• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
American civilization chap2
 

American civilization chap2

on

  • 1,184 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,184
Views on SlideShare
278
Embed Views
906

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

2 Embeds 906

http://for-my-companions.blogspot.com 896
http://www.for-my-companions.blogspot.com 10

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    American civilization chap2 American civilization chap2 Presentation Transcript

    • PHYSICAL MAP
    • CLIMATE REGION MAP
    • RIVER MAP
    • • Have all of world’s climates & ecosystems • Have some of world’s largest & most stunning landform features • Possess a veritable cornucopia of natural resources • Help US become world’s leading economic powerhouse
    • Benefits • Ample water, different types of climate & soil for domestic, agriculture, & industrial use • Wide river systems for navigation network, natural harbors, seaports • Scenic landscapes for tourism
    • Challenges • Natural hazards: geologic, weather related, waterborne, fire related, etc.
    • Three questions of geographers 1. How do people adapt to the environments in which they live? 2. What natural elements are important to a people? How are natural resources used? 3. How have humans changed the environments in which they live? BACK
    • The lands & its features Pacific region Mountains, Plateaus, Basins of Interior West Interior Lowlands Appalachian Mountain Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Plains Climates & Ecosystems Humid East Dry Interior West Pacific Region Water feature Oceans Lakes Rivers Ground water Environmental hazards
    • Different landform types: broad plains, rolling hills, rugged plateaus, majestic mountains, etc. -> land use & economic development BACK
    • Mountains & Valleys of the Pacific Region BACK
    • Pacific region Hawaii Kilauea Crater Mauna Kea Alaska Mt McKinley Aleutian Islands Mainland Fertile valleys The Sierra Nevada Death Valley The Cascades
    • The region extends from CA to AK and includes HI
    • General characteristics • Greatest mountain ranges, highest/tallest mountains, stunning scenery • Nature’s land-building process: volcanism, faulting, folding. • Erosion: glacier, swift-flowing streams
    • fault
    • San Andreas Fault
    • fold
    • glacier
    • Soil erosion caused by stream
    • High mountain ranges part of “Ring of Fire” from CA to AK into Asia. Pacific & other tectonic plates crunch & grind away, cause >80 % world’s seismic & volcanic activity.
    • HAWAII • Most active & extensively studied volcano in Volcanoes National Park
    • Kilauea Crater erupts continuously in bubbling, non-life-threatening fashion
    • Kilauea Crater
    • Mauna Kea, highest peak, 10,360 m from Pacific floor
    • Milky way from Mauna Kea
    • ALASKA • Many towering, snow-clad mountains of fault block origin (Alaska Range) • Have 100 volcanoes, many are extremely active
    • Mount McKinley (aka. Denali): North America’s highest peak, world’s tallest peak, 20,320 ft (6,194m), expand 32km
    • Aleutian Islands: volcanoes
    • Aleutian Islands
    • Denali (AK) vs Everest (Nepal)
    • List of peaks by prominence Rank PEAK HEIGHT (m) COUNTRY 1 Mount Everest 8,848 Nepal/China 2 Aconcagua 6,962 Argentina (Mendoza) 3 Mount McKinley (Denali) 6,194 US (Alaska) 15 Mauna Kea 4,205 US (Hawaii) 21 Mount Rainier 4,393 US (Washington)
    • Mainland • Hill & low mountains form coastal ranges.
    • Cause: geologic folding (Pacific & North American tectonic plates colliding)
    • • Inland: fertile valleys for agriculture – Imperial Valley, Central Valley in CA – Willamette Valley in OR – lowlands bordering Puget Sound in WA
    • Imperial Valley formed by the combined San Joaquin & Sacramento valleys
    • Willamette Valley
    • Willamette Valley dam
    • lowlands bordering Puget Sound
    • Mainland • The Sierra Nevada: – central CA’s towering “backbone”: uplifted fault block range – Western slope: forest-covered, expand 130 km – Eastern edge: Mount Whitney (4,418 m, highest point in 48 states) – Eastern slope: drop >4,267m in several mile distance • Death Valley: 100km east of MW, 86m below sea level, world’s 3rd lowest point of dry land
    • Mainland • The Cascades: from northern CA to WA, active volcanic range – Mt Rainier: highest peak, snowcapped, 4,392 m – Mt St. Helens: erupt violently in 1980
    • Mountains, Plateaus, and Basins of the Interior West Location: between the Sierra Nevada, the Cascades, eastward to the Rockies, western Texas. TX BACK
    • Interior West Basins & Ranges Columbia Plateau Hells Canyon The ScablandsColorado Plateau Rocky Mountains Mt Elbert Mt Grand Teton Mt Glacier Mt Rocky
