TASK I: Research topic, site and group
This report describes research carried out in secondary schools in Sungai Petani,
Kedah to assess the Impact of the School Library on Student Learning. The research was
undertaken between May until July 2011 because of the time consuming. There are five basic
type of library in Malaysia which is National Library, Academic Library, School Library,
Public Library and Special Library. Library can be define as a collection or group of
collections of books and/or other print or non-print materials organized and maintained for
use (reading, consultation, study, research, etc.) and meet the user needs. The words library
comes from the Latin liber, meaning "book." In Greek and the Romance languages, the
corresponding term is bibliotheca (Dictionary for Library and Information Sciences).
Library is one of the important organizations in the education fields as the main
sources of the information and knowledge. Almost every school on Malaysia has their own
school library which is can be define as a library in a public or private elementary or
secondary school that serves the information needs of its students and the curriculum needs of
its teachers and staff, usually managed by a school librarian or media specialist. A
school library collection usually contains books, periodicals, and educational media suitable
for the grade levels served. The research has been undertaken at a time when value and
impact studies are trying to establish the contribution made by school library in different
community contexts including that of supporting traditional education, independent study and
lifelong learning. At the same time there is increasing interest in ways in which links
between the school libraries and the educational sector can promote lifelong learning.
While this study focuses on Malaysian secondary schools, the interest in establishing
the impact of information and library services in schools is worldwide, not least because of
the increasing pressures to justify the resource allocation from a school's budget or the
existence of adequate professional staffing within the School Library. In the other country
like UK, the school environment is changing. Recent government initiatives such as
implementation of information and communications technology (ICT) networks within
schools has increased awareness of information support for the curriculum. Information
workers have a key role to play in developing the skills for effective information use to fulfil
government objectives for the Wawasan 2020 and to develop a clearer strategy for integrating
the work of the School Library within the wider educational experience. In contrast with
Malaysian school library, ICT is rarely used in the school library. There is a growing
awareness of the need to examine carefully how effective the various inputs and outputs are
in terms of enhancing the quality of learning and raising achievements within schools as well
as creating better links with the wider community.
According to Loertscher, 2004 the school libraries have undergone the major
redesign. The first was in the 1960s when book libraries had to be rethought to include a new
wave of audiovisual devices and software. The second began in the 1980s with the
proliferation of the microcomputer, computer networks, and the Internet. The first redesign
required only a shift in contents. The second requires an entire rethinking. Now the library
acts as the ―hub of the school‖, a place where everyone comes to get materials and
equipment. In other developed country like Japan, United State and others had used a
professional librarians and technical staff in the school library rather than single-staff
persons. However school library in Malaysia still use the teacher as the library staff and older
It may never be possible or even desirable to attempt to "measure" learning impact in
the same way as academic achievement may be measured, but it is the understanding of the
impact on the learning experience which will ultimately be needed if the work of the school
library is to be fully integrated within the curriculum and thus contribute effectively to
achievement. All these factors have led to the realisation that greater understanding is
required in the relationship between information and learning and between the role that the
School Library and the teacher librarian can play in enhancing the quality of the learning
experience. This research focuses on this relationship with the aim of identifying the impact
the School library can have on learning as well as the challenges involved in evaluating that
impact. The main objectives of this study are:
To assess the impact of School Library on Student Learning and Achievements.
To identify the teacher librarians, students‘ and teacher‘ perceptions towards the
school library contribution to the learning experience.
To examine the services provision of the school library to the learning.
The research was conducted within secondary schools, examining the issues from the
perspectives of teacher librarians and pupils in semi-structured focus groups and a series of
1.1 Significance of the Problem
Results from this study may be used by school districts, library media specialists and
school library education programs in Malaysia as a baseline for examining the complex
relationship between school library programs and student achievement and may provide some
indications about the impact staffing levels have on the quality of school library programs
and on student achievement. Such a baseline may provide researchers and library media
specialists‘ useful information about where to focus future research, whether in terms of best
practice or areas for improvement related to school library media programs. Results from this
study may also prove valuable to school and district officials in deciding how to allocate
resources to school library programs.
