Introduction to psychology

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Endocrine System

Endocrine System

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  • 1. Introduction to Psychology Endocrine System
  • 2. Defination  The Endocrine System is made of glands and tissues that secrete hormones.  The Endocrine System is a set of glands that regulates the activities of certain organs by releasing their chemical products into blood stream.  These glands have no ducts or openings
  • 3.  Controls many body functions  Exerts control by releasing special chemical substances into the blood called hormones.  Hormones effects other endocrine glands or body systems.
  • 4. Glands of Endocrine System Following glands are included in endocrine system :  Pituitary Gland  Thyroid Gland  Parathyroid Gland  Thymus Gland  Adrenal Gland  Pancreas Gland  Pineal Gland  Gonad Gland
  • 5. Pituitary Gland  Located at the base of brain and connected to the hypothalamus  Divided into interior and posterior lobes  Known as the master gland because of its major influence in body’s activities
  • 6. Hormones of the Pituitary Gland  Divided into two lobes  Anterior pituitary lobe is larger and produces seven hormones.  Posterior pituitary lobe is smaller and consist primarily of nerve fibers and neuroglial cells.
  • 7. Anterior pituitary  The anterior pituitary synthesizes and secretes the following important hormones under the influence of hypothalamus ◦ Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) ◦ Thyrotropin or thyroid stimulating hormone ◦ Prolactin hormone ◦ Growth hormone ◦ Gonadotropin hormone
  • 8. Posterior pituitary  Posterior pituitary releases the following hormones ◦ Oxytocin hormone ◦ Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  • 9. Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands  Thyroid Glands Locted in the anterior part of neck It is butterfly shape organ and is composed of two con-like lobes or wings Secretes three hormones  Thyroxine  Triiodthyronine  Calcitonin
  • 10. Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands  Parathyroid Glands  They are small endocrine glands in the neck that produce parathyroid hormone.  Humans have four parathyroid glands, which are located behind the thyroid gland.  Parathyroid glands control the amount of calcium in the blood and within the bones  It serves a completely different role than the thyroid gland.
  • 11. Thymus Gland  The thymus gland is both an endocrine gland and lymphatic organ.  The thymus secretes a large number of hormones  It is composed of two lobes and is located in front of the heart and behind the sternum.  Thymus is specialized organ in the immune system.
  • 12. Structure of thymus  Structure of the thymus can be divided into two parts  Medulla  Peripheral cortex  The cortex and medulla play different roles in the development ofT-cells.
  • 13. Adrenal Glands  Adrenal glands are situated just above the kidneys one on each side.  These are triangular shaped glands.  They are chiefly responsible for releasing hormones which are extremely important to neural functioning and to the ability of the body to cope with stress.
  • 14. Adrenal Glands  Two adrenal glands located at the top of each kidney; each has two parts Cortex – secretes 3 groups corticoids • Mineralocorticoids • Glucocorticoids • Sex hormones Medulla – secretes • Epinephrine / adrenaline • Nor – epinephrine / nor adrenaline
  • 15. Pancreas Gland  Located behind stomach  Pancreas is a dual function gland i.e. endocrine or exocrine gland  Function as : • Exocrine gland oSecretes pancreatic juices into small intestine to become digestive juices • Endocrine gland oProduces insulin and diabetes.
  • 16. Pineal Gland  Attached to the third ventricle of the brain  Produces the hormone melatonin • Amount of light effects the amount of melatonin secreted • Causes body temprature to drop
  • 17. Gonad Gland  Gonads – sex organs Ovaries – female sex organ • Ova • Estrogen and progesterone Testes – male sex organ • Sperm • testosterone