• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
The Cyprus Solution
 

The Cyprus Solution

on

  • 1,029 views

This solution to the Cyprus Problem has taken 10 years to produce. It was put on hold while the failed Annan Plan was debated.

This solution to the Cyprus Problem has taken 10 years to produce. It was put on hold while the failed Annan Plan was debated.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,029
Views on SlideShare
1,027
Embed Views
2

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
13
Comments
0

1 Embed 2

http://www.slideshare.net 2

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    The Cyprus Solution The Cyprus Solution Presentation Transcript

    • THE CYPRUS DIALOGUE ‘THE HADLOW PLAN’ ©
    • THE CYPRUS DIALOGUE • HIS EXCELLENCY THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS • HIS EXCELLENCY THE PRESIDENT OF THE TURKISH REPUBLIC OF NORTHERN CYPRUS
    • THE CYPRUS DIALOGUE THE CYPRUS TREATY
    • RECALLING the historic importance of the division of the island of Cyprus, RESOLVED to make up for the perceived shortcomings in the official talks, RESOLVED to mark a new stage in the process of integration by renouncing the political status of the island of Cyprus formerly held prior to 20 July 1974, DRAWING INSPIRATION from the cultural and religious inheritance of the island of Cyprus, from which have developed rights of the human person, freedom, democracy, equality and the rule of law, CONFIRMING their attachment to the principles of liberty, democracy and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms and of the rule of law, CONFIRMING their attachment to fundamental social rights,
    • DESIRING to deepen the solidarity between their peoples while respecting their history, their culture and their traditions, DESIRING to enhance further the democratic and efficient functioning of their institutions so as to enable them better to carry out, the tasks entrusted to them, RESOLVED to achieve the strengthening and the convergence of their economies and to establish an economic and monetary partnership, DETERMINED to promote economic and social progress for their peoples, taking into account the principle of sustainable development and within the context of the accomplishment of the internal market and of reinforced cohesion and environmental protection, and to implement policies ensuring that advances in economic integration are accompanied by parallel progress in other fields,
    • RESOLVED to implement a common foreign and security policy including the progressive framing of a common defence policy for the island of Cyprus, thereby reinforcing its identity and independence in order to promote peace, security and progress both on the island of Cyprus and in the world, RESOLVED to establish The Council of Cyprus (Schedule 1), a unique evolving partnership body of common rights and obligations which shall have non-absolute sovereignty over the island of Cyprus but by pooling the resources of the Republic of Cyprus and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus will preserve and strengthen such partnership, RESOLVED to establish The High Supreme Court (Schedule 2), as the primary appellate court, RESOLVED to appoint an independent Office of Attorney General to act as legal adviser to The Council of Cyprus,
    • RESOLVED to appoint an independent Office of Auditor General charged with reviewing the obligation, expenditure, receipt and use of public funds by The Council of Cyprus, RESOLVED to appoint an Office for Council Affairs to undertake the administrative function for The Council of Cyprus, RESOLVED to establish an empowered Property Claims Commission (Schedule 3), to provide either restitution or equitable redress of property dispossessed after 20 July 1974, RESOLVED to establish a Citizenship and Passport Commission (Schedule 4) to maintain the integrity of both the citizenship and passport process,
    • HAVE AGREED that The Council of Cyprus will never employ any weapons except in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, HAVE AGREED that the Euro be the common currency on the island of Cyprus and that all powers and responsibilities required of the island by the European System of Central Banks be transferred to the existing independent Central Bank of Cyprus, HAVE AGREED there is a common single citizenship for the island of Cyprus, HAVE AGREED that The Council of Cyprus be recognised as a political international entity and that its foreign policy shall be directed towards support for European Union and Turkish causes and interests and towards the consolidation of the bonds of friendship and co-operation with all nations and peoples on the basis of the principles of the charter of the United Nations and ideal international standards,
    • HAVE AGREED that with immediate effect all qualified persons from either of the two political entities will be eligible to participate in international sporting and cultural events representing the island of Cyprus, HAVE AGREED that with immediate effect Ercan, Larnaca and Paphos airports be afforded equal status including direct flight access by international carriers, HAVE AGREED that with immediate effect all postal services enjoy interoperability, direct routing and convenient universal access throughout the island of Cyprus, HAVE AGREED to establish an independent District of Varosha which may not merge with either the Republic of Cyprus or the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus,
    • HAVE AGREED to designate under the administration of the District of Verosha the two areas around Apostolos Andreas and Hala Sultan Tekke(si) as independent National Heritage Parks, which may not merge with either the Republic of Cyprus or the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, HAVE AGREED the official languages of the island of Cyprus are Greek, Turkish and English and by recognising the status of the indigenous languages of the people, there must be practical and positive measures taken to advance the use of these languages, HAVE AGREED to adopt the official flag and motto of The Council of Cyprus as described in Schedule 5 and that Cyprus Day be determined as a public holiday and celebrated on the nearest Monday to October 1st,
    • HAVE DECIDED ‘The Cyprus Treaty’ incorporating the ‘Bill of Rights’ shall be ratified on Thursday October 1st 2009 on the first seating of The Council of Cyprus at 12 noon followed by a celebratory concert.