2.0 Literature Review
The aim of this review of literature is to examine research from across the world that
links educational achievement and school libraries. The Task Group recognises the
importance of learning in its widest sense and therefore the review sought a broad
definition of learning to encompass not only academic attainment but also the aspects
of learning reflected in processes and attitudes.
2.1 Libraries and education
Writing from a school library perspective, Tilke states, ―A well used library
promotes learning, raises achievement and enhances pupils‘ personal and social
development‖ (1998: 2), but the role of libraries in education is not so clear-cut. In
1997 the Library Association guidelines for public library services to children and
young people stated, in accordance to the findings of the influential report Investing in
Children, that ―there should be a clear understanding of the different services
provided by the school library, the public library service and the school‘s library
service‖ (Blanshard, 1997: 8). In the governments current strategy for public libraries,
Framework for the Future, the public library ―provide[s] a learning network that runs
parallel with formal education‖ (DCMS, 2003: 28). In other view, libraries are not the
only sector to suffer with a lack of recognition of their educational role;
If the school library or learning resource centre is unable to
demonstrate that it makes a real difference to the quality of
teaching and learning in a school, then it will be seen as a low
priority for expenditure at best, and expendable at worst.
(Streatfield and Markless, 1994: 5)
Although they are ideally placed within the school and educational system,
school libraries have been in the past and still are today, constantly fighting to prove
their worth in contributing to and providing support to the curriculum to the education
field. Roe (1965) observed that ―even when the school library is full of books and
crowded with children, its educational relevance is not thereby proved‖.
2.2 Impact on Academic Attainment
Academic achievement, in this context, considers formal learning associated
with the set curriculum and performance in formal national or local tests. This
includes processes associated with reading literacy, achievement of subject
knowledge, and information literacy. The discussion examines the research to
establish what the link is between school libraries and academic achievement and
whether school libraries have an impact on the raising of students‘ achievement in
The early Colorado study (Lance, et. al., 1993) used fewer library
characteristics during the analysis and drew from the earlier version of Information
Power (1988). The findings from the later studies are similar but the emphasis on the
type of library data found to be the predictors of academic achievement vary between
the states and between the grade levels and therefore the findings are not necessarily
transferable across educational levels. Other factors such as the type of schooling
within a state may also have influenced the results. Notwithstanding these limitations
the level of development of the library in terms of collection and staffing; staff
activities in terms of leadership, collaboration and technology; and the levels of usage
and technology are the factors that show most significance to test scores in these
Influenced by Lance‘s work, Vallender attempted to examine whether current
performance data in English secondary schools offer a basis for assessing impact of
school library use on attainment. Her unpublished Masters research (2000) is
particularly significant in the context of this review in its applicability to English
secondary education. The study concludes that the evidence of the contribution made
by the school library is not effectively revealed through the statistical analysis of
examination achievement. Her work also suggests that OFSTED reports are capable
of identifying a library that is performing effectively but cannot evaluate how this
performance impacts on teaching and learning.
A qualitative approach was taken by Williams & Wavell (2001) in a study
using a small sample of secondary schools in Scotland to investigate the impact of the
school library on learning. Focus group discussions with teachers and pupils and
interviews with librarians identified the perceived impact of the school library on
learning. Case studies were conducted looking at a variety of curriculum-related
library activities across a range of age groups, such as research work, a skills course,
reading promotion as well as activities relating to the broader learning experience.
Indicators of learning, developed from the focus group discussions, were used during
observation, discussion with students, teachers and librarians, and students‘ work was
examined to establish whether the perceptions of impacts on learning expressed by the
groups in the initial stage were indeed happening.