    • Basins & Ranges • Basins’ Feature: – relatively low & scattered mountain ranges separate broad & relatively flat basins. – Many basins have interior drainage, or no outward flow. – Water flowing into basins evaporates, salts are left behind to accumulate. (Bonneville Salt Flats, Great Salt Lake in UT, Salton Sea in southern CA)
    • Bonneville Salt Flats
    • Great Salt Lake
    • Salton Sea
    • The Columbia Plateau
    • • Location: portions of eastern WA, northeastern OR, western ID
    • of volcanic origin (formed millions of years ago by 1,829m layer of magma & lava)
    • Unique landscapes: 1/6 in loess or powder-like material;
    • hilly, fertile soil & best wheat-growing land
    • Hells Canyon (2,438m) chasm on Snake River between northeastern OR & western ID; Scoured by water erosion; deepest river gorge in NA (>1km deeper than Grand Canyon in AZ)
    • “Scablands”, WA: lunar-like landscape of bare rock. Formation: – Thousands of years ago, during late stages of the ice age, a huge lobe of glacial ice dammed today’s Clark Fork River near Sandpoint, ID. – Water built up behind the barrier -> create ancient Lake Missoula (610m depth) -> ice float -> giant lobe rise -> immediate breakup of ice -> destructive flood -> scour everything, leaving scab-like landscape
    • “Scablands” (pix: Palouse Fall)
    • The Colorado Plateau
    • Location: Southwest’s Four Corners area
    • Feature: alternating layers of sandstone & limestone
    • Water erosion created towering cliff, many natural bridges, arches, deep gorges (8 national parks in southern UT, Grand Canyon in AZ)
    • The Rocky Mountains
    • • Location: from northern NM to MT, into Canada as a mountain chain & AK • A series of mountain ranges with regional names • 17 peaks in CO (>4,267m)
    • . Mount Elbert: highest in Rockies, 4,399m
    • Mountain glaciers scour the jagged terrain (Grand Teton NP in WY)
    • Mountain glaciers scour the jagged terrain (Glacier NP in MT)
    • Mountain glaciers scour the jagged terrain (Rocky Mt NP in CO) BACK
    • Interior Lowlands Location: from the Rockies to the Appalachians BACK
    • Interior Lowlands Great Plains Central Plains
    • The Great Plains, west of 100th meridian, Western margin: 1585m high (Denver, CO)
    • Denver 1585m high
    • Eastward, plains drop gradually until they reach Missouri & Mississippi rivers.
    • Flat terrain broken in places by buttes, mesas, low mountains (Black Hills of SD, Mount Rushmore, highest here is Harney Peak 2,207m)
    • mesas
    • Black Hills
    • • The Central Plains: East of Great Plains to foothills of the Appalachians (north- central TX to eastern Dakotas, eastward to OH & MI), TX SD ND MI OH
    • Agriculture concentration Central plains as “breadbasket”: excellent soils, ample moisture, flat land for equipment. BACK
    • Appalachian Mountains Location: from AL to New England Shape: an accordion-like series of parallel, southwest-northeast- trending ridges & valleys Cause: geologic folding (forces within earth pushed toward one another, creating a ripple-like landscape) BACK
    • Feature: an ancient system of low mountains, highest at 2,037m (Mount Mitchell)
    • Ancient rivers scour east-west-trending valleys (gaps) creating corridors followed by early people, later railways, highways BACK
    • Piedmont & Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Plains BACK
    • Eastern slope: hilly upland area, drop gradually toward coastal plain. At the joint is a “fall zone/line”. -> early settlement Rapidly flowing water ->water- powered saw, flour, other industrial mills, goods transportation (land- based vehicles, warehouse) -> lively trade, commerce. (30 cities founded)
    • Gulf coastal plain: an arc from western FL to southern TX
    • Atlantic coastal plain: from mouth of NY’s Hudson River to eastern FL Along the coast, seaports are developed
    • • Within temperate mid-latitudes, moderate conditions of weather & climate (-AK, HI) • Extremes are seasonal (- aridity) • Settlers found ways to adapt to challenges: water storage, diversion, irrigation, air- conditioning, insulation, artificial heating • Varied climates offer diversity of natural vegetation, soil conditions, water features BACK
    • Disaster risk
    • U.S. deaths caused by different types of natural hazards
    • Climate regions
    • precipitation BACK
    • THE SOUTHEASTERN CLIMATE • Humid subtropical • Ample moisture (100-150 cm. P/Y). Gulf Coast, southern FL, parts of Appalachian (150- 200cm) • LA is wettest (140cm. P/Y) • Mild winter • Long, hot, steamy summer BACK