    • SCHEDULE 1 – THE COUNCIL OF CYPRUS The Republic of Cyprus and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (the Member States) and the District of Verosha (the District) make up The Council of Cyprus (the Council). continued…
    • SCHEDULE 1 – THE COUNCIL OF CYPRUS continued… The Council is the main decision-making body of Cyprus Twenty four nominated democratically elected representatives of the Member States meet within the Council several times a month. There are twelve representatives to include the President, the Prime Minister and senior elected politicians of each Member State. The Council subscribes to the Bill of Rights. The Council is the collective Head of State. The Council meets in the District of Verosha. Each member of the Council must take the following oath before the Council prior to assuming their duties: I (name), do solemnly swear (or affirm) to carry out my legal tasks and responsibilities devotedly and honestly and preserve the independence of The Council of Cyprus and safeguard the interests of its people, and watch over the safety of its land, skies, waters, resources and democratic systems, and I shall endeavour to protect public and private liberties, the independence of the judiciary and adhere to the applications of the legislation neutrally and faithfully: So help me God. continued…
    • SCHEDULE 1 – THE COUNCIL OF CYPRUS continued… The Council is responsible for decision-making and co-ordination. The Council passes laws, usually legislating jointly with the Member States. The Council co-ordinates the broad commerce and economic policies of the Member States, regulates financial services and plans taxation. The Council and Member States jointly decide on matters relating to immigration, education, land registration, development, public health, postal, telecommunications and information services, energy, environment, agriculture and transportation. The Council defines and implements common external relations, foreign affairs, security policy and defence based on guidelines set by Council. The Council concludes, on behalf of the Member States, international agreements and membership of international and supranational organisations. The Council co-ordinates the actions of Member States and adopts measures in the area of homeland security, police and judicial co-operation in criminal matters and the extradition of criminals. The Council and the Member States constitute the budgetary authority that adopts the budget. continued…
    • SCHEDULE 1 – THE COUNCIL OF CYPRUS continued… The acts of the Council The acts of the Council can take the form of regulations, directives, decisions, common actions or common positions, recommendations or opinions. The Council can also adopt conclusions, declarations or resolutions. When the Council acts as a legislator, in principle it is the Member States that make proposals. These are examined within the Council, which can make modifications before adopting them. The Council takes decisions by a vote of the representatives from the Member States. The number of votes each Member State can cast is set at twelve. The Treaty requires qualified majority or unanimity in all decisions taken by the Council. A qualified majority will be reached if the following condition is met: • a minimum of 17 votes is cast in favour of the proposal, out of a total of 24 votes. continued…
    • SCHEDULE 1 – THE COUNCIL OF CYPRUS continued… The Presidency of the Council is held in turn by each Member State The Council is presided for a period of twelve months (from January to December) by each Member State in turn except the first period which is for a period of fifteen months (from October 1st 2009 to December 31st 2010). The first Presidency shall be held by the Member State with the largest population and rotated at 12 noon on the two hundred and twenty ninth day. The Presidency of the Council plays an essential role in organising the work of the institution, particularly in promoting legislative and political decisions. It is responsible for organising and chairing all meetings, including the many working groups, and for brokering compromises. The President of the Member State holding the Presidency of the Council: • chairs the meetings of the Council; • undertakes special representational and diplomatic duties on behalf of the Council; • has no powers above the other members of the Council; • has no vote. continued…
    • SCHEDULE 1 – THE COUNCIL OF CYPRUS continued… The administration of the Council The administrative function of the Council and the publication of the Official Gazette is undertaken by the Office for Council Affairs and led by the Director General. The Office for Council Affairs and the Director General is located in the District of Verosha. The salary of the Director General is set by the Council. The Office of Auditor General is located in the District of Verosha. The salary of the Auditor General is set by the Council. The District of Verosha is administered by the Office for Council Affairs. It’s budget and laws are agreed by The Council of Cyprus. Municipal services are outsourced equally to the Member States. Openness and transparency of Council proceedings Meetings of the Council, its procedures and its deliberations are open to the public except on matters of security. Official Council documents are accessible to the public unless on matters of security. e-Government will be at the forefront of openness and transparency. The Council website is www.cygov.org An individual appointed to an office in the Council service, shall take the following oath: I (name), do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend The Council of Cyprus against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to enter: So help me God.
