. It also seen that homeschoolers have great convictions with regards to moral character. Traditional students seem to be more exposed, tolerable, and flexible upon encountering a morally questionable act. This could be because they have more experience in dealing with various personalities, some of which have characteristics which are considered less moral in society. From assessing the data mentioned above, the researchers can presume that there is only a slight difference when it comes to personal social interaction between the two groups, and their previous method of education has no direct effect on it. However, the home-educated students are greatly different when it comes to their social life in a larger scale. They experience greater changes, upon entering college, thus bringing in a greater need for adjustment. Despite such, they seem to cope well, and adjust quickly to the current social life they have now, which is reported previously by Ray (2004), homeschoolers develop well, and therefore, they are able to handle social adjustments easily.
  • 55. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 47 IV. Informant’s Current Academic Experience The current study’s second academic sub-problem was about the academic experiences of home-educated in comparison to those traditionally educated, in a Philippine setting of tertiary education. College Professors It was noticeable that the informants who were home-educated reported that it wasn’t a big adjustment for them to have different teachers. An informant who was previously home-schooled, Joshua Argosino, stated, “I mean, you know how it is na , it wasn't a big adjustment, very minor lang siya, the only thing I had to get used to was the teacher not caring; I had to view him on a professional level.” (I mean, you know how it is. It wasn’t a big adjustment, it was very minor. The only thing I had to get used to was the teacher not caring; I had to view him on a professional level). The home-educated informants admitted that they are used to their parents as their teachers. They did not also worry about committing mistakes because there is a personal mentor who will correct them. To support such claims, parents prefer home-education more than the traditional way. According to Rothermel (2002), parents prefer home-education rather than traditional education because of these three reasons which include the following: (a) there was an interest in alternative education and (b) the presence of school-related problems. Because of psychological imbalances in a child due to his previous attendance at several schools, home-education became the preferred option. The
  • 56. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 48 student is more comfortable if he is educated at home because he is given more freedom to participate in lessons since there is no fear of judgment. Another informant from the same group, Ram Nicholas Guevara answered, “No, it wasn’t really difficult.” When asked to explain why there never was a difficulty, or why the adjustment was very minor, the researchers found that it was due to the kind of home-educational system. A home-educated informant explained, “Ano kasi, when I was homeschooled we had different art requirements, so we had classes regularly arranged we’d hire a teacher together with other homeschoolers sabay sabay kami, sama-sama.” (It’s like this, when I was homeschooled we had different art requirements, so we had classes regularly arranged, we’d hire a teacher together with other homeschoolers. We’d learn together.) Another homeschooler explained his previous educational system by saying, “In my home school curriculum, I had an online curriculum, where I had cyber teachers, where I emailed different teachers from all around… in homeschooling we’re required to have extra co activity, like art classes, music classes, which we took with other students as well.” These statements do not only explain why the home-educated informants only had to go through a minor adjustment with regards to having teachers educating them instead of their parents, it also explains why they adjusted easily to learning along with others once they entered college. The traditionally educated informants, who have had different teachers throughout their primary and secondary education, seem to have a lesser or no need for adjustment upon entering college. However they claim to have a problem with teachers who have difficult personalities, or seem to lack in some areas of skill and competency.
  • 57. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 49 A certain informant, Roy Roberto Felipe who was traditionally educated reported, “Actually I do (have difficulty), especially if the professor is really stubborn, and doesn't know what to teach at all”. Another informant, Yanna Lopez who graduated from the same curriculum gave her opinion stating, “It was difficult for the teacher to attend to our individual needs.” What was striking was the fact that a home-educated informant, Joshua Argosino, mentioned a statement that contrasted with the opinions of the traditionally educated informants, he said, You know how sometimes pag terror ang teacher moh, you get to develop this attitude na mahirap siya intindihin. As a homeschooler I get to see things from a teachers perspective, in a more mature way. My parents taught me how to understand the teacher's perspective. (You know how sometimes if you have a terror teacher, you get to develop this attitude that he/she is hard to understand as a person. As a homeschooler I get to see things from a teacher’s perspective, in a more mature way. My parents taught me how to understand the teacher's perspective.) This statement once again shows the great influence parents have on home- educated children. Because they interact the most with their parents they tend to develop a greater sense of maturity as compared to those who interact with people who are less or just as mature as they are.
