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American civilization chap2

American civilization chap2






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    American civilization chap2 American civilization chap2 Presentation Transcript

    • • Have all of world’s climates & ecosystems • Have some of world’s largest & most stunning landform features • Possess a veritable cornucopia of natural resources • Help US become world’s leading economic powerhouse
    • Benefits • Ample water, different types of climate & soil for domestic, agriculture, & industrial use • Wide river systems for navigation network, natural harbors, seaports • Scenic landscapes for tourism
    • Challenges • Natural hazards: geologic, weather related, waterborne, fire related, etc.
    • Three questions of geographers 1. How do people adapt to the environments in which they live? 2. What natural elements are important to a people? How are natural resources used? 3. How have humans changed the environments in which they live? BACK
    • The lands & its features Pacific region Mountains, Plateaus, Basins of Interior West Interior Lowlands Appalachian Mountain Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Plains Climates & Ecosystems Humid East Dry Interior West Pacific Region Water feature Oceans Lakes Rivers Ground water Environmental hazards
    • Different landform types: broad plains, rolling hills, rugged plateaus, majestic mountains, etc. -> land use & economic development BACK
    • Mountains & Valleys of the Pacific Region BACK
    • Pacific region Hawaii Kilauea Crater Mauna Kea Alaska Mt McKinley Aleutian Islands Mainland Fertile valleys The Sierra Nevada Death Valley The Cascades
    • The region extends from CA to AK and includes HI
    • General characteristics • Greatest mountain ranges, highest/tallest mountains, stunning scenery • Nature’s land-building process: volcanism, faulting, folding. • Erosion: glacier, swift-flowing streams
    • fault
    • San Andreas Fault
    • fold
    • glacier
    • Soil erosion caused by stream
    • High mountain ranges part of “Ring of Fire” from CA to AK into Asia. Pacific & other tectonic plates crunch & grind away, cause >80 % world’s seismic & volcanic activity.
    • HAWAII • Most active & extensively studied volcano in Volcanoes National Park
    • Kilauea Crater erupts continuously in bubbling, non-life-threatening fashion
    • Kilauea Crater
    • Mauna Kea, highest peak, 10,360 m from Pacific floor
    • Milky way from Mauna Kea
    • ALASKA • Many towering, snow-clad mountains of fault block origin (Alaska Range) • Have 100 volcanoes, many are extremely active
    • Mount McKinley (aka. Denali): North America’s highest peak, world’s tallest peak, 20,320 ft (6,194m), expand 32km
    • Aleutian Islands: volcanoes
    • Aleutian Islands
    • Denali (AK) vs Everest (Nepal)
    • List of peaks by prominence Rank PEAK HEIGHT (m) COUNTRY 1 Mount Everest 8,848 Nepal/China 2 Aconcagua 6,962 Argentina (Mendoza) 3 Mount McKinley (Denali) 6,194 US (Alaska) 15 Mauna Kea 4,205 US (Hawaii) 21 Mount Rainier 4,393 US (Washington)
    • Mainland • Hill & low mountains form coastal ranges.
    • Cause: geologic folding (Pacific & North American tectonic plates colliding)
    • • Inland: fertile valleys for agriculture – Imperial Valley, Central Valley in CA – Willamette Valley in OR – lowlands bordering Puget Sound in WA
    • Imperial Valley formed by the combined San Joaquin & Sacramento valleys
    • Willamette Valley
    • Willamette Valley dam
    • lowlands bordering Puget Sound
    • Mainland • The Sierra Nevada: – central CA’s towering “backbone”: uplifted fault block range – Western slope: forest-covered, expand 130 km – Eastern edge: Mount Whitney (4,418 m, highest point in 48 states) – Eastern slope: drop >4,267m in several mile distance • Death Valley: 100km east of MW, 86m below sea level, world’s 3rd lowest point of dry land
    • Mainland • The Cascades: from northern CA to WA, active volcanic range – Mt Rainier: highest peak, snowcapped, 4,392 m – Mt St. Helens: erupt violently in 1980
    • Mountains, Plateaus, and Basins of the Interior West Location: between the Sierra Nevada, the Cascades, eastward to the Rockies, western Texas. TX BACK
    • Interior West Basins & Ranges Columbia Plateau Hells Canyon The ScablandsColorado Plateau Rocky Mountains Mt Elbert Mt Grand Teton Mt Glacier Mt Rocky
    • Basins & Ranges • Basins’ Feature: – relatively low & scattered mountain ranges separate broad & relatively flat basins. – Many basins have interior drainage, or no outward flow. – Water flowing into basins evaporates, salts are left behind to accumulate. (Bonneville Salt Flats, Great Salt Lake in UT, Salton Sea in southern CA)
    • Bonneville Salt Flats
    • Great Salt Lake
    • Salton Sea
    • The Columbia Plateau
    • • Location: portions of eastern WA, northeastern OR, western ID
    • of volcanic origin (formed millions of years ago by 1,829m layer of magma & lava)
    • Unique landscapes: 1/6 in loess or powder-like material;
    • hilly, fertile soil & best wheat-growing land
    • Hells Canyon (2,438m) chasm on Snake River between northeastern OR & western ID; Scoured by water erosion; deepest river gorge in NA (>1km deeper than Grand Canyon in AZ)