    • SCHEDULE 2 – THE HIGH SUPREME COURT The High Supreme Court is the highest judicial body in Cyprus The Court consists of the Chief Justice and four Associate Judges, nominated by the Member States as being representative of the official languages and confirmed with the qualified majority vote of the Council. The Justices elect the Chief Justice from among their number. Once appointed, Justices effectively have life tenure, which terminates only upon death, resignation, retirement, or conviction on indictment. The salary of the Justices is set by the Council. The Court meets in the District of Verosha. The Court Administration is located in the District of Verosha. The High Supreme Court is primarily an appellate court, but has original jurisdiction over a small range of cases. Decisions that have a bearing on fundamental rights can be referred to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. Each Justice must take the following oath before the Council prior to assuming their duties: I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will administer justice without respect to persons, and do equal right to the poor and to the rich, and that I will faithfully and impartially discharge and perform all the duties incumbent upon me as [TITLE] under The Treaty of Cyprus and laws of The Council of Cyprus: So help me God. The Office of Attorney General is located in the District of Verosha. The salary of the Attorney General is set by the Council.
    • SCHEDULE 3 – THE PROPERTY Introduction CLAIMS COMMISSION For decades, many have wrongfully been deprived of their property rights. To help address this situation, the Property Claims Commission (PCC) was established. The PCC, an independent agency of The Council of Cyprus, has as its mandate the redress of certain wrongful takings of real property rights, including ownership and usage, since 20 July 1974. The PCC resolves claims made by Cypriots, or their heirs, who were wrongfully deprived of property rights (e.g., a house, apartment or land) or an interest in real property (e.g., the right to farm land) because of the confiscation, expropriation, forced sale or other actions taken after 20 July 1974. The PCC has offices in the District of Verosha and a staff to process the claims, which are decided by a Judicial Committee at first instance and, in case of appeal, by The High Supreme Court. The PCC Claims Process The PCC only deals with cases involving certain defined types of takings of interests in real property. For example, the PCC cannot consider claims for damage and destruction of real property in cases where it was not taken. To claim a property right before the PCC, interested parties must complete an official claim form, in Greek, Turkish or English, and file it, with supporting evidence, at the PCC office. A responding party can defend its rights by completing an official response form and filing it, with supporting evidence, at the PCC office. Claimants and respondents can get assistance from intake officers in completing the forms. Claims are reviewed and decided by Judicial Committees which review all submissions relating to a claim. The Judicial Committees hold at least one hearing in every case, and may also request expert opinions. A party may appeal a decision of a Judicial Committee. All appeals are heard by The High Supreme Court. If The High Supreme Court disagrees with the decision of the Judicial Committee, it will remand the claim to the Judicial Committee for reconsideration in light of The High Supreme Court’s decision. continued…
    • SCHEDULE 3 – THE PROPERTY CLAIMS COMMISSION continued… Judicial Committees are made up of three judges and appointed by The High Supreme Court to reflect the balance of the population. New appointees are chosen from a list of qualified candidates who have gone through rigorous screening. The Property Claims Commission is led by a Senior Property Claims Judge who is first among equals. Reporting to The Council of Cyprus, the Senior Property Claims Judge is responsible for ensuring the proper administration of the law and promoting collegiality between property claims judges. The Senior Property Claims Judge also assumes responsibility for managing the administrative and professional services that the Commission offers to judges. The Office of the Property Claims Commission is located in the District of Verosha. The salary of the members of the Property Claims Commission is set by the Council. Each member of the Property Claims Commission must take the following oath before a High Supreme Court Justice prior to assuming their duties: I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will administer justice without respect to persons, and do equal right to the poor and to the rich, and that I will faithfully and impartially discharge and perform all the duties incumbent upon me as [TITLE] under The Treaty of Cyprus and laws of The Council of Cyprus: So help me God.
    • SCHEDULE 4 – THE CITIZENSHIP AND PASSPORT COMMISSION The Citizenship and Passport Commission consists of citizenship judges and an administrative body Its mandate is as follows: 5. To review citizenship applications; 6. To assess applicants to ensure they meet the requirements of citizenship; 7. To administer the oath of citizenship and stress the rights and responsibilities of citizenship; 4. To maintain the integrity of the citizenship process; and 5. To promote citizenship by working with education institutions, multicultural groups and other community organisations. 6. To issue passports on behalf of The Council of Cyprus. With respect to decisions affecting individual cases, citizenship judges are independent, quasi-judicial decision makers. Their decisions can be appealed to The High Supreme Court by a failed applicant. Judges need to know: • The principles of administrative law and natural justice; • The relevant Acts, Regulations and case law; and • The Criminal Code. continued…
    • SCHEDULE 4 – THE CITIZENSHIP AND PASSPORT COMMISSION continued… Citizenship judges are appointed by The High Supreme Court to reflect the balance of the population. New appointees are chosen from a list of qualified candidates who have gone through rigorous screening. The Citizenship Commission is led by a Senior Citizenship Judge who is first among equals. Reporting to The Council of Cyprus, the Senior Citizenship Judge is responsible for ensuring the proper administration of the law and promoting collegiality between citizenship judges. The Senior Citizenship Judge also assumes responsibility for managing the administrative and professional services that the Commission offers to judges. The Office of the Citizenship and Passport Commission is located in the District of Verosha. The salary of the members of the Citizenship and Passport Commission is set by the Council. Each member of the Citizenship and Passport Commission must take the following oath before a High Supreme Court Justice prior to assuming their duties: I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will administer justice without respect to persons, and do equal right to the poor and to the rich, and that I will faithfully and impartially discharge and perform all the duties incumbent upon me as [TITLE] under The Treaty of Cyprus and laws of The Council of Cyprus: So help me God.