  • 58. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 50 From the data gathered it is evident that home-educated children have a greater need for adjustment upon entering college, specifically in dealing with college professors. However the adjustment is minor, due to the fact that they have had exposure in dealing with mentors from extra –curricular activities and cyber teachers. The informants who were traditionally educated, on the other hand, seemed to have a lot to say regarding a professor’s personality and capability. They cite that there is a difficulty in class because of these teachers. However, home-educated children claim not to have a problem with a personality-challenged professor, claiming to have a mature perspective, which was gained from interaction with their parents. Academic Discipline The discussion moved on to the academic discipline in college, which refers to the regulations students set for themselves when it comes to the fulfillment of academic requirements. The discussion was centered mostly on deadlines. The answers given by both groups were very similar; they both stated that they had no problems with deadlines, since they prefer to do the work ahead of time. The traditionally educated informants gave answers such as, “I try to do things ahead of time.” And “I’m pretty okay with deadlines.” Similarly, the informants who were home educated said, “In college I don’t have any problems with deadlines, but I’m stricter on myself now, because I know my mom isn’t my teacher anymore.” and “Concerning deadlines, I submit on or before the date.”
  • 59. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 51 As the discussion went on it was noticeable that a home-schooled informant mentioned how he developed a sense of discipline in relation to deadlines. One homeschooler, Ram Nicholas Guevara said, When I was homeschooled I developed a sense of discipline which was unusual in a home-schooler, cause we tend to slack it off, and delay it for the next day. But, I went through that stage, where I got really delayed, and I had to adjust, after that I developed an innate sense of discipline by myself. Upon encountering the statement mentioned above, the researchers noticed a few statements given by home-educated informantsthat were related one way or another. These were Joshua Argosino’s and Mark Justin Reyes’ respectively,: When I was home schooled everything was at my own place. There are times wherein I’m really lazy and all that, it might affect me in the long run but in traditional schooling, if I get lazy there’s a deadline so no matter, parang magagawa pa rin siya. Pero sa home schooled for example yun nga if I get lazy there’s a time na hindi ko siya matapos. (When I was homeschooled everything was at my own place. There are times wherein I’m really lazy and all that, it might affect me in the long run but in traditional schooling, if I get lazy there’s a deadline so not matter what, it’s like I still have to do it. But in homeschooling for example if I get lazy there’s a time when I really can’t finish it.) I had lack of initiative. My parents would pressure me, I'd do it for thirty minutes,
  • 60. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 52 but later on I'd be doing something else. It really depends on the system that the parents set.” Judging from these statements, it is evident that in home-schooling one works at his/her own pace. A traditionally educated informant, Yanna Lopez commented, “In homeschooling they’re more comfortable they learn at their own pace.” This also coincided with another statement given by a home-educated informant, Ram Nicholas Guevara who said, “I was used to setting my own schedule waking up at my own pace, studying my own time. When college came along, that kind of disappeared.” However, a student’s setting of his own pace, doesn’t necessarily have negative effects on his sense of discipline. This was evident in the striking testimonial of homeschooler, Ram Nicholas Guevara who said, Many home-school students wake up late, study late, and end up graduating later. Before I would be studying on a table and I could get up anytime go to the kitchen eat something, then five minutes later I get up again and eat something. It's more laid back, but it causes a student to develop a sense of discipline on his own, to conquer a lazy lifestyle once he realizes the consequences. This was similar to another informant’s (Joshua Argosino) answer which said, Yung pacing mo kase can be both advantage and disadvantage. First of all, disadvantage … if you get lazy, you might tend to not do it talaga. Pero it’s also an advantage because you may advance your studies. So for example if your
  • 61. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 53 school year is one year maybe you could cut it into half, well it’s up to you din talaga. (Your pacing can be both advantage and disadvantage. First of al, it’s a disadvantage because if you get lazy you might not be able to do it at all. But, it’s also an advantage because you may advance your studies. So for example, if your school year is one year maybe you could cut it into half; it’s just up to you. ) Another home-educated informant, Mark Justin Reyes said, The institution provides deadlines for the whole school year, but they could decide if they could finish on, before or after deadliness, but with respective consequences. In home school I developed a personal sense of discipline that I develop on my own and was not forced upon me. From the gathered data, it is seen that informants from both groups have no problem dealing with deadlines, and prefer to work on them before-hand. It was also noticeable that the informants educated traditionally did not need to adjust with regards to the pressure of deadlines; on the other hand those who experienced home-education seem to have or to lack a sense of academic discipline due to the freedom of setting their own pace. They are given opportunities to develop that discipline on their own. However, this is situational and mainly depends on the student’s initiative or on the system the parents set to supplement his/her home education.
