SOLID STATE DRIVEUnder Guidance of Seminar CoordinatorMr. Harshavardhan L Mr. Yogaprakash M GAsst prof., Dept of CSE Asst prof., Dept of CSEPresented byHemanth H R(4BW07CS023)
Page 2 INTRODUCTION DEVELOPMENT & HISTORY THE PROBLEMS WITH TODAY’S HARD DISKS ARCHITECTURE OF SSD MEMORY CONTROLLER HOST INTERFACE COMPARISON OF SSD & HDD ADVANTAGES & DISSADVANTAGES APPLICATIONS OF SSD REFERENCECONTENTS
Page 3INTRODUCTIONSSD TechnologyA solid-state drive (SSD) is a data storage devicethat uses solid-state memory to store persistentdata.SSDs do not have any moving mechanicalcomponents, which distinguishes them fromtraditional magnetic disks such as HDDs or floppydisks. SSDs use NAND-based flash memory or DRAMto store data.
Page 4 Product Consist of eight individualmemory boards, each packed with 256KBof RAM chips. In total, the Bulk Coresystem could provide a massive 2MB Data-access times ranged from 0.75milliseconds to 2 milliseconds, It costs $9700 in 1977, which isequivalent to $36,317 today.DEVELOPMENT & HISTORY1976 - Dataram introduced the worlds first solid-state drive
Page 5 The STC 4305 is a significant boost in thecapacity of SSDs. Cabinet could hold up to 45MB ofdata, which it stored using charge-coupled devices. Costs around $400,000 in 1978 (about$1.5 million in todays dollars)DEVELOPMENT & HISTORY1978 - The STC 4305 drum-storage unit
Page 6 Magnetic bubble memory has propertiessimilar to modern flash memory in that itdoesnt lose data when you shut off itspower. The Bubdisk held 128KB of data, andcosts $895.DEVELOPMENT & HISTORY1979 - Apple II Bubble Memory
Page 7 Axlon was one of the company producingSSDs for personal computers. This product used volatile RAM chips thatneeded constant power to retain data. 1MB of storage. It costs $1095DEVELOPMENT & HISTORY1983 - Synetix 2202
Page 8 IntelsNOR flash memory chips. It can hold up to 16MB of data. It costs $5000.DEVELOPMENT & HISTORY1988 - Worlds First Flash SSD
Page 9 Modern flash-based SSD is designed in 3.5-inch same as hard drives used at the time. It can hold up to 16MB to 896MB and costsaround $10,000. These SSDs found in military andaeronautical applications.DEVELOPMENT & HISTORY1995 - Birth of the Modern Flash Drive
Page 10The problems with today’s Hard Disks?Hard Disk Drives Processors have increased in speed by ordersof magnitude over the years. But spinning hard disk drives (HDD) have not. Performance gap between how fast processorsdemand data and how quickly HDD responds. HDD speed lags behind processors because itis constrained by physical components.
Page 11The problems with today’s Hard Disks?Hybrid Hard Disk Drives Hybrid Hard Drives are an incrementalupgrade to the Hard Disk Drives. Hybrid hard disk drive contains large-buffer. It integrated with a cache using non-volatileFlash memory. Flash memory buffer can speed up repeatedreads from the same location. Compared to normal HDD speed of dataaccess and consequent fastercomputer boot process, decreased powerconsumption, and improved reliability.
Page 12ARCHITECTURE OF SSDSimple block diagram of SSD architecture
Page 13MEMORYFlash memory-based SSD’s Use non-volatile flash memory Do not require batteries Retain memory even during suddenpower outages. Lower cost compared to DRAM SSDs are slower than DRAM SSD
Page 14DRAM-based SSD’s Use volatile memory. Battery or an external AC/DC adapterrequired. If power is lost, the battery providespower while all Information is copiedfrom random access memory (RAM) toback-up storage. Ultrafast data access. Primarily to accelerate applications. Costlier compared to Flash SDD’s.MEMORY
Page 15 Controller is an embedded processorthat executes firmware-level software. SSD controller bridge the Flashmemory components to the SSDinput/output interfaces. System will communicates thecontroller to read data from or writedata to the flash memoryCONTROLLER
Page 16 Serial ATA (SATA) SAS - Serial attached SCSI (generally found on servers) PCI Express USB Parallel ATA (IDE) interface (mostly replaced by SATA)HOST INTERFACE
Page 17Technical Comparison of SSD & HDDSolid-state drive Hard disk driveRandom access time0.1 msRandom access time5~10 msRead latency timeVery lowRead latency timehigh100MB/s to 500MB/s 50MB/s to 100MB/s.High ReliabilitySSDs have no moving parts to failmechanically.Low ReliabilityHDDs have moving parts and aresubject to sudden failure;small and light in weight. relatively large and heavyIn 2013 SSDs were available in sizesup to 512GB,In 2013 HDDs of up to 4TB wereavailable.power consuption 2 watts 12 watts.As of 2013 NAND flash SSDs costabout Rs.31000 for 500GBAs of 2013 HDDs cost about Rs.3200for 500GB drives
Page 18 High performance – significantly faster than a standard HDD Faster seek time – up to 60x faster than HDD Lower power – Lesser power consumption ,cooler operation Silent operation – ideal for post production environments Lighter weight – perfect for portable devices. Ability to endure extreme shock, high altitude, vibration andextremes of temperature. Immune to magnets. SSDs are random access by nature and can perform parallelreads on multiple sections of the driveADVANTAGES OF SSD
Page 19 They are more expensive than traditional hard drives. They currently offer less storage space than traditional harddrives. Slower Write Speed on low-end Models(MLC based types).DISSADVANTAGES OF SSD
Page 20ServersDesktop computersLaptopsUltrabooksHD CamcordersSmart TvCCTV Digital Video Recorder (DVR)Set-Top BoxesGaming ConsolesSSD APPLICATIONS
Page 21 J. Katcher. PostMark: “A New Solid State Drives”. Technical ReportTR3022, Network Appliance, October 1997. “Evolution of the Solid-State Drive” By Benj Edwards, PCWorld A. Birrell, M. Isard, C. Thacker, and T. Wobber. “A Design for High-Performance Flash Disks”, December 2007. S. Nath and A. Kansal. FlashDB: “Dynamic Self-Tuning Database forNAND Flash”. In IPSN ’07: Proceedings of the 6th InternationalConference on Information Processing in Sensor Networks June, 2009. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solid-state_drive http://www.intel.com/pressroom/.html http://whatisasolidstatedrive.com/?p=14REFERENCE