    • SCHEDULE 5 - FLAG Motto – ‘Strength in Unity’ Description The Council flag is rectangular; it is one and a half times longer than it is wide. It is blue (Pantone Reflex Blue), red (Pantone Tomato Red) and yellow (Pantone Yellow 2c). It has two red end bands that are each one quarter as wide as the flag. It has a centre blue band that is one half as wide as the flag. Within the blue band there is a yellow facsimile in the shape of the island of Cyprus. Meaning Blue represents freedom, peace, and patriotism of the people of the island of Cyprus. Red represents the courage of the cultural traditions within the island of Cyprus. Yellow represents the sun and wealth of the island of Cyprus. Cyprus Day Cyprus Day is celebrated on the nearest Monday to October 1st.
    • THE CYPRUS DIALOGUE THE BILL OF RIGHTS
    • 2. Rights This Bill of Rights is a cornerstone of democracy in the island of Cyprus. It enshrines the rights of all people and affirms the democratic values of human dignity, equality and freedom. The Council must respect, protect, promote and fulfil the rights in the Bill of Rights. The rights in the Bill of Rights are subject to the limitations contained or referred to in article 31, or elsewhere in the Bill.
    • 2. Application 3. The Bill of Rights applies to all law, and binds the legislature, the executive, the judiciary and all organs of the Council. 4. A provision of the Bill of Rights binds a natural or a legal person if, and to the extent that, it is applicable, taking into account the nature of the right and the nature of any duty imposed by the right. 5. When applying a provision of the Bill of Rights to a natural or legal person in terms of subsection (2), a court 1. in order to give effect to a right in the Bill, must apply, or if necessary develop, the common law to the extent that legislation does not give effect to that right; and 2. may develop rules of the common law to limit the right, provided that the limitation is in accordance with article 31(1). 6. A legal person is entitled to the rights in the Bill of Rights to the extent required by the nature of the rights and the nature of that legal person.
    • 3. Equality 3. Everyone is equal before the law and has the right to equal protection and benefit of the law. 4. Equality includes the full and equal enjoyment of all rights and freedoms. To promote the achievement of equality, legislative and other measures designed to protect or advance persons or categories of persons, disadvantaged by unfair discrimination may be taken. 5. The Council may not unfairly discriminate directly or indirectly against anyone on one or more grounds, including race, gender, sex, pregnancy, marital status, ethnic or social origin, colour, sexual orientation, age, disability, faith, religion, conscience, belief, culture, language and birth. 6. No person may unfairly discriminate directly or indirectly against anyone on one or more grounds in terms of subsection (3). Council legislation must be enacted to prevent or prohibit unfair discrimination. 7. Discrimination on one or more of the grounds listed in subsection (3) is unfair unless it is established that the discrimination is fair.
    • 4. Human dignity Everyone has inherent dignity and the right to have their dignity respected and protected.
    • 5. Life Everyone has the right to life. The death penalty is prohibited.
    • 6. Freedom and security of the person 2. Everyone has the right to freedom and security of the person, which includes the right a. not to be deprived of freedom arbitrarily or without just cause; b. not to be detained without trial; c. to be free from all forms of violence from either public or private sources; d. not to be tortured in any way; and e. not to be treated or punished in a cruel, inhuman or degrading way. 3. Everyone has the right to bodily and psychological integrity, which includes the right a. to make decisions concerning reproduction; b. to security in and control over their body; and c. not to be subjected to medical or scientific experiments without their informed consent.
    • 7. Slavery, servitude and forced labour No one may be subjected to slavery, servitude or forced labour. People trafficking and the sex trade are prohibited.
    • 8. Privacy 2. Everyone has the right to privacy, which includes the right to not have a. their person or home searched; b. their property searched; c. their possessions seized; or d. the privacy of their communications infringed. 3. Everyone has the right to be protected against abuse of personal data. 4. No provision of subsection (1) and (2) may impede measures taken to give help or by court order or in the manner prescribed by law for criminal investigation or criminal procedural finding of facts.