  • 62. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 54 Group Work Although it wasn’t part of the questionnaire, two out of three home-educated informants mentioned something about group work, without being prompted by the researchers. It has already been established that homeschoolers learn by themselves academically, since social interaction with people their age is limited to extra-curricular activities, such as art, music, P.E., and the like. However, what was striking, were the statements these two informants, namely Ram Nicholas Guevara and Joshua Argosino, respectively gave. One of which said, “During group works, I'm frequently assigned the leader. Maybe it's because I want to excel, and my classmates recognize that. They know I work hard.” The other informant mentioned, “It's very situational, but when it comes to group works, everybody assigns me as a key member” These statements, not only imply academic excellence, it also shows the fact that they receive an amount of respect from their classmates, who choose them to be leaders during group work. This coincides with Shyers (1992) study where it was concluded that home-educated children work better in groups compared to those traditionally educated. This could be because of their great sense of maturity, and the discipline that they have developed by themselves for themselves.
  • 63. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 55 Chapter VI Summary of Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations The study aimed to find out if home-educated students are competitive enough in the tertiary level of education in the Philippine setting. The researchers identified two sub-problems, (a) social and (b) academic aspect, and narrowed the scope down to Ateneo de Manila University in a case study with 6 respondents. The respondent’s answers were evaluated and analyzed to come up with the following findings. Social Aspect of College Both home-educated and traditionally educated students relate well with other people on a personal setting, but homeschoolers have a larger need for adjustment once they enter college, due to the fact they now learn academically with others as well. Traditionally educated respondents, often think twice about approaching new people, while the home-educated ones seem to handle newcomers very well. Students who were traditionally educated are comfortable with the idea of a romantic relationship, while homeschooled students prefer to “wait for the right time.” Both sets seemed comfortable with being friends with the opposite sex. Homeschoolers also bring along with them great personal convictions and are very vocal around it as well. At the same time, they seem to be more mature, and have been greatly influenced by their parents.
  • 64. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 56 Academic Aspect With regards to the academic aspect, traditionally educated students have an edge when it comes to practical performance, such as deadlines and difficult teachers. This is because they experience a lesser change with regards to the teaching methods. However, despite having a hard time initially, homeschoolers easily adjust to these changes as well. They were trained to develop a sense of academic discipline on their own, which led to an easier adjustment when it came to deadlines in college. At the same time, homeschoolers seem to understand the difficult teachers more, since they are used to seeing things from a more mature perspective, this being a manifestation of their constant interaction with their parents. There is so significant difference between the academic performance with regards to subject preference, knowledge, or skill. However, homeschoolers seem to work well in groups despite having undergone previous years of education without it.
  • 65. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 57 Conclusion Based on the findings the researchers conclude, that home educated students are competitive enough in a tertiary level of education in the Philippine setting. Traditional students do have an initial advantage, but homeschoolers are well developed that they handle changes easily. These bring the two groups into equal footing in the academic and social aspect of college life, after a given few months of adjustment. Traditional schooling requires less adjustment, upon entering college. This method of education causes less change in the academic learning style. Home- education, on the other hand, is better in the aspect of social development. This method causes a child to learn to develop socially with more mature people (their parents), and with people their age as well (homeschoolers in extra-curricular activities).
  • 66. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 58 Recommendation It is recommended that the future researchers would interview the informants together, rather than having the interviews done individually; in this way, there may be a better sharing of ideas. In our case, we interviewed our informants individually. We have realized that it is better if we interview them together so as to see a clear and immediate comparison on the process of interviewing. A group interview is at the same time a brainstorming session with the informants. Through it, the researcher would be able to picture the similarities and differences of their answers immediately. The researchers also recommend future related studies to have a wider range of informants, in order to have a more reliable comparison, and a smaller margin of error. In order to find out which method of education is truly superior to the other, there should be a greater sample size, and all students of both methods should be given an equal chance to participate in the study. The researchers also recommend that demographic data be analyzed and co-related with the academic and social results. Lastly, it is recommended that the informants should be selected from various schools around the Philippines, and turn the study into a combination of qualitative and quantitative data analysis, through demographics and opinionated interviews. It is better to select informants from various schools for the researchers to compare the difference of their school environment. There is also a possibility for the researcher to see different aspects and situations that might have affected the academic and social developments of both methods of education thus, giving a more extensive research.