    • THE NORTHEASTERN CLIMATE • Humid continental climate • Ample moisture < the Southeast • Western: Dry condition (Corn Belt: 50-100cm.M) • Eastern: 100-150cm • Snowfall in winter (cover ground Nov-Apr in north)
    • THE NORTHEASTERN CLIMATE • Near Great Lakes: 250cm, “lake effect” snow • Temperature: moderate in summer, frigid in winter • North: in Jan: -12->-18oC
    • Mount Washington (NH) Surface wind: 372 km/h, highest wind velocity in world
    • EASTERN ECOSYSTEM • Dense cover of broadleaf, needleleaf, mixed forest - > today much are cleared for agriculture & other land use • In southeast, much are returned to woodland • Birds, marine life, mammals-> abound with help from conservation programs • Urban ,rural ->wildlife habitat • Soil: thin, acidic, poor in far north; rich in south (destroyed by poor agricultural practices)
    • SOUTHEAST
    • Mixed forest
    • BACK
    • The dry interior west • Scant moisture (50cm.P/Y) • To depends on latitude & elevation • Nevada: driest state, 23 cm. P/Y • Far from sea = weather extremes -> Interior west: – Summer: fiercely hot – Winter: frigidly cold 25cm BACK
    • Las Vegas: driest city, 10 cm. M
    • Death Valley, CA: driest spot, 3.6 cm, 57oC
    • Tucson, AZ: 1% humidity
    • Summer: wettest, rain falls in torrential thunderstorm
    • Aridity near the Sierra Nevada & Cascades
    • Semi-permanent high pressure maintains aridity in desert Southwest
    • Why does higher pressure mean stable weather conditions?
    • Mojave Desert Sonora Desert Afternoon to: >40oC
    • Wisdom, MT Stanley, ID Bellemont AZ High elevation -> low temperature Lowest: -57oC
    • Western ecosystem steppe prairie Water available -> soil fertile
    • bison deer elk antelope BACK
    • THE PACIFIC REGION • Border Pacific ->coastal CA has mild, pleasant Mediterranean climate (20soC, 75-125 cm P/Y, summer drought) ->migration BACK
    • Chaparral scrub Grassland with eucalyptus (from AUS mid-1800s)
    • • Soggy West Coast marine climate (moist & temperate) • Summer: cooler; Winter: warmer • Some locations: years without snowfall (different than Cascades) • Area west of mountain: Wettest spot • Several locations in Cascades, Sierra Nevada: receive several hundred inches of snowfall each winter
    • Seattle, WA: weeks without sunshine
    • WA’s Mount Baker Ski Area: snowfall record (29m)
    • Ecosystem • Remarkable forests • Reliable moisture + high relative humidity (frequent fog) => tree growth, fire suppression • Recent years, reduced harvest =>needle-leaf evergreen forest provide high quality lumber
    • World’s tallest tree: Hyperion (115.5m), redwood in undisclosed location (northern CA’s Redwood National Park)
    • World’s oldest tree: Methuselah (<4,800- year-old bristlecone pine in CA’s White Mountains)
    • World’s largest tree by mass: General Sherman Tree (1,486.6m3, 11.1m of a base diameter)
    • • Humid tropical climate, microclimatic conditions • Maui: some environmental record: Mount Pu’u’ Ula’ula: (Mediterranean-type landscape on 3,050m slope) 10 km of nearly all of Earth’s ecosystems (- polar)
    • Kaua’i: desert environment with scant vegetation (grasses, scrub plants, cacti, irrigated culture)
    • • Mount Waialeale: wettest spot (168.5cm, P/Y) due to orographic effect (rain), rain shadow (aridity)
    • • Summer: short, cool • Winter: long, severe • Southern coast: temperatures moderate • Juneau (capital), Anchorage (largest city): warmer in winter (> “Lower 48”) • Inland: to -61oC -> 40oC • Adequate moisture
    • Ecosystem • Animal: bears (black, brown), deer, whales, seafood (fish, crab) Kodiak Grizzly bear Polar bear
    • moose caribou seals walrus
    • Taiga (or boreal) forest: larch, pine, spruce aspen
    • Tundra (far north)
    • moss lichen Clump grasses Hardy flowering plants Shallow soils + short growing season => stunted ecosystem
    • WATER FEATURE • Importance for: – agriculture, – industry (maritime transportation, hydroelectricity- producing dams), – commerce, recreational activity (fishing) =>largest cities grow around a river mouth or natural harbor, oasis sites • Problematic: water pollution & depletion BACK
    • Oceans • Bordered by 3: Pacific, Atlantic, Arctic Safe from potentially hostile neighbors, countless marine resources, scenic beauty, shipping access to the world, atmospheric moisture (melting Arctic Ocean ->global navigation to Europe, Asia) BACK
    • Lakes • 90% world’s natural lakes formed by glacial action • In Pleistocene (ice age), glaciers reached into US (Ohio, Missouri rivers) & formed in many of higher mountain ranges =>Most lakes in the northeastern & north of Ohio, Missouri rivers; reservoirs, water bodies formed behind dams in Southeast & West. • Great Lakes: world’s largest system of freshwater (esp. Lake Superior); -> Canada’s St. Lawrence River -> Atlantic (water route) BACK