    • 9. Freedom of faith, belief and opinion 2. Everyone has the right to freedom of conscience, faith, religion, thought, belief and opinion. 3. Everyone has the right to freely choose his or her religion or non-denominational belief and to profess them alone or in community with others. 4. Everyone has the right to join or belong to a religious or faith community and to receive religious or faith education. 5. No person may be forced to join a religious or faith community, to conduct a religious or faith act or participate in religious or faith education. 6. Everyone has the right to form, express and disseminate his or her opinions freely.
    • 10. Marriage and family 2. Everyone has the right to marriage as defined by a union between two persons. 3. Everyone has the right to family.
    • 11. Freedom of expression 2. Everyone has the right to freedom of expression, which includes a. freedom of the press and other media where censorship is prohibited and editorial secrecy is guaranteed; b. freedom to receive or impart information or ideas; c. freedom of artistic creativity; and d. academic freedom and freedom of scientific research. 3. The right in subsection (1) does not extend to • propaganda for war; • incitement of imminent violence; or c. advocacy of hatred that is based on race, ethnicity, gender, faith or religion, and that constitutes incitement to cause harm.
    • 12. Assembly, demonstration and picket Everyone has the right, peacefully and unarmed, to assemble, to demonstrate, to picket or to abstain from them.
    • 13. Freedom of association 2. Everyone has the right to freedom of association. 3. Everyone has the right to form associations, to join or to belong to them and to participate in their activities. 4. No person may be forced to join or belong to an association.
    • 14. Political rights 3. Every citizen is free to make political choices, which includes the right a. to form a political party; b. to participate in the activities of, or recruit members for, a political party; and c. to campaign for a political party or cause. 4. Every citizen has the right to free, fair and regular elections for any legislative body. 5. Every adult citizen has the right a. to vote in elections for a Member State legislative body, or municipality legislative body of domicile and to do so in secret; and b. to stand for public office and, if elected, to hold office. 6. No citizen may exercise political rights in more than one Member State, or municipality. 7. No citizen may exercise their political rights in a Member State or municipality until three months have passed following their taking of residence. 8. A citizen residing in the District of Verosha may register to vote in a Member State to exercise their political rights.
    • 15. Citizenship • All persons born or naturalised in the island of Cyprus, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of The Council of Cyprus (conventional long form) / Cyprus (conventional short form) and of the Member State wherein they reside. No Member State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of The Council of Cyprus / Cyprus; nor shall any Member State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. • The Council through the Citizenship and Passport Commission regulates the acquisition and the loss of citizenship by descent, marriage and adoption. In addition, it regulates the loss of citizenship for other reasons, as well as the restoration of citizenship. • The Council sets minimal standards for the naturalisation of foreigners by the Member States and grants naturalisation permits. continued…
    • 16. Freedom of movement and residence 2. Everyone has the right to freedom of movement. 3. Everyone has the right to leave the island of Cyprus. 4. Every citizen has the right to enter, to remain in and to reside anywhere in, the island of Cyprus. 5. Every citizen has the right to a passport issued by the Citizenship and Passport Commission.
    • 17. Economic freedom 2. Everyone has the right to choose their trade, occupation or profession freely. The practice of a trade, occupation or profession may be regulated by law. 3. Everyone has the right to free access and free exercise of private economic activity.
    • 18. Labour relations 2. Everyone has the right to fair labour practices. 3. Every worker has the right a. to form and join a trade union or refrain from joining; b. to participate or refrain in the activities and programmes of a trade union; and c. to strike or refrain from strike action. 4. The law may prohibit strikes by certain groups of persons. 5. Every employer has the right a. to form and join an employers' organisation or refrain from joining; and b. to participate or refrain in the activities and programmes of an employers’ organisation. continued…
    • continued… 5. Every trade union and every employers' organisation has the right a. to determine its own administration, programmes and activities; b. to organise; and c. to form and join a federation or refrain from joining. 6. Every trade union, employers' organisation and employer has the right to engage in collective bargaining. Legislation may be enacted to regulate collective bargaining. To the extent that the legislation may limit a right in this Bill of Rights, the limitation must comply with article 31(1). 7. Council legislation may recognise union security arrangements contained in collective agreements. To the extent that the legislation may limit a right in this Bill of Rights, the limitation must comply with article 31(1).
    • 19. Environment Everyone has the right c. to an environment that is not harmful to their health or well-being; and d. to have the environment protected, for the benefit of present and future generations, through reasonable legislative and other measures that i. prevent pollution and ecological degradation; ii. promote conservation; and iii. secure ecologically sustainable development and use of natural resources while promoting justifiable economic and social development.
