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Asas kurikulum

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Asas pembentukan kurikulum dunia dan Malaysia amnya

Asas pembentukan kurikulum dunia dan Malaysia amnya

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  • 1. 1. Hadliwati Daud 815416 2. Sarimah Che Omar 815584 3. Norita Omar 815606 SGDC 5013 CURRICULUM AND PEDAGOGY PROF. MADYA DR. ABDULL SUKOR SHAARI
  • 2. Foundations are the forces that influence the minds of curriculum developers. In this way these effect the content and structure of the curriculum.
  • 3. It includes the following  Historical Foundation  Philosophical Foundation  Psychological Foundation  Economical Foundation  Sociological foundation
  • 4. It includes  Role of curriculum in achievements of nations.  Guides future plans  Factors that influence development of nation e.g. unity  Eliminates the useless traditions.
  • 5. •Franklin Bobbit (1876-1956) - presented curriculum as a science that emphasizes on students' need. Curriculum prepares for adult life. •Werret Charters (1875-1952) - considered curriculum also as a science which is based on students' need and the teachers plan the activities. Curriculum theorists :
  • 6. •Harold Rugg (1886-1960) - Curriculum should develop the whole child. He emphasized social studies in the curriculum and the teacher plans the lesson in advance. Curriculum theorists : •William Kilpatrick (1871- 1965) - viewed curriculum as purposeful activities which are child-centered. The purpose of curriculum is child development and growth. Historical Foundations of Curriculum
  • 7. Curriculum theorists : •Hollis Caswell (1901-1989) - sees curriculum as organized around social functions of themes, organized knowledge and earner's interests. •Ralph Tyler (1902-1994) - believes that curriculum is a science and an extension of school's philosophy. Based on students' need and interests. Historical Foundations of Curriculum
  • 8. PERKEMBANGAN EMPAT PERINGKAT SISTEM PENDIDIKAN DI MALAYSIA PENDIDIKAN ZAMAN KOLONIALISME BRITISH 1700-1786 PENDIDIKAN ZAMAN SELEPAS KOLONIALISME BRITISH 1786-1956 PENDIDIKAN SELEPAS MERDEKA PENDIDIKAN ALAF BARU Perkembangan Kurikulum di Malaysia Rentetan Sejarah Pendidikan Di Negara Malaysia
  • 9. PENDIDIKAN ZAMAN SEBELUM KOLONIALISME MASJID ATAU SURAU SISTEM SEKOLAH PONDOK SISTEM MADRASAH ATAU SEKOLAH AGAMA MODEN Perkembangan Kurikulum di Malaysia Sistem Pendidikan Sebelum Zaman Kolonolisme British(1400-1786)
  • 10. Perkembangan Kurikulum di Malaysia Semasa Zaman Kolonialisme British(1786-1956).
  • 11. Perkembangan Kurikulum di Malaysia Selepas Perang Dunia Kedua (1946-1956)
  • 12. PERKEMBANGAN PENDIDIKAN SELEPAS KEMERDEKAAN LAPORAN RAHMAN TALIB AKTA PELAJARAN LAPORAN HUSSAIN ONN KBSR DAN KBSM Perkembangan Kurikulum di Malaysia Pendidikan Selepas Kemerdekaan (1957-1996)
  • 13. PENDIDIKAN ALAF BARU PELAN INDUK PEMBANGUNAN PENDIDIKAN (PIPP) SEKOLAH WAWASAN SEKOLAH BESTARI SEKOLAH KLUSTER Perkembangan Kurikulum di Malaysia Pendidikan Alaf Baru
  • 14. It is concerned with beliefs.  What is real --- ONTOLOGY  What is true --- EPISTEMOLOGY  What is good – AXIOLOGY
  • 15. Eight Educational Philosophies
  • 16.  Perennialism Aim of Education – To educate the rational person; to cultivate the intellect. Role of Education – Teachers help students think with reason. Focus in the Curriculum – Classical subjects, literary analysis and curriculum constant. Curriculum Trends – Use of great books and return to liberal.
  • 17.  Essentialism Aim of Education – To promote the intellectual growth of the individual and educate a competent person. The teacher is the sole authority in his or her subject area or field of specialization. Focus in the Curriculum – Essential skills of the 3 R’s and essential subjects. Curriculum Trends – Excellence in education, back to basics and cultural literacy.
  • 18.  Progressivism Aim of Education – To promote democratic and social living. Role of Education – Knowledge leads to growth and development of lifelong learners who actively learn by doing. Focus in the Curriculum – Subjects are interdisciplinary, integrative and interactive. Curriculum is focused on students’ interest, human problems and affairs. Curriculum Trends – School reforms, relevant and contextualized curriculum, humanistic education.