2.3 Collaboration between Teacher Librarians and Classroom Teachers.
Successful integration of information literacy instruction requires
collaboration with classroom teachers to plan and teach curriculum (AASL & AECT,
1998, 64). Professional and academic literature points to the benefits of such
collaboration in terms of student achievement. Bell (1990) and Bell and Totten (1992)
found that in academically effective schools, classroom teachers were more likely to
choose school library teacher to collaborate on instructional problems. Haycock
(1992) concluded from his review of doctoral dissertations that students gain more
competence in research and study skills when these skills are integrated into
collaborative lesson plans created by classroom teachers and teacher librarians. In a
qualitative study of collaboration between classroom teachers and teacher librarians at
two elementary schools that used literature-based instruction, Jones (1994) observed
that ―purposeful partnerships‖—deliberate curricular planning and team teaching
between classroom teacher and teacher librarians —resulted in a greater quantity of
literature being read to students and a strengthened effort at literature-based
instruction. Milliner (2006), in a case study of a school implementing an integrated
information literacy program, noted that one result of collaborative planning between
the teacher librarians and classroom teachers is that more students are engaged in
critical thinking activities and authentic learning.
Several studies reveal correlations between LMS/classroom teacher
collaboration and achievement on standardized tests. Farmer‘s (2006) study of
Southern California schools revealed that collaborative planning and instruction
accounted for over 17% of the variance in principles correlated with academic
achievement. Hall-Ellis and Berry‘s (1995) south Texas public school study showed
that higher criteria-referenced test scores tests correlated positively with collaborative
planning between the teacher librarians and classroom teachers.
2.3 Service Provision
This section considers the impact of service provision on student learning.
Service provision has been taken to mean the different types of services provided by
the various models of school library, i.e. the library within a school, a combined
public/school service, or provision by a centralised Schools Library Service. The
review identified research in relation to collections and library instruction and
collaborative planning. There is research on how the curriculum changes or other
initiatives impact on service provision. However, there is a gap in the research on how
the different models of library service impact on learning. The Survey of Secondary
School Libraries prepared for The Library Association (Survey & Statistical Research
Centre, 2000) gives a statistical analysis of the current (1999) secondary school
library provision within the UK. The survey was sent to a sample of 2041 secondary
schools across the country and the overall response rate was 48%. The findings
provide an indication of the collection, opening hours, loans, staffing type and levels
and to a certain extent good practice. The survey highlights the range of salaries and
hours worked and suggest this gives an indication of the varying importance and roles
of the librarians in schools and that firm guidelines should be developed (Survey &
Statistical Research Centre, 2000, p9). Fitzgibbons (2000) does review types of
cooperative relationships between school and public libraries in the USA, both
historical and current, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages, the unique and
common goals. While this article provides useful information for parties considering
cooperation in a variety of ways, the author refers only obliquely to the potential
impact, both positive and negative, on student learning. The State Library of
Queensland (State Library of Queensland, 1997) has guidelines and standards for the
joint-use public/school library but these are service directed and do not include
outcome indicators in relation to learning.
TASK II: Research method and fieldwork write-ups
3.0 Methodology (observation and interview)
In the context of this ‗methodology‘ is defined as the research philosophy, research
strategy and the actual research techniques used to gather data for analysis. This chapter is
split into these categories for clarity, beginning with the research philosophy, the approach to
the research question. It then moves on to the research strategy, which works from within the
philosophy and then onto the different techniques used to gather the data. These include the
preliminary interviews, questionnaires and interviews with stakeholders. The analysis
includes a description of the actual techniques used and their success in the accumulation of
and interpreting data. Finally, the limitations of the methodology are discussed in the
conclusion of the chapter.
1.1 Background of the research
Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Bandar Sungai Petani (SMKBSP), situated at the
heart of Sungai Petani with 2,325 students and 145 teachers. The portion of the students can
be refers at table 1 (Wisam, 2010).
Malay Chinese Indian Others Malay Chinese Indian Others
722 267 214 11 643 243 219 6
Total 1,214 Total 1,111
Table 1 Number of SMKBSP students based on the races
Library at SMKBSP managed by one teacher and helped by one clerk. Otherwise the ―school
librarians‖ will helped the teacher to arranged and tidy up the book in the library. There are
almost 40,000 collections of book in the library.
Discuss the need for the study/project and expected results.
Lower Six 81
Upper Six 66
Summarize relevant existing data, literature, past and ongoing studies, and how your study/project
ties in with these.
What is the data gap your study is designed to fill?
