IMO-IMarEST Shipbuilders’ Forum on       The Ballast Water Management Convention                      1 November 2010     ...
Outline          Brief review          Some issues in shipboard installation            Generation of hazardous gases     ...
BWTS technologySome 40+ vendors  Over half use mechanical system as primary means  Most used disinfectant technology: UV a...
Ship size and ballast tank capacity                                                (m3/hr)Source: ABS Ballast Water Manage...
Implications               ■ Ships keel-laid after 2012 - must allow for                 installing BWT system at building...
System selection  Technical feasibility     Dry cargo ships – any system     Tankers (flash point ≤ 60°C)        Ballast s...
Some issues on Engineering and    Shipboard Installation
Hazardous gases  Electrolytic chlorination process produces  hydrogen and chlorine    Hydrogen is flammable    Chlorine is...
Techcross Electro-CleenTM  Wholly electrolytic chlorination process  BW treated at intake; Neutralization at discharge    ...
Techcross – Electro-CleenTM      Received IMO Final Approval, 10 Oct      2008      Highest level of gas measured during  ...
Unitor/Resource Ballast Technology Combined cavitation, sterilization, physical separation BW treatment at intake Disinfec...
Unitor/Resource Ballast Technology  Received IMO Final Approval 26 Mar 2010  Highest level of gas measured at simulated te...
Issue of hazardous gases  Issue of flammable gases H2     Oil & gas industry practice: low gas alarm at 20% LEL, high     ...
Effect of treated BW on corrosion  In general, appears non-conclusive     Techcross: tests showed seawater with TRO     co...
Effect of treated BW on corrosionTechcrossCorrosion Tests                Coating intact                 Coating with      ...
Safe spaces / Hazardous spaces  Tankers carrying cargoes with flash point  ≤ 60°C    No connection between piping in safe ...
Dosing piping cross connection                                       Alternative                        Located as        ...
Sampling lines cross connection                                  18
Aft peak tank   An acceptable arrangement                                                              SYS = Ballast Water...
Aft peak tank  An unacceptable arrangement                                20
Summary Many new ships have now contracted with BWTS….existing ships are largely still waiting in the wings Some engineeri...
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  1. 1. IMO-IMarEST Shipbuilders’ Forum on The Ballast Water Management Convention 1 November 2010 SingaporeBallast Water Treatment System Installation Issues A Class Perspective A. K. Seah VP Technology & Business Development
  2. 2. Outline Brief review Some issues in shipboard installation Generation of hazardous gases Tanker with low flash point products 2
  3. 3. BWTS technologySome 40+ vendors Over half use mechanical system as primary means Most used disinfectant technology: UV and electrolytic chlorination, each has >10 vendors >3 systems used combined mechanical, physical and chemical processed 3
  4. 4. Ship size and ballast tank capacity (m3/hr)Source: ABS Ballast Water Management Advisory 4
  5. 5. Implications ■ Ships keel-laid after 2012 - must allow for installing BWT system at building stage ■ Ships keel laid before 2012 must have system on board by 2017 - this means installing BWT system in special survey drydocking window of 2012-2016 5
  6. 6. System selection Technical feasibility Dry cargo ships – any system Tankers (flash point ≤ 60°C) Ballast system piping in pump room – electrical equipment must be explosion-proof or intrinsically safe Aft peak ballast tank – a separate ballast system? Fitting the system in Footprint; Power need; Pressure drop; System supplier special needs; Engineering issues Side effects: ballast tank coating; accumulation of hazardous gases… Commercial considerations System cost; cost of installation; operating cost; maintenance cost 6
  7. 7. Some issues on Engineering and Shipboard Installation
  8. 8. Hazardous gases Electrolytic chlorination process produces hydrogen and chlorine Hydrogen is flammable Chlorine is toxic Systems using electrolytic chlorination process are now proposed for installation Closer look at two systems Techcross Electro-CleenTM Unitor / Resource ballast Technology BWTS 8
