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case study 1 By Hafeez Asghar Mirza

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  • 1. CASE STUDY METHOD Hafeez Asghar Mirza Science Education AS 752076 1
  • 2. 2 CASE STUDY METHOD Contents  What is Case study?  Epistemology of Case Study  Types Of Case Study  Aims of case Study.  Range of case study.  Steps for case study  Case Study: Advantages  Case Study: Limitations  References
  • 3. 3 What is Case Study “ A strategy for doing research which involves an empirical investigation research of a particular contemporary phenomenon with its real- life context using multiple source of evidence” Robinson (1993: 146) “A study of key players, key situation and critical incidents in life” Hitchcock and Hughes (1995: 319)
  • 4. 4 Contd…. “ It is a bounded system, in which behaviour is systematically patterned and certain features can be consistently recognised” Smith (1978) “ A study of a particularity and complexities of a single case, coming to understand its activity with in important circumstances” Nunan ( 1992: 79)
  • 5. 5 Epistemology of Case Study Case studies can be Positivist (e.g. Benbasat et al., 1987) Interpretivist (e.g. Walsham, 1993) Critical (e.g. Myers, 1994) Case studies can also be Exploratory, Descriptive or Explanatory Case studies are very suitable to answer ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions
  • 6. Types Of Case Study 6  Stenhouse (1985: 49-50) categorizes case study research into four types: 1: Evaluative: to provide decision makers with information in order to evaluate a program or an institution. 2: Educational : to understand an educational action. 3: Ethnographic: to study from an outsider’s view , emphasizing casual or structural pattern of the actor. 4: Action research. To study the development of a case, using feedback to guide revision of an action.
  • 7. Types Of case Study 7  Stake (1995: 3-4) Terms two types on the basis of purpose f case study. 1: Intrinsic: To understand an event, the interest of the case itself; the reader of the case has no intention to learn about other cases or a general problem. 2: Instrumental: to accomplish a certain purpose ; the reader expect to get insight by understanding a particular case.
  • 8. 8 Aim of Case Study Offer a richness and depth of information by capturing as many variables as possible to identify how a complex set of circumstances come together to produce a particular manifestation '...to as identify how a complex set of circumstances come together to produce a particular manifestation.'
  • 9. 9 Range of Case Study Case study research ranges in its complexity:  From a simple, illustrative description of a single event or occurrence.  To a more complex analysis of a social situation over a period of time.  To the most complex approach which is an extended case study which traces events involving the same actors over a period of time –enabling the analysis reflect changes and adjustments
  • 10. 10 Steps for Case Study
  • 11. 11 Case Study: Advantages  Gain a holistic understanding of real-life events.  Seek ‘uniqueness’ and ‘commonality’  Refine and develop theories.  Generate new insights.  Allow for readers’ decision-making.  Reflect on human experience.  Suggest a step to action.
  • 12. 12 Case Study: Limitations  Concerns about generalizability  Use of "abnormal" cases  Issues connected with thick description and triangulation  Objectivity versus subjectivity  The data-driven rather than theory-driven approach  Attrition Constraints on quantitative analysis of small-sample data,
  • 13. 13 References Hitchcock, Graham, and David Hughes Research and the teacher. 2nd ed. London and New York: Routledge. Nunan David Research methods in language learning. Cambridge University Press. Robson, Colin 1993 Real World research: A resource for social scientist and practioners researchers. Oxford: Blackwell. Simon, Helen Towards a science of the singular: essay about case study in educational research and evaluation. Norwich, University of east Anglia: CARE Occasional Publications. Stake, R. E. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches, (2nd Edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication.
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