    • “Scablands”, WA: lunar-like landscape of bare rock. Formation: – Thousands of years ago, during late stages of the ice age, a huge lobe of glacial ice dammed today’s Clark Fork River near Sandpoint, ID. – Water built up behind the barrier -> create ancient Lake Missoula (610m depth) -> ice float -> giant lobe rise -> immediate breakup of ice -> destructive flood -> scour everything, leaving scab-like landscape
    • “Scablands” (pix: Palouse Fall)
    • The Colorado Plateau
    • Location: Southwest’s Four Corners area
    • Feature: alternating layers of sandstone & limestone
    • Water erosion created towering cliff, many natural bridges, arches, deep gorges (8 national parks in southern UT, Grand Canyon in AZ)
    • The Rocky Mountains
    • • Location: from northern NM to MT, into Canada as a mountain chain & AK • A series of mountain ranges with regional names • 17 peaks in CO (>4,267m)
    • . Mount Elbert: highest in Rockies, 4,399m
    • Mountain glaciers scour the jagged terrain (Grand Teton NP in WY)
    • Mountain glaciers scour the jagged terrain (Glacier NP in MT)
    • Mountain glaciers scour the jagged terrain (Rocky Mt NP in CO) BACK
    • Interior Lowlands Location: from the Rockies to the Appalachians BACK
    • Interior Lowlands Great Plains Central Plains
    • The Great Plains, west of 100th meridian, Western margin: 1585m high (Denver, CO)
    • Denver 1585m high
    • Eastward, plains drop gradually until they reach Missouri & Mississippi rivers.
    • Flat terrain broken in places by buttes, mesas, low mountains (Black Hills of SD, Mount Rushmore, highest here is Harney Peak 2,207m)
    • mesas
    • Black Hills
    • • The Central Plains: East of Great Plains to foothills of the Appalachians (north- central TX to eastern Dakotas, eastward to OH & MI), TX SD ND MI OH
    • Agriculture concentration Central plains as “breadbasket”: excellent soils, ample moisture, flat land for equipment. BACK
    • Appalachian Mountains Location: from AL to New England Shape: an accordion-like series of parallel, southwest-northeast- trending ridges & valleys Cause: geologic folding (forces within earth pushed toward one another, creating a ripple-like landscape) BACK
    • Feature: an ancient system of low mountains, highest at 2,037m (Mount Mitchell)
    • Ancient rivers scour east-west-trending valleys (gaps) creating corridors followed by early people, later railways, highways BACK
    • Piedmont & Atlantic & Gulf Coastal Plains BACK
    • Eastern slope: hilly upland area, drop gradually toward coastal plain. At the joint is a “fall zone/line”. -> early settlement Rapidly flowing water ->water- powered saw, flour, other industrial mills, goods transportation (land- based vehicles, warehouse) -> lively trade, commerce. (30 cities founded)
    • Gulf coastal plain: an arc from western FL to southern TX
    • Atlantic coastal plain: from mouth of NY’s Hudson River to eastern FL Along the coast, seaports are developed
    • • Within temperate mid-latitudes, moderate conditions of weather & climate (-AK, HI) • Extremes are seasonal (- aridity) • Settlers found ways to adapt to challenges: water storage, diversion, irrigation, air- conditioning, insulation, artificial heating • Varied climates offer diversity of natural vegetation, soil conditions, water features BACK
    • Disaster risk
    • U.S. deaths caused by different types of natural hazards
    • Climate regions
    • precipitation BACK
    • THE SOUTHEASTERN CLIMATE • Humid subtropical • Ample moisture (100-150 cm. P/Y). Gulf Coast, southern FL, parts of Appalachian (150- 200cm) • LA is wettest (140cm. P/Y) • Mild winter • Long, hot, steamy summer BACK
    • THE NORTHEASTERN CLIMATE • Humid continental climate • Ample moisture < the Southeast • Western: Dry condition (Corn Belt: 50-100cm.M) • Eastern: 100-150cm • Snowfall in winter (cover ground Nov-Apr in north)
    • THE NORTHEASTERN CLIMATE • Near Great Lakes: 250cm, “lake effect” snow • Temperature: moderate in summer, frigid in winter • North: in Jan: -12->-18oC
    • Mount Washington (NH) Surface wind: 372 km/h, highest wind velocity in world
    • EASTERN ECOSYSTEM • Dense cover of broadleaf, needleleaf, mixed forest - > today much are cleared for agriculture & other land use • In southeast, much are returned to woodland • Birds, marine life, mammals-> abound with help from conservation programs • Urban ,rural ->wildlife habitat • Soil: thin, acidic, poor in far north; rich in south (destroyed by poor agricultural practices)
    • Mixed forest
    • BACK
    • The dry interior west • Scant moisture (50cm.P/Y) • To depends on latitude & elevation • Nevada: driest state, 23 cm. P/Y • Far from sea = weather extremes -> Interior west: – Summer: fiercely hot – Winter: frigidly cold 25cm BACK
    • Las Vegas: driest city, 10 cm. M
    • Death Valley, CA: driest spot, 3.6 cm, 57oC
    • Tucson, AZ: 1% humidity
    • Summer: wettest, rain falls in torrential thunderstorm
    • Aridity near the Sierra Nevada & Cascades
    • Semi-permanent high pressure maintains aridity in desert Southwest
    • Why does higher pressure mean stable weather conditions?