  • 67. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 59 Works Cited Research Papers (Printed) Jersild, A. (1946). Child development and the curriculum. Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, New York. Rudner, L. (1999). Scholastic achievements and demographic characteristics of home-schooled children. . University of Maryland, Baltimore. Shyers, L. (1992). A comparison of social adjustment between home and traditionally schooled students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. Research papers (Online) Ray, B. (2011) 2.04 million students in the United States by 2010. (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation) Retrieved from National Home Education Research Institute, Nevada. Ray, B. D. (2010). Academic Achievement and Demographic Traits of Home school Students: A Nationwide Study. Retrieved from: analysis-reports/academic-achievement-and-demographic-traits-homeschool-students- nationwide-study?library_node=25141 Academic Journals Bowditch, G. (2003). Home Schooling Deprives Children of Important Social Lessons. In Home Schooling , 61-63 de Acosta, M. d. (2003). Home-Schooled Students May Fail to Learn America's Cultural Heritage. In Home Schooling , 80-81 Klicka, C. (2003). Home-Schooled Students Excel in College. In Home Schooling , 90-96. Lyman, I. (1998). Homeschooling: Back to the Future. CATO Institute , 6-7.
  • 68. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 60 Books Constantino, R. (1967). How Philippine Education can be Improved. Manila: Insular Packing Corporation. Sinco, V. (1959). Education in Philippine Society. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Publications Office. Electronic Sources de Leon, M. V. (2011, June 15). Philippine education ranked 'poor'. Retrieved January 16, 2012, from ABS-CBN News: education-ranked-poor Farris, M.(2009) Delaying romantic relationships until ready for marriage (italicized). Retrieved from: Jerry, M. (2007, February 2). Homeschooling Statistics: Numbers Do Not Lie. Retrieved January 17, 2012, from Ezine Articles: Statistics:-Numbers-Do-Not-Lie&id=439470 Keith, V., Finlay, B. (1988). The impact of parental divorce on a child's educational attainment. Journal of Marriage and Family (italicized), 797-809. Knapp, B.(2006). Physical changes in brain structure (italicized). Retrieved from: Pierce, D.(2009). How does social class affect Socialization within the family (italicized). Retrieved from: socialisation-within-the-family/ Reich, R. (2011, January 5). Home Schooling. Retrieved January 17, 2012, from Stanford University: schooling/
  • 69. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 61 Rothermel, P. (2002, September 14). Home-Education: Aims, Practices and Outcomes . Retrieved January 17, 2012, from Leeds:
  • 70. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 62 Apendix Dear Respondent/Informant, Greetings! We, Ruth Melicor and Astrud Mae Tambangan, 1st year B.S. Management students of the University of the Philippines Cebu, would like to ask for your cooperation in answering the following questions. We are currently conducting a case-study in comparing home-school graduates and traditionally educated ones in the tertiary level of education. Your cooperation would be greatly appreciated. Rest assured that the information obtained shall be kept confidential. The Researchers _____________________________________________________________________ Name (optional) : Age: Sex: Religion: High School: College: Course: Instruction: Please shade the appropriate answer. 1.) Annual Family Income (in pesos): o below 10,000
  • 71. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 63 o above 10,000 but not above 30,000 o above 30,000 but not above 70,000 o above 70,000 but not above 140,000 o above 140,000 but not above 250,000 o above 250,000 but not above 500,000 o above 500,000 2.) Siblings (not including yourself): o 1 o 2 o 3 o Others, please specify: 3.) Parents Marital Status: o Married o Separated o Divorced o Deceased o Widowed (Please specify the deceased): _______ 4.) Curriculum: o Traditional (Public) o Traditional (Private) o Home-education If home-education pls answer the ff. Questions: a.) Who home-schooled you o Mom o Dad o Both o Others (pls. Specify):
  • 72. T a m b a n g a n & M e l i c o r 2 0 1 2 | 64 b.) Years home-schooled: Interview Questions: 1.) Describe your social life back in high school, and compare it to the present. 2.) On a scale of 1 to 5 (5 being the most friendly) how friendly are you, in your own opinion? Why? Cite examples/experiences. 3.) Do you approach new people, or do you wait to be approached? 4.) Do you party at night? If yes, how frequent? Why do you do it? Cite experiences/examples. 5.) Have you ever been in a relationship? IF yes, how long and how many? Cite experiences. If no, why? 6.) Are you comfortable approaching the opposite sex? Are you hesitant with having close friends from the opposite sex. 7.) How are your grades? 8.) Do you find dealing with different teachers difficult? Cite experiences? 9.) How do you cope with deadlines? 10.) What is your greatest challenge academically? 11.) What is your greatest challenge socially? 12.) What is your greatest strength academically? 13.) What is your greatest strength socially? 14.) Do you find your previous method of education an asset or a liability? Why? Cite experiences/examples. 15.) If you could turn back time which curriculum would you choose to experience? Why? State the disadvantages and advantages of both curriculum (traditional and homeschooling) from your own perspective.