WISAM B JAAFAR
3.3 Data Collection
3.4 Data analysis
The research was undertaken in two phases:
The observation phase that involved the library user during the weekdays from
Sunday to Monday.
The interview sessions with the principle, teachers and students to examine the use,
expectations and perceptions of the potential impact of the SLRC on learning.
The selected schools were visited from October 31 to November 4, 2005. During each visit,
interviews were conducted based on interview guides, with the principal, library media
specialist, teachers, and students. In addition to the interviews, the library media specialists
provided program documentation.
After reviewing the published literature on research methodology for the Impact of the
School Library on Student Learning and Academic Performance and some observations, the
most appropriate instrument for this study is a semi-structured interview method for the
study. The process began by identifying the entire scope of questions that may reflects the
objectives of the study and had discussed with the teachers librarians about the questions.
From this, a final list of interview questions was drafted (Appendix 1), and the questions
were sufficiently open ended questions to avoid leading subjects‘ answers or bias, while
encouraging free discussion on the topics. Follow-up questions were also scripted, and
interviewers were permitted to clarify questions or ask unscripted follow-up questions when
In the team‘s review of studies using semi structured interview techniques, it became
apparent that maintaining such flexibility in the interview process was crucial to engaging
subjects in a conversation of the issues The instrument was developed and piloted on one test
subject, resulting in minor modifications to the interview procedure, including preparing
definitions of library jargon such as ‗‗institutional repository,‘‘ ‗‗curriculum based
instruction,‘‘ and ‗‗database‘‘ for interviewers to use when needed.
Team members began the process by identifying the entire scope of questions they had
regarding the basic science researchers‘ information-seeking behaviours. Questions were also
developed to gather information from subjects that would inform future decisions about
library services, such as educational programming. From this, a final list of interview
questions was drafted (Appendix, online only), and the team made sure the questions were
sufficiently open ended to avoid leading subjects‘ answers, while encouraging free discussion
on the topics. Follow-up questions were also scripted, and interviewers were permitted to
clarify questions or ask unscripted follow-up questions when appropriate. In the team‘s
review of studies using semi structured interview techniques, it became apparent that
maintaining such flexibility in the interview process was crucial to engaging subjects in a
conversation of the issues The instrument was developed and piloted on one test subject,
resulting in minor modifications to the interview procedure, including preparing definitions
of library jargon such as ‗‗institutional repository,‘‘ ‗‗curriculum based instruction,‘‘ and
‗‗database‘‘ for interviewers to use when needed. Exempt status was sought from the
institutional review board and granted in order to conduct the study on human subjects.
Participation was voluntary, and no compensation was offered. Measures were taken to
protect the confidentiality of participants. The study was initiated October 2007 and
completed in March 2008. Departmental websites were browsed to identify faculty members
who were involved in a research project at the time. Potential subjects were selected from
across the spectrum of gender, age, and experience in order to create a final subset that would
be representative of the COM research faculty. Eighteen faculty members from the five COM
basic science departments were invited by email to participate in the study. The objectives of
the study were explained to the potential participants, and they were informed that the
interview would take approximately forty-five minutes. Eight subjects agreed to participate.
Because no major changes were made to the test instrument following the pilot, that
interview was included in the study as well, resulting in a total of nine subjects. The nine
subjects had appointments in biochemistry, microbiology and molecular genetics, molecular
physiology and biophysics, anatomy and neurobiology, and mathematics and statistics, and
they represented a range of research and teaching responsibilities (Table 2). Each subject was
interviewed by two people from the study team, one to ask questions and one to take notes.
With the subjects‘ permission, the interviews were audiotape. Each subject was asked the
same questions, although follow-up questions varied according to subjects‘ responses to the
original questions. Notes for each interview were compiled and stored in separate files. The
notes were also collated by question, so that the answers to a given question from all nine
participants could be analyzed together. Working independently, each of the four team
members reviewed the original notes from the interviews and audiotapes to identify the major
concepts and themes that emerged from each interview.
Team members then shared their observations with the group, and together they composed a
final list of predominant themes. Next, these common themes were categorized into five
broad topics: information sources, search techniques, work environment, current library
services, and potential library services.