    • Mojave Desert Sonora Desert Afternoon to: >40oC
    • Wisdom, MT Stanley, ID Bellemont AZ High elevation -> low temperature Lowest: -57oC
    • Western ecosystem steppe prairie Water available -> soil fertile
    • bison deer elk antelope BACK
    • THE PACIFIC REGION • Border Pacific ->coastal CA has mild, pleasant Mediterranean climate (20soC, 75-125 cm P/Y, summer drought) ->migration BACK
    • Chaparral scrub Grassland with eucalyptus (from AUS mid-1800s)
    • • Soggy West Coast marine climate (moist & temperate) • Summer: cooler; Winter: warmer • Some locations: years without snowfall (different than Cascades) • Area west of mountain: Wettest spot • Several locations in Cascades, Sierra Nevada: receive several hundred inches of snowfall each winter
    • Seattle, WA: weeks without sunshine
    • WA’s Mount Baker Ski Area: snowfall record (29m)
    • Ecosystem • Remarkable forests • Reliable moisture + high relative humidity (frequent fog) => tree growth, fire suppression • Recent years, reduced harvest =>needle-leaf evergreen forest provide high quality lumber
    • World’s tallest tree: Hyperion (115.5m), redwood in undisclosed location (northern CA’s Redwood National Park)
    • World’s oldest tree: Methuselah (<4,800- year-old bristlecone pine in CA’s White Mountains)
    • World’s largest tree by mass: General Sherman Tree (1,486.6m3, 11.1m of a base diameter)
    • • Humid tropical climate, microclimatic conditions • Maui: some environmental record: Mount Pu’u’ Ula’ula: (Mediterranean-type landscape on 3,050m slope) 10 km of nearly all of Earth’s ecosystems (- polar)
    • Kaua’i: desert environment with scant vegetation (grasses, scrub plants, cacti, irrigated culture)
    • • Mount Waialeale: wettest spot (168.5cm, P/Y) due to orographic effect (rain), rain shadow (aridity)
    • • Summer: short, cool • Winter: long, severe • Southern coast: temperatures moderate • Juneau (capital), Anchorage (largest city): warmer in winter (> “Lower 48”) • Inland: to -61oC -> 40oC • Adequate moisture
    • Ecosystem • Animal: bears (black, brown), deer, whales, seafood (fish, crab) Kodiak Grizzly bear Polar bear
    • moose caribou seals walrus
    • Taiga (or boreal) forest: larch, pine, spruce aspen
    • Tundra (far north)
    • moss lichen Clump grasses Hardy flowering plants Shallow soils + short growing season => stunted ecosystem
    • WATER FEATURE • Importance for: – agriculture, – industry (maritime transportation, hydroelectricity- producing dams), – commerce, recreational activity (fishing) =>largest cities grow around a river mouth or natural harbor, oasis sites • Problematic: water pollution & depletion BACK
    • Oceans • Bordered by 3: Pacific, Atlantic, Arctic Safe from potentially hostile neighbors, countless marine resources, scenic beauty, shipping access to the world, atmospheric moisture (melting Arctic Ocean ->global navigation to Europe, Asia) BACK
    • Lakes • 90% world’s natural lakes formed by glacial action • In Pleistocene (ice age), glaciers reached into US (Ohio, Missouri rivers) & formed in many of higher mountain ranges =>Most lakes in the northeastern & north of Ohio, Missouri rivers; reservoirs, water bodies formed behind dams in Southeast & West. • Great Lakes: world’s largest system of freshwater (esp. Lake Superior); -> Canada’s St. Lawrence River -> Atlantic (water route) BACK
    • Rivers • Major river system: by Mississippi & its 2 major tributaries, Ohio, Missouri rivers Drain 41% of 48 states • Missouri- Mississippi river: 5,970 km long, distance < Nile, Amazon – Barges navigate rivers upstream to Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN; Pittsburgh, PA; Sioux City, IO – New Orleans, LA, near mouth of Mississippi: leading seaport (before Hurricane Katrina 2005) • Many eastern rivers’ importance: Hudson River towards New York city BACK
    • • In Southeast, 1933, during Great Depression, the TVA ( Tennessee Valley Authority) built 50 dams =>create jobs, clean & inexpensive source of (hydroelectric) area, reservoirs for recreational activities, control flooding