  • 19. Reconstructionism Aim of Education – To improve and reconstruct society. Education for change. Role of Education – Teachers act as agents of change and reform in various educational projects including research. Focus in the Curriculum – Focus on present and future trends and issues of national and international interest. Curriculum Trends – Equality of educational opportunities in education, access to global education.
  • 20. Idealism Aim of Education – The curriculum is based upon the idea or assumption of the spiritual nature of man Role of Education – A subject –matter or curriculum must emphasize the great and enduring ideas of the culture. Focus in the Curriculum – Subjects must be essential for the realization of mental and moral Development
  • 21.  Pragmatism  Aim of Education – developing those experiences that will enable one to lead a good life.  Role of Education – Education must help its students become excellent citizens in a democratic society  Focus in the Curriculum – School Curriculum must be part of social context  Curriculum Trends – Instruction organized around problem solving according to the scientific method
  • 22.  Realism Aim of Education – A pupil shall be taught with strong states of personal discipline Pupil must be provided with essential knowledge required for survival in natural world Role of Education – Subjects are taught by a teacher who is impersonal and objective and knows the subject fully
  • 23.  Realism Focus in the Curriculum – Curriculum is best organized according to subject – matter Curriculum should also emphasized the effects of the social environment on the individual’s life Curriculum Trends – The teaching method recommended are authoritative
  • 24.  Existentialism  Aim of Education – Teaching strategies must stimulate an awareness that each person creates a self-concept through significant choices  Role of Education – Teacher should help the student to become for himself what it is he wants to become  Focus in the Curriculum – School assists student in knowing themselves and leaning their place in society
  • 25. Psychology is the scientific study of human behavior. It gives insight into:  Child development  Learning  Inquiry techniques  Educational objectives  Student characteristics  Learning process  Teaching method  Evaluation procedures
  • 26. Three major groups of learning theories: 1.Behaviorists Psychology – consider that learning should be organized in order that students can experience success in the process of mastering the subject matter
  • 27. ALIRAN BEHAVIORISME (1878 - 1958) Ahli psikologi behaviorisme Menegaskan TUJUAN ILMU PSIKOLOGI menghurai menerang meramal Mengawal tingkah laku
  • 28. Three major groups of learning theories: 2.Cognitive Psychology - focus their attention on how individuals process information and how the monitor and manage thinking.
  • 29. Max Wertheimer 1880 - 1943 Wolfgang Kohler 1887 - 1967 Kurt Koffka 1886-1941 AHLI-AHLI PSIKOLOGI KOGNITIVISME Ahli-ahli Psikologi Gestalt Jean Piaget ( 1896 - 1980) Lev Semenovich Vygotsky ( 1896 – 1934) Jerome S. Bruner (1915- ) David Ausubel (1918 -) Robert Mills Gagné (1916 – 2002)
  • 30. Three major groups of learning theories: 3. Humanistic Psychology - concerned with how learners can develop their human potential.
  • 31. ALIRAN HUMANISTIK (1908 - 1987 ) PENGASAS CARL ROGERS (1902-1987) ABRAHAM MASLOW 1908-1970
  • 32. PENDEKATANHUMANISTIK CARL ROGERS (1902-1987) ABRAHAM MASLOW 1908-1970 GORDON ALLPORT (1897-1967) ROLLO MAY (1909-1994)  Pendekatan ini berpendapat bahawa manusia adalah individu yang bebas dan baik dengan potensi untuk berkembang dan mempunyai sasaran untuk dicapai.  Teori ini menyatakan bahawa manusia terdorong bertindak melakukan sesuatu kemahuan atau keperluan.  Mengikut pendekatan ini,manusia sentiasa aktif dan bukan menunggu untuk dirancang oleh orang lain.
  • 33. It focuses on:  Job or market oriented curriculum  Skill learning
  • 34. Sociology is the study of social relationships, institutions and society. It includes  Value of society  Media explosion  New forms of cooperation  Culture etc.
  • 35. Schools exist within the social context. Schools are made to help to understand the changes globalization brings. The relationship of curriculum and society is mutual and encompassing. Schools are not only institutions that can educate people in the society.

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