06 Data

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06 Data

  1. 1. Stat405 Data Hadley Wickham Monday, 14 September 2009
  2. 2. 1. Group work 2. Motivating problem 3. Loading & saving data 4. Factors & characters Monday, 14 September 2009
  3. 3. Group project Want to help your groups become effective teams. We’ll spend 15 minutes getting you into teams, and establishing expectations. See handouts. Final project weighting for team citizenship. Monday, 14 September 2009
  4. 4. Firing & Quitting You may fire a non-participating team member, but you need to meet with me and issue a written warning. If you feel that you are doing all the work in your team, you may quit. You’ll also need to meet with me and give a written warning to the rest of your team. Monday, 14 September 2009
  5. 5. State regulated payoffs: how can be sure they’re honest? CC by-nc-nd: http://www.flickr.com/photos/amoleji/2979221622/ Monday, 14 September 2009
  6. 6. Where are we going? In the next few weeks we will be focussing our attention on some slot machine data. We want to figure out if the slot machine is paying out at the rate the manufacturer claims. To do this, we’ll need to learn more about data formats and how to write functions. Monday, 14 September 2009
  7. 7. Loading data read.table(): white space separated read.table(sep="t"): tab separated read.csv(): comma separated read.fwf(): fixed width load(): R binary format All take file argument Monday, 14 September 2009
  8. 8. Why csv? Simple. Compatible with all statistics software. Human readable (in 20 years time you will still be able to extract data from it). Monday, 14 September 2009
  9. 9. Your turn Download baseball and slots csv files from website. Practice using read.csv() to load into R. Guess the name of the function you might use to write the R object back to a csv file on disk. Practice using it. What happens if you read in a file you wrote with this method? Monday, 14 September 2009
  10. 10. batting <- read.csv("batting.csv") players <- read.csv("players.csv") slots <- read.csv("slots.csv") write.csv(slots, "slots-2.csv") slots2 <- read.csv("slots-2.csv") str(slots) str(slots2) # Better write.table(slots, file = "slots-3.csv", sep=",", row = F) slots3 <- read.csv("slots-3.csv") Monday, 14 September 2009
  11. 11. Working directory Remember to set your working directory. From the terminal (linux or mac): the working directory is the directory you’re in when you start R On windows: setwd(choose.dir()) On the mac: ⌘-D Monday, 14 September 2009
  12. 12. Saving data # For long-term write.table(slots, file = "slots-3.csv", sep=",", row = F) # For short-term caching save(slots, file = "slots.rdata") Monday, 14 September 2009
  13. 13. .csv .rdata read.csv() load() write.table(sep = ",", row = F) save() Only data frames Any R object Can be read by any program Only by R Short term caching of Long term expensive computations Monday, 14 September 2009
  14. 14. Cleaning I cleaned up slots.csv for you to practice with. The original data was slots.txt. Your next task is to performing the cleaning yourself. This should always be the first step in an analysis: ensure that your data is available as a clean csv file. Do this in once in a file called clean.r. Monday, 14 September 2009
  15. 15. Your turn Take two minutes to find as many differences as possible between slots.txt and slots.csv. What did I do to clean up the file? Monday, 14 September 2009
  16. 16. Cleaning • Convert from space delimited to csv • Add variable names • Convert uninformative numbers to informative labels Monday, 14 September 2009
  17. 17. Variable names names(slots) names(slots) <- c("w1", "w2", "w3", "prize", "night") dput(names(slots)) This is a general pattern we’ll see a lot of Monday, 14 September 2009
  18. 18. Factors • R’s way of storing categorical data • Have ordered levels() which: • Control order on plots and in table() • Are preserved across subsets • Affect contrasts in linear models Monday, 14 September 2009
  19. 19. # Creating a factor x <- sample(5, 20, rep = T) a <- factor(x) b <- factor(x, levels = 1:10) c <- factor(x, labels = letters[1:5]) levels(a); levels(b); levels(c) table(a); table(b); table(c) Monday, 14 September 2009
  20. 20. # Subsets b2 <- b[1:5] levels(b2) table(b2) # Remove extra levels b2[, drop=T] factor(b2) # Convert to character b3 <- as.character(b) table(b3) table(b3[1:5]) Monday, 14 September 2009
  21. 21. as.numeric(a) as.numeric(b) as.numeric(c) d <- factor(x, labels = 2^(1:5)) as.numeric(d) as.character(d) as.numeric(as.character(d)) Monday, 14 September 2009
  22. 22. Character vs. factor Characters don’t remember all levels. Tables of characters always ordered alphabetically By default, strings converted to factors when loading data frames. Use stringsAsFactors = F to turn off for one data frame, or options(stringsAsFactors = F) Monday, 14 September 2009
  23. 23. Character vs. factor Use a factor when there is a well-defined set of all possible values. Use a character vector when there are potentially infinite possibilities. Monday, 14 September 2009
  24. 24. Quiz Take one minute to decide which data type is most appropriate for each of the following variables collected in a medical experiment: Subject id, name, treatment, sex, address, race, eye colour, birth city, birth state. Monday, 14 September 2009
  25. 25. Your turn Convert w1, w2 and w3 to 0 Blank (0) factors with labels from 1 Single Bar (B) adjacent table 2 Double Bar (BB) Rearrange levels in terms 3 Triple Bar (BBB) of value: DD, 7, BBB, BB, 5 Double Diamond (DD) B, C, 0 6 Cherries (C) Save as a csv file 7 Seven (7) Read in and look at levels. Compare to input with stringsAsFactors = F Monday, 14 September 2009
  26. 26. slots <- read.table("slots.txt") names(slots) <- c("w1", "w2", "w3", "prize", "night") levels <- c(0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7) labels <- c("0", "B", "BB", "BBB", "DD", "C", "7") slots$w1 <- factor(slots$w1, levels = levels, labels = labels) slots$w2 <- factor(slots$w2, levels = levels, labels = labels) slots$w3 <- factor(slots$w3, levels = levels, labels = labels) write.table(slots, "slots.csv", sep=",", row=F) Monday, 14 September 2009

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