2001 Proceedings of the 23rd Annual EMBS InternationalConference, October 25-28, Istanbul, Turkey A ROBOT FOR WRIST REHABILITATIOlN Dustin J. Williams’, Hermano Igo Krebs’, Neville Hogan’ I Mechanical Engineering Dept., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA Abstract -In 1991, a novel robot named MIT-MANUS was The results of the initial studies, as measured by standard introduced as a test bed to study the potential of using robots clinical instruments, showed statistically significant to assist in and quantify the neuro-rehabilitation of motor difference between the experimental and control group for function. It proved an excellent fit for the rehabilitation of shoulder and elbow (the focus of the exercise routines), but shoulder and elbow of stroke patients with results in clinical no differences for wrist and fingers (which were not trials showing a reduction of impairment in these joints. The greater reduction in impairment was limited to the group of exercised). This result suggests a local effect with limited muscles exercised. This suggests a need for additional robots generalization of the benefits to the unexercised limb or to rehabilitate other degrees of freedom. This paper outlines muscle groups. If this is the case, we must extend our robot- the mechanical design of a robot for wrist rehabilitation. aids to exercise different groups of muscles and limb Keywords - neurological, rehabilitation, stroke, robot, wrist. segments. We are presently developing robots to work with different muscles and limb segments, e.g., spatial motion, I. INTRODUCTION wrist, fingers, legs [3, 4, 71. [n this paper, we describe the design of a device for wrist rehabilitation. Rather than using robotics as an assistive technology, our research focuses on the development of robotics as a tool to I . SPECIFICATION NEWWRIST I FOR A DEVICE enhance the productivity of clinicians in their efforts to facilitate a disabled individual’s recovery. To that end, we It is of paramount importance that the wrist device be easy deployed and commenced extensive clinical trials of our first for the therapist and the patient to use. To prevent daily use robot, MIT-MANUS (see figure l ) , at the Burke from becoming a chore for thc patient and the therapist only Rehabilitation Hospital, White Plains, NY in 1994 . MIT- a minimum amount of time and effort must be required to MANUS has been in daily operation for over 6 years, attach and remove the patierit from the wrist device. The delivering therapy to over 100 stroke patients. Copies have setup target time was estimated at 2 minutes maximum. been recently deployed at the Spaulding (Boston), Helen Another key aspect is low endpoint impedance. That is, Hayes (NY), Baltimore & Cleveland VA Hospitals. when a patient attempts to backdrive the robot,the effective Our results suggest that goal oriented exercise of a friction, inertia and stiffness should ideally be low enough hemiparetic limb appears to harness and promote the such that it feels as if no robot is connected to the user. In neuromotor recovery following a stroke [ 1,5,6, 10, 1I]. this case, the robot hardware i s termed “backdrivable”. The Seventy-six stroke patients exhibiting a unilateral lesion maximum reflected inertia for backdriveability for each wrist were enrolled in the initial clinical trials. Patients were degree of freedom was estimated to be 30 to 45.104 kg-m2. randomly assigned to an experimental and a control group. The maximum reflected friction for backdriveability was The experimental group received an hour per day of robot- estimated to be 0.2 N-m. The wrist device should also have aided therapy exercising the shoulder and elbow. The control ranges of motion of a normal wrist in everyday tasks, i.e., group received an hour per week of “sham” robot-aided flexiontextension 70”/65”, aibductionladduction 15”/30”, therapy with the same video games. pronatiodsupination 90”190” The torque output from the device must be capable of lifting the patient’s hand against gravity, accelerating the inertia, and overcoming any tone. The estimated value for flexiontextension and abduction/ adduction was 1.2 N-m and for pronationlsupination 1.69 N-m [8, 121. A. Kinemaric Selection A curved slider was found to suffice for the robot’s pronationlsupination axis. A curved rail sits between four guide wheels, which allow it tlo rotate (see Figure 2). Several different options were coinsidered for the remaining Fig. 1. A recovering stroke patient receiving upper extremity kinematics. These options must allow the patient to move in robotic therapy with MIT-MANUS. flexiontextension and abductionladduction and also must0-7803-7211-5/01/$17.00 0 2001 IEEE 1336