    • 20. Property 2. No one may be deprived of property except in terms of law of general application, and no law may permit arbitrary deprivation of property. 3. Property may be expropriated only in terms of law of general application a. for a public purpose or in the public interest; and b. subject to compensation, the amount of which and the time and manner of payment of which have either been agreed to by those affected or decided or approved by a court. continued…
    • continued… 3. The amount of the compensation and the time and manner of payment must be just and equitable, reflecting an equitable balance between the public interest and the interests of those affected, having regard to all relevant circumstances, including a. the current use of the property; b. the history of the acquisition and use of the property; c. the market value of the property; d. the extent of direct state investment and subsidy in the acquisition and beneficial capital improvement of the property; and e. the purpose of the expropriation. 4. For the purposes of this section a. the public interest includes the Council’s commitment to bring about equitable access to all natural resources on the island of Cyprus; and b. property is not limited to land. continued…
    • continued… 5. The Council must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources, to foster conditions which enable citizens to gain access to land on an equitable basis. 6. A person or community dispossessed of property after 20 July 1974 as a result of past discriminatory laws or practices is entitled, to the extent provided by an empowered Property Claims Commission, either to restitution of that property or to equitable redress. 7. No provision of this section may impede the Council from taking legislative and other measures to achieve land, water and related reform, in order to redress the results of past discrimination, provided that any departure from the provisions of this section is in accordance with the provisions of article 31(1). 8. Council must enact the legislation referred to in subsection (6).
    • 21. Housing 2. Everyone has the right to have access to adequate housing. 3. The Council must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources, to achieve the progressive realisation of this right. 4. No one may be evicted from their home, or have their home demolished, without an order of court made after considering all the relevant circumstances. No legislation may permit arbitrary evictions.
    • 22. Health care, food, water and social security 2. Everyone has the right to have access to a. health care services, including reproductive health care; b. sufficient food and water; and c. social security, including, if they are unable to support themselves and their dependants, appropriate social assistance. 3. The Council and Member States must take reasonable legislative and other measures, within their available resources, to achieve the progressive realisation of each of these rights. 4. No one may be refused emergency medical treatment.
    • 23. Children and adolescents 2. Every child and adolescent has the right a. to a name and a nationality from birth; b. to family care or parental care, or to appropriate alternative care when removed from the family environment; c. to basic nutrition, shelter, basic health care services and social services; d. to be protected from maltreatment, neglect, abuse or degradation; e. to be protected from exploitative labour practices; f. not to be required or permitted to perform work or provide services that i. are inappropriate for a person of that age; or ii. place at risk their well-being, education, physical or mental health or spiritual, moral or social development; continued…
    • continued… g. not to be detained except as a measure of last resort, in which case, in addition to the rights a child or adolescent enjoys under articles 6 and 30, the child or adolescent may be detained only for the shortest appropriate period of time, and has the right to be i. kept separately from detained persons over the age of 16 years; and ii. treated in a manner, and kept in conditions, that take account of their age; h. to have a legal practitioner assigned to them by the Member States, and at Member State expense, in civil proceedings affecting the child or adolescent, if substantial injustice would otherwise result; and i. not to be used directly in armed conflict, and to be protected in times of armed conflict. 2. A child's or adolescents best interests are of paramount importance in every matter concerning the child or adolescent. 3. In this section "child and adolescent" means a person under the age of 16 years.
    • 24. Education 2. Everyone has the right a. to a sufficient and free education until 18 years of age; b. to further education, which the Member States, through reasonable measures, must make progressively available and accessible; c. to sufficient sport education. 3. Everyone has the right to receive education in the official language or languages of their choice in public educational institutions where that education is reasonably practicable. In order to ensure the effective access to, and implementation of, this right, the Council and Member States must consider all reasonable educational alternatives, including single linguistic institutions, taking into account a. equity; b. practicability; and c. the need to redress the results of past discriminatory laws and practices. continued…
    • continued… 3. Everyone has the right to establish and maintain, at their own expense, independent educational institutions that a. do not discriminate on the basis of race; b. are registered with the Member States; and c. maintain standards that are not inferior to standards at comparable public educational institutions. 4. Subsection (3) does not preclude subsidies for independent educational institutions.
    • 25. Language and culture Everyone has the right to use the language and to participate in the cultural life of their choice, but no one exercising these rights may do so in a manner inconsistent with any provision of the Bill of Rights.
    • 26. Cultural, faith, religious and linguistic communities 2. Persons belonging to a cultural, faith, religious or linguistic community may not be denied the right, with other members of that community a. to enjoy their culture, practise their faith or religion and use their language; and b. to form, join and maintain cultural, faith, religious and linguistic associations and other organs of civil society. 3. The rights in subsection (1) may not be exercised in a manner inconsistent with any provision of the Bill of Rights.
    • 27. Access to information 2. Everyone has the right of access to a. any information held by the Council and Member States; and b. any information that is held by another person and that is required for the exercise or protection of any rights. 3. Legislation must be enacted to give effect to this right, and may provide for reasonable measures to alleviate the administrative and financial burden on the Council and Member States.
