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Tamug Tanker Industry And Markets Short

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  • Vessel container types types-Fully Pressurized-Refrigerated and semi-pressurized-Fully RefrigeratedBoil-Off GasRe-liquefaction Supplements fuel for boilers
  • There is a five-step ‘process’ to get natural gas into the UK Natural Gas Transmission System and on to homes and businesses in the UK from gas fields in remote locations. 1. Exploration and Production2. Liquefaction process3. LNG (liquefied natural gas) transportation4. Storing LNG (liquefied natural gas)5. Re-gasification process1. Exploration and ProductionNatural gas is pumped to the surface through techniques commonly used world-wide whether in the North Sea or overseas.2. Liquefaction processThis activity takes place in the producing country: All impurities are removed from the gas, which in the industry is known as ‘sweetening’, prior to cooling. The cooling of natural gas to -160º allows it to be transported economically by reducing the volume by 600:1. This process is called liquefaction and produces a stable liquid ready for shipping.3. LNG (liquefied natural gas) transportationLiquefied natural gas is transported in special double-hulled ships built using two different technologies known as Moss Rosenberg (spheres) and membrane (using material with an expansion coefficient of practically nil). Off-loading takes approximately 24 hours and is managed using tried and tested procedures common to all international facilities. The liquefied natural gas is off-loaded as a liquid and pumped from the jetty to storage tanks at the terminal. The liquefied natural gas remains at -160º for the duration of the process.4. Storing LNG (liquefied natural gas)The tanks are double wall tanks specially designed for their purpose and are well insulated to keep the natural gas at -160c (In its liquid form). Liquefied natural gas is stored in storage tanks of around 160,000 m3 capacity at just above atmospheric pressure. The liquefied natural gas tanks are of a full containment design. In a full containment system two tanks are employed, an inner tank which contains the stored liquid, and an outer tank which provides security in the event of any loss of containment or leak from the inner tank. The inner shell is made of a special nickel alloy, designed to resist the low temperature. The outer shell is of pre-stressed concrete with a reinforced concrete base slab and roof. Sophisticated automatic protection systems are employed to monitor the tank levels, pressures, temperatures and any potential leakage from the inner tank.5. Re-gasification processThis is the operational work of the terminals in the receiving country: Re-gasification is simpler than liquification, it is purely physical and not chemical. The liquefied natural gas is pumped out of the tanks and warmed so that it returns to its natural gas state. The natural gas is then pumped in to the UK’s natural gas transmission system, owned and operated by National Grid (formerly Transco) as required.

Tamug Tanker Industry And Markets Short Tamug Tanker Industry And Markets Short Presentation Transcript

  • Tanker and Gas Industry and Markets
    Select slides from TAMUG (www.tamgu.edu) lecture
  • Objectives
    Identify 3 primary tanker markets
    Understand and map markets flows
    Describe and determine Worldscale
    Understand Pumping and Laytime clauses for tanker market
  • Three Markets
    Petroleum
    Crude/Black
    Product/White
    Gas
    Chemical
  • Separation
  • Flow of Petroleum - 2009
    Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2010.
  • Tanker Voyage
    Pre-load
    Load Port (Quantity-Shore vs. Ship figures; Quality)
    Post-load
    In-transit
    Pre-discharge
    Dis-Port (Quantity-Shore Receipts vs. Ship Figures; Quality)
    Post-discharge
  • Some Charter Paperwork & Clauses
  • Cargo Damage: Quality & Quantity
  • Market Report
  • Market Report
  • World Scale
    BOS: pp 165-170
    EOS: p 327
  • Standard Vessel
    Total capacity: ------------>
    Average service speed: ---->
    Bunker consumption
    In-transit: ------------------->
    In-port: ------------------->
    Other: ----------------------->
    Bunker grade: ------------>
    Bunker price: -------------->
    Fixed hire element: ------->
    Port time: -------------->
    75,000 MT
    14.5 Kts
    55 MT/Day
    5 MT/per port
    100 MT/Voyage
    380 cst
    Annual computation
    US$ 12,000/Day
    4 days
  • GENMAR AJAX 70 09/16 CARIBS/USG-USAC 100-95 ATMI
    AET TBN 70 09/16 COVENAS/USG 102.5 KOCH
  • Gas Carriers
  • World LNG Movement - 2009
    US < 4% of world LNG reserves
    Source: BP Statistical Review of World Energy, June 2010.
  • Evolving LNG market dynamics
    Traditional
    1990s
    Now-Future
    Gas Production
    State-owned/ International Oil and Gas Co
    Joint Venture by various market participants
    Pipeline
    State-owned/ International Oil & Gas Co
    State-owned/ International Oil & Gas Co
    Joint Venture by various market participants
    Liquefaction plant
    Ship charter Co.
    Gas marketing Cos.
    Upstream Seller
    Downstream buyers
    LNG Shipping
    Charter, buyer, sellers, minority interest
    Upstream
    Downstream
    Re-gasification plant
    Gas marketing cos
    Stand-along tolling cos
    Pipeline cos
    State-owned/ Regulated gas (pipeline) or electric company
    State-owned/ Regulated gas (pipeline) or electric company
    Pipeline
    Open access regulated pipelines
    Regulated gas distribution cos
    Distribution system
    Engelena and Dullaert, 2010
  • Gas Ships
  • Avg. Monthly LNG by Supply Type (2008)
  • LNG Freight Rates/Newbuilding Prices 2005-2009
  • 12 T/C Rates 1996-2010 (1000 $/month)
  • Chemical Tankers
  • 2005 Organic Chemical Trade (75 million tons)
  • Veg Oils, Chemical and Related Seabourne Trade