  9. 9. Techcross Electro-CleenTM Wholly electrolytic chlorination process BW treated at intake; Neutralization at discharge Permissible dosage of active substance as TRO at treatment <10 mg/l Permissible concentration of active substance TRO at discharge < 0.02mg/l (sodium thioslphate) S TRC (Total Residual Chlorine) Tank Vent TRO (Total Residual Oxidants) Source: MEPC 58/2/7 9
  10. 10. Techcross – Electro-CleenTM Received IMO Final Approval, 10 Oct 2008 Highest level of gas measured during tests (as submitted to IMO): H2: 4% [Threshold: LEL 4%] Cl2: 0.9ppm [Threshold: 0.5ppm average 8-h work place exposure] IMO approval based on provision of: H2 online detection: alarm at 2%; System was shutdown at 3% certified Cl2 online detection: alarm at 0.6ppm; explosion proof shutdown at 0.8ppmSource: MEPC 58/2/7; Techcorss website 10
  11. 11. Unitor/Resource Ballast Technology Combined cavitation, sterilization, physical separation BW treatment at intake Disinfectant is provided by ozone (< 1.5ppm) and by electrolytic chlorination (sodium hypochloride < 1.5ppm) in reactor / cavitation chamber Source: www.resource- technology.com 11
  12. 12. Unitor/Resource Ballast Technology Received IMO Final Approval 26 Mar 2010 Highest level of gas measured at simulated tests of 200m3 ballast tank (as submitted to IMO): Ballast water changed once daily for 8 days and twice for the last 2 days; tank drained to 1/3 volume then refilled to full capacity Ozonation H2: 0.28% Electrochlorination Cl2: 0.25ppm Cavitation IMO approval based on additional provision of: De-aerator & H2 monitor TRO monitoring/recording at discharge Source: MEPC 59/2/10, MEPC 60/2/11 12
  13. 13. Issue of hazardous gases Issue of flammable gases H2 Oil & gas industry practice: low gas alarm at 20% LEL, high gas alarm at 60% LEL & shutdown Proposal by Techcross: alarm at 2% (50% LEL) and shutdown at 3% (75% LEL) Additional shipboard tests showed H2 peaked at 0.03% Proposal by Resource Ballast Technology: none; IMO require H2 monitor but alarm point and shutdown not specified Issue of toxic gas Cl2 No existing shipboard practice Proposal by Techcross accepted by IMO None proposed by Resource Ballast Technology – acceptable to IMO Tank entry; gas-freeing 13
  14. 14. Effect of treated BW on corrosion In general, appears non-conclusive Techcross: tests showed seawater with TRO concentrations had less or similar corrosion to natural seawater Contradicts known and published data that chlorinated seawater increased corrosion Resource Ballast Technology: tests showed corrosion rate for steel in treated seawater about double that for equivalent untreated seawater, but within reported limits of normal corrosion rate No known data on effect of ozone IMO recommends: Monitoring program to provide long-term effects Parallel corrosion tests with tests for type approval Source: MEPC 58/2/7, MEPC 59/2/10 14
  15. 15. Effect of treated BW on corrosionTechcrossCorrosion Tests Coating intact Coating with artificial scratchSource: http://techcross.koreasme.com/ 15
  16. 16. Safe spaces / Hazardous spaces Tankers carrying cargoes with flash point ≤ 60°C No connection between piping in safe spaces (e.g. engine room) with piping handling liquid in hazardous spaces (e.g. pump room; ballast tank adjacent to cargo tanks, cargo tanks) Some exceptions permitted provided safety features are fitted BWTS intended for tankers; e.g.: Ozone dosing system Aft peak tank – can it share BWTS with cargo area ballast tanks? 16
  17. 17. Dosing piping cross connection Alternative Located as high in pump arrangement: room as dosing piping to practicable enter pump room from main deck with vapor seal With alarm and shut down arrangement 17
  18. 18. Sampling lines cross connection 18
  19. 19. Aft peak tank An acceptable arrangement SYS = Ballast Water Treatment System BWTS would have to be a type that does not require treatment at discharge 19
  20. 20. Aft peak tank An unacceptable arrangement 20
  21. 21. Summary Many new ships have now contracted with BWTS….existing ships are largely still waiting in the wings Some engineering and installation issues are being debated and assessed Important to examine in detail bases of approval reported in MEPC papers in installation engineering….and in operations 21
  22. 22. www.eagle.org
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