TASK III: Representation of data and discussion
Impact of the Library Media Program
The principal and teachers concurred that the LMS has a significant impact on
teachers, instruction, and student performance. With help from the LMS, teachers acquire a
more complete picture of what they can present to students. She works with teachers to
develop different assignments for students, taking advantage of the wide range of resources
the LMC has to offer. Her suggestions lead to assignments that require more critical thinking
on the part of students. Teachers consider the LMS a critical source of help. According to the
interviewed teachers, the LMS invests large amounts of time and effort in each of their
projects, searching for materials and suggesting ideas. This not only adds new resources to
the projects, but also saves them a lot of time. Because the LMS is so familiar with the
curriculum and content areas, she provides more effective assistance to teachers and students.
She provides invaluable behind the scenes support and always asks teachers what they need.
Because she is so well read and knowledgeable, her recommendations to teachers and
students are highly respected. Through these efforts, teachers reported, the LMS encourages
them to try projects they would otherwise never attempt. For example, the LMS persuaded
the English teacher to do smaller projects that would be less overwhelming to students. These
projects entail more research but in smaller pieces. The social studies teacher concluded that
―we are better teachers‖ because of the LMS. The principal, teachers, and students all
reported that the LMS has a significant impact on students. The LMS sees her main
contribution as giving students a wider sense of possibilities; she gives them the tools,
through the DBQ approach, to think for themselves and decide where they stand on an issue.
This helps students take more initiative in their learning and broadens their perspective. The
cultural anthropology journal, a freshman year project, helped students become more focused
in their research and more disciplined in their writing. The tenth grade DBQ project involving
the Civil War is challenging because the web site used was designed for college students. The
LMS believes that these projects and other activities in which she helps students have an
impact on their academic performance. According to teachers interviewed, the LMS
increased student interest in reading using a variety of strategies. The LMC has a very
attractive display of books. By bringing in guest authors, she makes students more interested
in reading. Her philosophy is that if one book is not interesting to a student, she will find
another book that the student might like. According to teachers, ―reluctant readers are happy
to go to the LMC.‖ To promote student reading, the LMS took a group of students to a local
bookstore and had them each select two books to be purchased for the LMC collection—an
activity she plans to repeat this year. Teachers indicated that students look at the LMC as a
good place to do schoolwork. Students want to be in the LMC. Strategies implemented by the
LMS have increased the number of students coming to the LMC. ―There are more students
there than ever before.‖ Students like the displays and also like the LMS as a person: ―they
trust her and go to her for help.‖ Students confirmed that they found the LMC to be
accessible, open after school, and useful for research. According to teachers, the LMS gets
students more excited about their work and reinforces what they learn. She makes research
easier and more fun by breaking down a process that often can be overwhelming to students.
Teachers reported that through her involvement in science and other projects, the LMS
models how to be curious and discover new things. Her efforts help students improve their
skills and competencies and see the importance of life-long learning. Students credit the LMS
with reading most of the books in the library. They reported that they have developed a
personal relationship with the LMS and often ask her for book recommendations. Students
also recognize that because of what the LMS has taught them, they have become better
researchers. Students see the LMS as a staff member who ―knows a lot about everything.‖
All class visits are flexibly scheduled. Teachers indicated that they most often take
their students to the LMC when they do a project. Teachers take their classes to the LMC up
to four times a year for class projects. When they do a project they go to the LMC daily over
a two-week period or for the duration of the project. Teachers also send students to the LMC
when they desire more information than is covered in class. Students go to the LMC with
varying frequency. One of the students reported visiting the LMC only when she has an
assignment. Another student goes once a week to use the computer ―for fun.‖ A third student
goes multiple times a day, before school, during lunch time, and during study hall. This
student uses the LMC to read magazines and books. In addition to planning instructional
projects, teachers often go to the LMC to get recommendations from the LMS for their
personal reading. The LMS always notifies teachers about materials that she thinks would be
of interest to them. The LMC also houses a professional collection. Teachers interviewed
often go to the LMC during their free period or in the morning before school starts. The
frequency of their visits varies with the social studies teacher going daily, the English teacher
going three times a week, and the science teacher visiting the LMC once a week.