    • Rivers • Major river system: by Mississippi & its 2 major tributaries, Ohio, Missouri rivers Drain 41% of 48 states • Missouri- Mississippi river: 5,970 km long, distance < Nile, Amazon – Barges navigate rivers upstream to Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN; Pittsburgh, PA; Sioux City, IO – New Orleans, LA, near mouth of Mississippi: leading seaport (before Hurricane Katrina 2005) • Many eastern rivers’ importance: Hudson River towards New York city BACK
    • • In Southeast, 1933, during Great Depression, the TVA ( Tennessee Valley Authority) built 50 dams =>create jobs, clean & inexpensive source of (hydroelectric) area, reservoirs for recreational activities, control flooding
    • • In Southwest, the Rio Grande & Colorado River flow southward across desert landscapes.=> cities, agriculture:
    • The Rio Grande: from the Colorado Rockies -> central NM -> TX (border between US & Mexico); dammed in 3 locations ->regional agriculture, dry along lower course
    • The Rio Grande
    • • The Colorado River controlled by 8 dams & reservoirs (Glen Canyon Dam, Lake Powell, Hoover Dam, Lake Mead) -> booming population, economic growth (Phoenix, Tucson, AZ, CA’s Los Angeles basin, San Diego, Imperial Valley, Las Vegas, coastal southern CA)
    • The Colorado River
    • • In Pacific Northwest, the mighty Columbia & its chief tributary, the Snake River -> hydro-electric energy, irrigation, domestic use, recreational activities.
    • Columbia River gorge
    • Snake River canyon
    • Dam on Snake River
    • Groundwater BACK
    • Ground water is water deposits stored in an aquifer, its upper limit is the water table.
    • Groundwater: tapped by wells, reach surface through springs
    • • In arid regions, an aquifer: nonexistent or lie >300m under (desert Southwest) • Quality & quantity of groundwater deposits in sharp decline: – aquifer contaminated by seepage of pollutants, – earthen material (e.g salt & sulfur) cause foul taste/odor, reduce water quality, – Water used faster than being replaced: esp. near cities in West; from SD to the TX panhandle, water for irrigation taken from Ogallala Aquifer => solution: find alternative water source, develop an economy in balance with available water resources
    • Environmental Hazards BACK
    • Earth’s atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere wreak havoc on land, property, human life.
    • • (hazard->risk vs. disaster->damage) • Population concentrations vs environmental hazards, natural disaster: – Most dangerous: Pacific Coast states, eastern half of country (where majority of Americans live) – Coastal regions, wooded areas, lakeshores, river valleys, mountains (->potential environmental risks) -> people flock – Great Plains, Great Basin (->safest places) - >lowest population density
    • US Demographics People tend to live in hazard-prone areas
    • • (refer to p.43) deaths by disaster < deaths by accidents, violence, smoking due to: –Forecasting is improved -> people alerted -> take precautions (hurricanes, tornadoes, blizzards, floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions) –Engineering & site selection with safety: dams, levees, preservation of wetlands, reforestation, cellars (from tornadoes), firefighting strategies & technology (from conflagrations)
    • Types of hazards Atmospheric hazards: hurricanes, tornadoes, heavy flood-causing rain, blizzards, ice-related storms (hail, sleet), lightning, drought • Hurricane: in the Gulf & Atlantic coastal zones, • Tornadoes, blizzards, hail, ice storms, flooding: most of eastern half • Blizzards, drought, flooding: in Great Plains, much of interior West
    • Hurricane (6/10 natural disasters): water (>wind) cause most destruction (wind push water -> high waves, torrential rains -> severe flooding);
    • Hurricane Katrina (New Orleans, LA) breach protective levees, drop 38 cm of rain. Damage: $80 billion.
    • tornadoes
    • heavy flood-causing rain
    • blizzards
    • hail
    • sleet
    • lightning
    • The Pacific Coast BACK
    • Hazard-prone area, within “Ring of Fire” area (seismic, volcanic activities) From Cascades to Alaska, Hawaii: active volcanoes
    • In 1980, WA’s Mount St. Helens erupted violently, caused 57 deaths
    • From southern CA to AK’s Aleutian Islands, Pacific & North American plates slide, crunch, grind against one another => most earthquake-prone zones
    • Anchorage, Seattle, San Francisco, Los Angeles on geologic faults -> in constant peril
    • Earth creep
    • Landslides in La Conchita (CA), 2005
    • raging wildfires
    • periodic droughts