    • 28. Just administrative action 2. Everyone has the right to administrative action that is lawful, reasonable and procedurally fair. 3. Everyone whose rights have been adversely affected by administrative action has the right to be given written reasons. 4. Legislation must be enacted to give effect to these rights, and must a. provide for the review of administrative action by a court or, where appropriate, an independent and impartial tribunal; b. impose a duty on the Council to give effect to the rights in subsections (1) and (2); and c. promote an efficient administration.
    • 29. Access to courts Everyone has the right to have any dispute that can be resolved by the application of law decided in a fair public hearing before a court or, where appropriate, another independent and impartial tribunal or forum.
    • 30. Arrested, detained and accused persons 2. Everyone who is arrested for allegedly committing an offence has the right a. to remain silent; b. to be informed promptly - i. of the right to remain silent; and ii. of the consequences of not remaining silent; c. not to be compelled to make any confession or admission that could be used in evidence against that person; d. to be brought before a court as soon as reasonably possible, but not later than i. 24 hours after the arrest; or ii. the end of the first court day after the expiry of the 24 hours, if the 24 hours expire outside ordinary court hours or on a day which is not an ordinary court day; e. at the first court appearance after being arrested, to be charged or to be informed of the reason for the detention to continue, or to be released; and f. to be released from detention if the interests of justice permit, subject to reasonable conditions. continued…
    • continued… 2. Everyone who is detained, including every sentenced prisoner, has the right a. to be informed promptly of the reason for being detained; b. to choose, and to consult with, a legal practitioner, and to be informed of this right promptly; c. to have a legal practitioner assigned to the detained person by the Member State and at Member State expense, if substantial injustice would otherwise result, and to be informed of this right promptly; d. to challenge the lawfulness of the detention in person before a court and, if the detention is unlawful, to be released; e. to conditions of detention that are consistent with human dignity, including at least exercise and the provision, at Member State expense, of adequate accommodation, nutrition, reading material and medical treatment; and f. to communicate with, and be visited by, that person's i. spouse or partner; ii. next of kin; iii. chosen religious or faith counsellor; and continued… iv. chosen medical practitioner.
    • continued… 3. Every accused person has a right to a fair trial, which includes the right a. to be informed of the charge with sufficient detail to answer it; b. to have adequate time and facilities to prepare a defence; c. to a public trial before an ordinary court; d. to have their trial begin and conclude without unreasonable delay; e. to be present when being tried; f. to choose, and be represented by, a legal practitioner, and to be informed of this right promptly; g. to have a legal practitioner assigned to the accused person by the Member State and at Member State expense, if substantial injustice would otherwise result, and to be informed of this right promptly; h. to be presumed innocent, to remain silent, and not to testify during the proceedings; i. to adduce and challenge evidence; continued…
    • continued… j. not to be compelled to give self-incriminating evidence; k. to be tried in a language that the accused person understands or, if that is not practicable, to have the proceedings interpreted in that language; l. not to be convicted for an act or omission that was not an offence under either Council, Member State or international law at the time it was committed or omitted; m. not to be tried for an offence in respect of an act or omission for which that person has previously been either acquitted or convicted; n. to the benefit of the least severe of the prescribed punishments if the prescribed punishment for the offence has been changed between the time that the offence was committed and the time of sentencing; and f. of appeal to, or review by, a higher court. 4. Whenever this section requires information to be given to a person, that information must be given in a language that the person understands. continued…
    • continued… 5. Evidence obtained in a manner that violates any right in the Bill of Rights must be excluded if the admission of that evidence would render the trial unfair or otherwise be detrimental to the administration of justice. 6. Citizens of the island of Cyprus may not be expelled from the island of Cyprus: they may be extradited to a foreign authority only with their consent or on a decision by the High Supreme Court. 7. Refugees may not be removed by force or extradited to a country in which they are persecuted. 8. No person may be removed by force to a country where he or she is threatened by torture or other means of cruel or inhuman treatment or punishment.
    • 31. Limitation of rights 2. The rights in the Bill of Rights may be limited only in terms of law of general application to the extent that the limitation is reasonable and justifiable in an open and democratic society based on human dignity, equality and freedom, taking into account all relevant factors, including a. the nature of the right; b. the importance of the purpose of the limitation; c. the nature and extent of the limitation; d. the relation between the limitation and its purpose; and e. less restrictive means to achieve the purpose. 3. Except as provided in subsection (1) no law may limit any right entrenched in the Bill of Rights.