Impact on Student Learning and Academic Performance
The principal thinks that the LMS is making ―a huge contribution‖ to student
academic performance. The LMC is the heart of the school. Students feel comfortable there,
they know how to access resources and how to use information for different classes. The
LMC is such a popular centre of academic work for students that when the school has early
releases twice a month, it‘s not uncommon for 40-50 students to go to the LMC to catch up
on their work.
According to the principal, the LMS recognizes the importance of communication and
collaboration with staff. The LMS knows what the curricular expectations are and she has
developed strategies to help students and teachers meet these expectations. The LMS works
closely with the director of curriculum to help set school goals and provide resources in
support of the goals and standards.
Teachers recognize that the LMS‘s impact on students is cross-disciplinary: students
can ably use research skills in different content areas because the LMS has standardized the
research process. This has helped students become very familiar with the research process.
Library Media Program Organization
The library media centre (LMC) has a full-time library media specialist (LMS) who
has been in this position for 32 years; there are three library aides: one works full-time during
the school day and two split evening hours. The LMS serves teachers and students in the
combined junior and senior high school.
The library media centre opens at 7:00 in the morning, before school starts. The LMC
has extended hours four evenings a week for student and community use. On Monday,
Tuesday, and Thursday, the LMC is open until 8:30 p.m.; on Wednesday it is open until 6:00
p.m. Opening the LMC to the community is important because the town has a very small
public library with limited hours. The evening hours allow parents to come and help their
children work on projects.
The school pays for the evening hours using state funds designed to support
cooperative programming between school districts and communities. The LMC uses student
and adult volunteers. Every day two students come for one class period each to help in the
LMC. The LMC also has two adult volunteers who regularly work two hours a week. A
retired teacher volunteers in the LMC four to five hours a week. Volunteers help with
weeding and the aides who work in the evening shelve all materials used during the day.
The LMC has a collection of approximately 22,000 print and non-print resources.
LMC staff and volunteers have weeded the collection extensively; the average age of the
collection is 12 years. The LMS has been rebuilding the science collection and has identified
books about countries and biographies as an area for improvement.
The LMC has access to online resources such as CQ Researcher, World Almanac,
World Book Online, Grolier Online, Lands and People, WISCareers, NetTrekker, and
Badgerlink. The online catalog is accessible from any computer in the building and also
Principal Support of Library Media Program
The principal is a strong and vocal advocate and supporter of the library media program and
the LMS. The principal reported that he has a great deal of trust and confidence in the LMS
and that he communicates with the LMS almost daily. The principal‘s office is located in
close proximity to the LMC which aids the communication process. Their communication is
also facilitated by
the fact that the principal serves as the district‘s assessment coordinator. He looks at the LMS
a valuable resource when discussing curriculum issues. The LMS credits the principal with
always having time for her; they exchange ideas and adopt each other‘s suggestions. The
principal discusses professional development issues with the LMS and typically accepts her
The principal supports the library media program financially by responding to general and
specific program budget requests, such as the purchase of Smart Boards for the school.
support for the program is above that provided by state school library aid (Common School
Fund). The principal also supports the library media program by encouraging teachers to use
technology in the LMC and enabling them to attend professional development opportunities
outside of the school district.
Collaboration and Teaching
The LMS is a teacher – librarian. The LMS estimates that she spends at least 75 percent of
time on teaching and learning activities. The school has a full-time library aide to ensure that
the LMS spends time on instructional related activities. The principal considers the LMS an
and observes the high level of instructional activity in the LMC on a daily basis when
through the library. He sees students on task and students signing up for the homework lab.
finds the atmosphere in the LMC ―very businesslike‖ and conducive to learning. He also
the LMS‘s participation in the Curriculum Coordinating Council, which helps her in knowing
and shaping the curriculum and enhances her instructional role.