allow the robot to apply torques to the patients hand. Afterreviewing each of these kinematic options, a cardan jointwas found to be the most appropriate (see Figure 3). Amockup is shown in figure 4. B. Actuator Placement and Transmission Selection Three major sub-categoriesemerged from the variousactuatorltransmission packages considered.The first optionplaced all actuators on the ground frame (see link 1 in figure Fig.2. Curved Slider3). The second option placed an actuator on the ground andtwo actuators on link 2 (differential configuration).The lastoption placed an actuator on the ground frame, an actuatoron link 2, and an actuatoron link 3 (serial configuration). In comparing these options, the differentialconfiguration clearly held the advantage. For the sameactuators, the range of output torque was up to twice that ofthe serial configration. Another advantage over the serialconfiguration is that the actuators can more effectivelycounterbalance each other. This is because both actuatorsare placed on a single link ( i k2). By symmetricallylocating lnthe actuators about the robots pronatiodsupination axis, thetorque due to the weight of the motors is canceled. C. Actuator Selection Fig.3. Cardan Joint Kinematics We limited our search to ultimag rotary actuators, servo-disc, DC-brushed and brushless motors. Of these, we selectedthe brushless motors, which deliver high torque and runssmoothly at low speeds, a requirement in this application. The brushless motors also allow for better heatdissipation because the windings are on the stator. In order to select from the many available brushlessmotors, the reflected output impedances for each axis ofrotation were compared. The following brushless motorswere deemed acceptable (< 0.5 kg): Parker series SMlBOAand SM161A, Pittman series 34x1,2 and 44x1,2,3, and theKollmorgen series 512,513,711-714 actuators. Figure 5 shows a sample of how the actuators werecompared. In this case, we are comparing the added inertiain abductiodadduction and flexiodextension due to themotor. The abscissa shows the reduction ratio required foreach motor to achieve the specified maximum output torqueof 1.2 N-m. The ordinate shows the added inertia in bothflexiodextensionand abductiodadduction.This number wasfound by taking 2.1 .R2,where I is the inertia of the givenmotor armature, R l"s the reductizn ratio and the factor of 2is due to the fact that both motors on link 2 will be backdriven.In a similar fashion, we estimated the added friction inabductionladduction and flexiodextension. A similarapproach yielded estimates.for pronatiodsupination. We opted for the Kollmorgens RBE 71 1 motors for Fig.4. Mockup in FlexionExtension, Abduction/the abductionfadduction and flexiodextension actuators Adduction, and PronationfSupinationand the RBE 712 motors for pronatiodsupination.Because the flexiodextension and abductionladduction 1337
The total reduction in one train from the actuator pinion to the differential endgear is 8:1.Fig. 5. Added Inertial Impedance in FlexiodExtensionand AbductiodAdductionmotors will be in close proximity to the patient, a finiteelement analysis was performed to ensure that motortemperature would not rise to uncomfortable levels. D.SENSOR SELECTION The determining factor in selecting the type of positionfeedback device was its size, servo-amplifiercompatibility,and insensitivity to noise. The smallest system found was anincremental encoder from Gurley Precision, the RI 19. It isa high-resolution mini-encoder with 10,240 cycles per rev. Fig. 6. Comp:lete Wrist DeviceIts size was well suited for the wrist device allowing for itsplacement inside of the transmission housing. 111. HARDWARE OVERVIEWTo illustrate the proposed device, we will use Pro/J3ngineermsolid models. Figure 6 shows the solid model and thecomplete device. Figure 7 illustrates how the patients hand,wrist and upper forearm will be held on the device via aseries of Velcro straps: two straps over the back of the palm,a single strap over the proximal or middle phalanges, twostraps to the wrist connection piece, and a strap over theforearm. Also shown is a protrusion, which prevents the handfrom slipping around the handle. Figure 8 shows thetransmission from the abduction/adduction and flexion/extension actuators to the a m To increase visibility, a section r.of the transmission housing has been removed in the closeup view. The gears are also darkened to distinguish themfrom other components. Two spur gear trains are used totransmit torque from the actuators to the differential. Thethree bevel gears of the differential, the spider gear and thetwo end bevel gears, are represented by their pitch cones. The two spur gear trains consist of four gears. These Fig. 7. Connection to the Patientgears include the motor pinion gear (gear A), twointermediate gears which are rigidly attached and rotatetogether (gears B and C), and the endgear of the differential(gear D). The intermediate gears were added to keep thedifferential endgears and the rest of the transmission small.