    • • In Southwest, the Rio Grande & Colorado River flow southward across desert landscapes.=> cities, agriculture:
    • The Rio Grande: from the Colorado Rockies -> central NM -> TX (border between US & Mexico); dammed in 3 locations ->regional agriculture, dry along lower course
    • The Rio Grande
    • • The Colorado River controlled by 8 dams & reservoirs (Glen Canyon Dam, Lake Powell, Hoover Dam, Lake Mead) -> booming population, economic growth (Phoenix, Tucson, AZ, CA’s Los Angeles basin, San Diego, Imperial Valley, Las Vegas, coastal southern CA)
    • The Colorado River
    • • In Pacific Northwest, the mighty Columbia & its chief tributary, the Snake River -> hydro-electric energy, irrigation, domestic use, recreational activities.
    • Columbia River gorge
    • Snake River canyon
    • Dam on Snake River
    • Groundwater BACK
    • Ground water is water deposits stored in an aquifer, its upper limit is the water table.
    • Groundwater: tapped by wells, reach surface through springs
    • • In arid regions, an aquifer: nonexistent or lie >300m under (desert Southwest) • Quality & quantity of groundwater deposits in sharp decline: – aquifer contaminated by seepage of pollutants, – earthen material (e.g salt & sulfur) cause foul taste/odor, reduce water quality, – Water used faster than being replaced: esp. near cities in West; from SD to the TX panhandle, water for irrigation taken from Ogallala Aquifer => solution: find alternative water source, develop an economy in balance with available water resources
    • Environmental Hazards BACK
    • Earth’s atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere wreak havoc on land, property, human life.
    • • (hazard->risk vs. disaster->damage) • Population concentrations vs environmental hazards, natural disaster: – Most dangerous: Pacific Coast states, eastern half of country (where majority of Americans live) – Coastal regions, wooded areas, lakeshores, river valleys, mountains (->potential environmental risks) -> people flock – Great Plains, Great Basin (->safest places) - >lowest population density
    • US Demographics People tend to live in hazard-prone areas
    • • (refer to p.43) deaths by disaster < deaths by accidents, violence, smoking due to: –Forecasting is improved -> people alerted -> take precautions (hurricanes, tornadoes, blizzards, floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions) –Engineering & site selection with safety: dams, levees, preservation of wetlands, reforestation, cellars (from tornadoes), firefighting strategies & technology (from conflagrations)
    • Types of hazards Atmospheric hazards: hurricanes, tornadoes, heavy flood-causing rain, blizzards, ice-related storms (hail, sleet), lightning, drought • Hurricane: in the Gulf & Atlantic coastal zones, • Tornadoes, blizzards, hail, ice storms, flooding: most of eastern half • Blizzards, drought, flooding: in Great Plains, much of interior West
    • Hurricane (6/10 natural disasters): water (>wind) cause most destruction (wind push water -> high waves, torrential rains -> severe flooding);
    • Hurricane Katrina (New Orleans, LA) breach protective levees, drop 38 cm of rain. Damage: $80 billion.
    • tornadoes
    • heavy flood-causing rain
    • blizzards
    • hail
    • sleet
    • lightning
    • The Pacific Coast BACK
    • Hazard-prone area, within “Ring of Fire” area (seismic, volcanic activities) From Cascades to Alaska, Hawaii: active volcanoes
    • In 1980, WA’s Mount St. Helens erupted violently, caused 57 deaths
    • From southern CA to AK’s Aleutian Islands, Pacific & North American plates slide, crunch, grind against one another => most earthquake-prone zones
    • Anchorage, Seattle, San Francisco, Los Angeles on geologic faults -> in constant peril
    • Earth creep
    • Landslides in La Conchita (CA), 2005
    • raging wildfires
    • periodic droughts