Teachers interviewed reported that collaboration with the LMS varies by content area, but
they typically consult with the LMS when they plan new units or want to assign a research
project. The LMS considers information skills instruction an ongoing activity and keeps a
of teachers‘ units. After discussing objectives and the end product with teachers, the LMS
recommends print and non-print resources, helps define student learning goals and outcomes,
affirms ITLS and content standards, and helps shape how students will demonstrate their
knowledge. One of the new science teachers indicated that he consults with the LMS every
he plans new units. The social studies teacher consults with the LMS two to three times a
on World History research projects.
Teachers find the assistance the LMS provides extremely valuable as it saves them significant
amounts of time and enables them to use and offer more resources to their students. The
appreciate the positive and constructive ways in which the LMS helps them: ―She is a good
leader, very positive, offers support and information… She is a facilitator of curriculum,
coordinating both vertical and horizontal alignment with state standards. The LMS has a good
relationship with the school.‖ The teachers value her as a good source for brainstorming ideas
projects and suggestions for resources. The LMS compliments teachers‘ work by reinforcing
what goes on in the classroom. She makes students do more advanced work by asking them
further than they initially expected and to try new technologies. According to teachers, the
assistance the LMS provides is of considerable benefit to students. For some students the
―LMS is the best point in their relationship with the school.‖
Library Media Program Impact on Students
Students interviewed identified a variety of ways in which the LMS has impacted their
They have a great relationship with the LMS and can see that she enjoys helping them. She
taught them about the LMC and its resources including how to use computers and access
resources. According to students, the LMS instructed them in effective Internet search skills,
showing them how to access and evaluate web sites. The LMS also taught students how to
online information in order to determine whether it is relevant to their needs and then how to
bookmark those web sites. She does not allow students to procrastinate but keeps them on
even reminding them when projects are due. Students commented that she wants and expects
students to do the best they can. She proofreads student reports and gives them constructive
comments on content and style. Her help is most valued on difficult assignments. She always
encourages students to do the assignment and do it well.
The LMS is also a great promoter of reading. Students credited the LMS with increasing their
interest in reading by guiding them toward good books. She keeps tabs on what students read,
knows their reading preferences, and recommends books to them accordingly. She also
with students about what books to buy for the LMC. Under her initiative, the school
Dr. Seuss and Shakespeare celebratory reading events.
Impact on Student Learning and Academic Performance
The principal considers all the activities students perform in the LMC, such as research,
information search and access, and writing reports as contributing directly to their learning.
Students use their research skills across content areas. The LMC is a big part of student
with students even using the LMC after school and in the evening.
Teachers concluded that the library media program has a definite impact on students‘
performance. Teachers reported that the LMS makes sure that students are familiar with the
range of resources the LMC can offer. She takes the time to show students the different
in the LMC. She tells students which web sites are trustworthy.
The English teacher allows students who are failing academically to go to the LMC to
work there. The LMS works with these students and keeps tabs on them.
The social studies teacher sees the LMS as a motivator, she challenges students and
stretches their goals; she gives them new tools. With her support, students are more apt to
complete their work.
By teaching students to use new tools and equipment, the LMS, according to the science
teacher, raises the skills of all students. Students learn new skills and competencies from
the LMS then go and teach those skills to other students.
As a result of their interactions with the LMS and the skills they acquired, students are more
motivated and engaged. According to the LMS, students are more motivated to do well and
more about their grades. Differentiation has made a big difference. Students have more
in assignments and classes. Students try harder, and projects are more sophisticated. Parents
access to grading and attendance data. This has helped parents get more involved and monitor
their children‘s progress. Students have also been doing better on state tests in the last two to
Students concluded that the LMS helps them with ―everything‖ both academic and personal.
LMS helped them realize that their academic performance will have an impact on their
They also credited her with help beyond normal school activities. One student praised the
for helping her sister find a good nursing college, while a second student credited the LMS
helping her find a publisher for a book of poems she had authored.
Students described the LMS help as follows:
She encourages me to do my work
She helps me with life
She helps with school-related problems
She helps with everything academic: she has never not known anything I asked her
She has not charged me rent yet for being in the LMC all the time
Benefits to Students
Teachers reported that students learn new technology skills from the LMS. Students use
technology as a tool to better understand content areas. The use of technology has served to
decrease students‘ frustration. It also empowers students to go deeper in learning a subject.