improvements by extending treatment with robot-aids at patients’ homes. From the realm of science fiction to the substance of humbling reality, the novel module for wrist rehabilitation is another marker along the trail. It follows the same design guidelines of MIT-MANUS, which includes back-drivability. O r experience has shown that it is an important feature of u any successfulinteractive robot-aid. On final note, while very little technology presently exists to support the recovery phase of rehabilitation, we believe the landscape will change quickly in the near future. V. ACKNOWLEDGMENTFig 8. Transmission System for AbductiodAdduction & This work was supported in part by The Burke MedicalFlexiodExtension. Research Institute, the Langeloth Foundation, and NIH Grant RO1-HD37397-01 & and #1 R01-HD36827-02. The two stops shown in figure 8 prevent over rotationof the patient in abduction and adduction. These stops also VI. REFERENCESprevent the robot arm and handle components fromcontacting other components. They limit the range of motion Aisen, M.L., Krebs, H.I., McDowell, E, Hogan, N., Volpe, N., Theto 30” in adduction and 20” in abduction. Although not effect of robot assisted therapy and rehabilitative training on motorshown, similar stops restrict rotation in flexion and extension. recovery following stroke, Arch o Neurol, 54(1997):443-446. fThese stops limit rotation in flexiodextension to 60” in each Asada H., Direct Drive Robots. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA Buerger, S.P., Krebs, H.I., Hogan, N., Characterization and Controldirection.The final design is below specification by 10” in of a Screw-Driven Robot Neurorehabilitation, IEEE-CCMSK2001.flexion and 5” in extension. Jugenheimer, K.A., Hogan, N., Krebs, H.I., “A Robot for Hand The axis for pronation and supination makes use of two Rehabilitation: A Continuation of the MIT-MANUS Neuro-geared 180O-sliderings. Each slide ring has opposing “V” Rehabilitation Workstation, ASME IDETC/CIE, 2001 (accepted). Krebs, H.I., Hogan, N., Aisen, M.L., Volpe, B.T., Robot-aided neuro-shaped edges, which roll between four guide wheels with rehabilitation, IEEE Trans. Rehab. Eng, 6:1(1998):75-87.“V” shaped grooves. The lower two guide wheels are Krebs, H.I., Volpe, B.T., Aisen, M.L., Hogan, N.; “Increasingeccentric allowing adjustment in the preload of the wheels Productivity and Quality of Care: Robot-Aided Neurorehabilitation”,against the slide rings. The upper guide wheels are concentric VA J. Rehab Res and Development 37:6(2OOO):639-652. Krebs, H.I., Buerger, S.P., Jugenheimer, K.A., Williams, D., Hogan,and cannot be adjusted. Two stops limit the rotation of the N., 3-D Extension for MIT-MANUS: a Robot-Aided Neuro-wrist to 76” in pronation and 76” in supination, which is Rehabilitation,A~~E~D~C/ClE, (Sept2OOO)DETC/MECH-14151.slightly below our target requirementsof 90”. Palastanga Nigel, Anatomy and Human Movement: Structure and Function, Butterworth Heinemann, Jordan Hill, Oxford, Britain. Slocum, Alex H., Precision Machine Design, Society of N.CONCLUSION Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn, Michigan [IO] Volpe, B.T., fiebsIH.I., Hogan, N., Edelstein, L., Diels C., Aisen,Clinical results to date suggest that robot-aided neuro- M.L., Robot Training Enhanced Motor Outcome in Patients Withrehabilitation can have a positive influence on neuro- Stroke Maintained over Three Years, Neurol, 53(1999):1874-1876.  Volpe,B.T., Krebs,H.l.,Hogan,N.,Edelstein,L.,Diels,C.M., Aisen,recovery following a stroke. Our pioneering clinical results M.; “A Novel Approach to Stroke Rehabilitation: Robot Aidedare consistent with a prominent theme of current Sensorymotor Stimulation”, Neurol., 54(2000):1938-1944.neuroscience research into the sequelae of brain injury, which [I21 Webb Associates, Anthropometric Source Book Volume I:posits that activity-dependent plasticity underlies neuro- Antliropometv for Designers, Scientific and Technical Information Office, Yellow Springs, Ohio, 1978recovery. Furthermore, our results with more than 100 strokepatients open up a number of opportunities. We envision therehabilitation clinic of the future as gyms of “rehabilitators”working with different limb segments, muscle groups, andfunctional tasks. At this gym, the therapist tailors an exerciseroutine to the particular patient’s needs to optimize recovery,increasing the clinic’s productivity by overseeing severalpatients at the same time. The productivity of the overallrehabilitation system may further be improved by theobjective and precise measurements afforded by robotics,with the potential to automate the assessment anddocumentation of recovery. We also envision further 1339