    • 32. States of emergency 2. A state of emergency may be declared only in terms of an Act of Council, and only when a. the life of the island of Cyprus is threatened by war, invasion, general insurrection, disorder, natural disaster or other public emergency; and b. the declaration is necessary to restore peace and order. 3. A declaration of a state of emergency, and any legislation enacted or other action taken in consequence of that declaration, may be effective only a. prospectively; and b. for no more than 21 days from the date of the declaration, unless the Council resolves to extend the declaration. The Council may extend a declaration of a state of emergency for no more than three months at a time. The first extension of the state of emergency must be by a resolution adopted with a supporting vote of a simple majority of the members of the Council. Any subsequent extension must be by a resolution adopted with a qualified supporting vote of at least 17 members of the Council. A resolution in terms of this paragraph may be adopted only following a public debate in the Council. continued…
    • continued… 3. Any competent court may decide on the validity of a. a declaration of a state of emergency; b. any extension of a declaration of a state of emergency; or c. any legislation enacted, or other action taken, in consequence of a declaration of a state of emergency. 4. Any legislation enacted in consequence of a declaration of a state of emergency may derogate from the Bill of Rights only to the extent that a. the derogation is strictly required by the emergency; and b. the legislation i. is consistent with the Council’s obligations under international law applicable to states of emergency; ii. conforms to subsection (5); and iii. is published in the Official Gazette as soon as reasonably possible after being enacted. continued…
    • continued… 5. No Act of Council that authorises a declaration of a state of emergency, and no legislation enacted or other action taken in consequence of a declaration, may permit or authorise a. indemnifying the Council, or any person, in respect of any unlawful act; b. any derogation from this section; or c. any derogation from a section mentioned in column 1 of the Table of Non-Derogable Rights, to the extent indicated opposite that section in column 3 of the Table. continued…
    • continued… Table of Non-Derogable Rights 1 2 3 Article Article Title Extent to which the right is protected Number 3 Equality With respect to unfair discrimination solely on the grounds of race, colour, ethnic or social origin, sex, sexual orientation, religion or language 4 Human Dignity Entirely 5 Life Entirely 6 Freedom and With respect to subsections (1)(d) and (e) and (2)(c). Security of the person 7 Slavery, servitude With respect to slavery and servitude and forced labour 23 Children and With respect to: adolescents - subsection (1)(d) and (e); - the rights in subparagraphs (i) and (ii) of subsection (1) (g); and - subsection 1(i) in respect of children of 15 years and younger 30 Arrested, detained With respect to: and accused - subsections (1)(a), (b) and (c) and (2)(d); persons - the rights in paragraphs (a) to (o) of subsection (3), excluding paragraph (d) - subsection (4); and - subsection (5) with respect to the exclusion of evidence if the admission of that evidence would render the trial unfair. continued…
    • continued… 6. Whenever anyone is detained without trial in consequence of a derogation of rights resulting from a declaration of a state of emergency, the following conditions must be observed: a. an adult family member or friend of the detainee must be contacted as soon as reasonably possible and informed that the person has been detained. b. a notice must be published in the Official Gazette within five days of the person being detained, stating the detainee's name and place of detention and referring to the emergency measure in terms of which that person has been detained. c. the detainee must be allowed to choose, and be visited at any reasonable time by, a medical practitioner. d. the detainee must be allowed to choose, and be visited at any reasonable time by, a legal representative. continued…
    • continued… e. a court must review the detention as soon as reasonably possible, but no later than 10 days after the date the person was detained, and the court must release the detainee unless it is necessary to continue the detention to restore peace and order. f. a detainee who is not released in terms of a review under paragraph (e), or who is not released in terms of a review under this paragraph, may apply to a court for a further review of the detention at any time after 10 days have passed since the previous review, and the court must release the detainee unless it is still necessary to continue the detention to restore peace and order. g. the detainee must be allowed to appear in person before any court considering the detention, to be represented by a legal practitioner at those hearings, and to make representations against continued detention. h. the Council must present written reasons to the court to justify the continued detention of the detainee, and must give a copy of those reasons to the detainee at least two days before the court reviews the detention. continued…
    • 33. Rights of petition 2. Everyone has the right to address petitions to authorities; no disadvantages may arise from this right. 3. The authorities have to take cognisance of petitions.
    • 34. Enforcement of rights Anyone listed in this section has the right to approach a competent court, alleging that a right in the Bill of Rights has been infringed or threatened, and the court may grant appropriate relief, including a declaration of rights. The persons who may approach a court are a. anyone acting in their own interest; b. anyone acting on behalf of another person who cannot act in their own name; c. anyone acting as a member of, or in the interest of, a group or class of persons; d. anyone acting in the public interest; and e. an association acting in the interest of its members.
    • 35. Interpretation of Bill of Rights 2. When interpreting the Bill of Rights, a court, tribunal or forum a. must promote the values that underlie an open and democratic society based on human dignity, equality and freedom; b. must consider international law; and c. may consider foreign law. 3. When interpreting any legislation, and when developing the common law or customary law, every court, tribunal or forum must promote the spirit, purport and objects of the Bill of Rights. 4. The Bill of Rights does not deny the existence of any other rights or freedoms that are recognised or conferred by common law, customary law or legislation, to the extent that they are consistent with the Bill.