Students are now held more accountable for the end product. The LMS pushes students to try
and do new things and sets the bar higher and higher in terms of technology use. She knows
better than teachers what students are capable of.
Teachers indicated that with help from the LMS students have become proficient in
and research. She excites students, brings out their talents in the application of software
programs and research and opens up the world to those who do not have computers at home.
provides opportunities to low level readers and is highly responsive to student and teacher
Her knowledge of the curriculum contributes to her ability to identify resources across
areas. ―She is way ahead of the curve in selecting books and novels for students.‖
Students were highly complementary of the assistance they get from the LMS. Students
that the LMS ―taught me all the software programs.‖ They learned how to use different
in a class or on a one-on-one basis. They appreciate her overviews of the research process
making them aware of options at different points in the process.
Impact of Library Media Program on Teachers
Thanks to the efforts of the LMS, teachers are more confident in their technology skills. She
opened the door to a place where it is safe to learn. By making the curriculum come alive, the
LMS helps teachers stay fresh.
Teachers indicated that to make units more appealing to students, the LMS purchases useful
resources such as Hoover Online that the student stock clubs use. She came up with the
culminating question (what is sacred?) for the project on Native American culture. She
continually comes to teachers with ideas on how to enhance units and projects.
According to teachers, the LMS reaches areas of the curriculum that might otherwise not
been approached; she digs deep. The social studies teacher credits the LMS with
her curriculum.‖ Previously, the teacher basically taught from the textbook. The LMS helped
change her instructional approach to using simulations (e.g. Supreme Court unit), research,
technology as the basis for teaching. The science teacher no longer teaches from the textbook,
but by experimentation and technology use. Both teachers acknowledge that their current
approaches make their subjects more ―intimate‖ to their students: ―it gets knowledge in their
bones and they really get it.‖
According to the principal, the LMS is well acquainted with the state content and
technology and literacy standards and integrates them into all collaborative units which
contributes to student learning and achievement. The principal indicated that while the
LMS was very traditional, this LMS is a ―trail blazer. She knows what learning is, what
is, knows what critical thinking is and can share that with others. She is relentless and driven.
She pushes all of us to do what is right for students.‖
Technology Access, Use and integration
When the LMS came to the school, not all teachers had computers in their classrooms.
Classrooms now have between one and five computers each; the science and language arts
classrooms have three computers each. The teachers interviewed rated their level of
competency from moderate to proficient. The LMS considers two-thirds of the teachers to be
technology proficient; the younger teachers are more proficient.
Teachers use computers to report grading and attendance, review Internet content, search for
lesson plans, do word processing, and e-mail parents and colleagues. Each classroom has a
TV/VCR and teachers can check out a data projector from the LMC. Teachers use Averkeys
connect a classroom computer to the TV for video streaming and PowerPoint presentations.
language arts teacher created a blog for class content. The speech and language teacher uses
BoardMaster with her students for writing reports and essays. The science teacher accesses
incorporates the Foss online curriculum. In geography the teacher does a lot of Internet
The ESL teacher uses the computer to adapt materials for ESL. Teachers use Inspiration
throughout the curriculum to do planning for writing projects and word processing.
Students are very proficient; they are the ones who ―push the envelope.‖ Teachers estimate
75 percent of the students have computers at home. All the students interviewed have
computers at home. They spend between 30 and 60 minutes a day on their home
computers doing research and word processing and sending e-mails. The language arts and
studies teachers have web pages and students access those periodically from home. Students
learn keyboarding in elementary school. In middle school, students take a quarter-long class
computer applications and on how to use other technology.
The principal relies heavily on of the LMS in the area of technology. The school is a heavy
of technology and is ahead of many other district schools, in part because of the expertise and
persistence of the LMS. The extent of technology integration varies by subject area, but all
interviewed teachers are integrating technology into the curriculum. According to the
students know how to use online technology and how to evaluate different web sites.
a lot of Internet searches and routinely incorporate streaming video into their PowerPoint