Localizing the Rural Economy from            the Inside Out36th Appalachian Studies Conference      Appalachian State Univ...
Introduction3/23/2013   Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conferen...
Resilience3/23/2013   Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference...
“at the heart of resilience is a verysimple notion – things change – and   to ignore or resist this change is to increase ...
The Appalachian Region3/23/2013   Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, AS...
EPG searches for “real-world”                            solutions                                                        ...
The EPG Program defines “Entrepreneurial Leadership” as:"A process when one person or a group ofpeople in a community orig...
3/23/2013   Hackbert, P.H. “Localizing the Rural Economy from the Inside Out.” ASBE Conference, October 5, 2012   8
3/23/2013   Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference   9
Small Rural Appalachian Community Economic                Development (CED)Traditional ED Strategy / Tool                D...
“Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here.” asked Alice.3/23/2013   Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Loca...
3/23/2013   Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference   12
“That depends a great deal on whereyou want to go,” said the Cheshire Cat.       Lewis Carroll, Alice in Wonderland3/23/20...
Begin with a vision statement3/23/2013    Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside...
Possible Community Goals• Economic Goals                                           • Environment Goals• Social Goals      ...
Problem StatementHow do rural communities hit hard by the 2008   economic recession approach economic               develo...
Review of the Literature• Scholars Lambe, 2008; Drabenstott & Moore,  2009; Morgan, Lambe, & Freyer, 2011• Rural local eco...
Localization3/23/2013   Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conferen...
Local Ownership Matters1. Higher multipliers2. Great community wealth: Fleming and Goetz   (2011)3. More dynamic4. Healthi...
Producing better, truer, ways of measuring economic, environmentalan social performance, is a critical stepin making progr...
How can this be accomplished?3/23/2013   Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside ...
Develop Census Indicators                                               Go to:                   quickfacts.census.gov3/23...
3/23/2013   Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference   23
Develop Small Business Indicators           Go to:www.census.gov/eos/www/naics3/23/2013   Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Lo...
To learn about NAICS                                                                             explore this site3/23/201...
Develop Small Business Indicators           Go to:www.census.gov/eos/www/naicswww.census/gov/econ/cbp/index.html          ...
Develop County Business Patterns                                             Go to:www.census/gov/econ/cbp/index.html3/23/...
3/23/2013   Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference   28
3/23/2013   Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference   29
3/23/2013   Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference   30
Develop Small Business IndicatorsPick two or three NAICS categories•   How many small businesses?•   Does the data appear ...
Develop Self-Employed Indicators                                             Go to:                  Self-Employed        ...
3/23/2013   Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference   33
Develop Small Business IndicatorsPick two or three NAICS categories• How many categories have small business  growth?• If ...
Environmental indicators                                                Go To:                           www.epa.gov/ncea/...
Other Building Block Indicators•   Local Foods•   Renewable Energy•   Green Building•   Community Capital•   Local Arts•  ...
City of Berea Case Study                          Methods• County Business patterns from the Census Bureau• Nonemployer St...
City of Berea Case Study                   Methods (continued)• The IMPLAN Input-Output model unifies  various federal dat...
Berea’s Profile•   329 Establishments•   1,534 Self employed•   294 Farmers•   2,500 Public employees•   $413M in wages•  ...
Compared to the USA• 23% of the workforce is in manufacturing—more  than 2 X the national average.• Berea also has much gr...
Shuman argues in Going Local (1998);   The Small-Mart Revolution (2006)“ economic development performs best when itis focu...
Leakage analysisIdentifies all those sectors in the economy where acommunity is unnecessarily importing outside goods ands...
3/23/2013   Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference   43
BALLE Job Leakage Calculator                                5,739 additional jobs3/23/2013    Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter...
40 Export Industries• Manufacturing parts for automobile supplying  the assembly plant in Georgetown, KY.• Role of Berea C...
40 Local businesses that could meet                   demand1. Global companies (no headquarters)2. Professional services ...
What If 25% of Berea businesses could    meet 25% of local demand?      IMPLAN MODEL – forecasts 1,398 new jobs     BALLE ...
Some New Jobs Not Possible3/23/2013    Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Ou...
3 Largest Sectors                      Professional services (317)                      Wholesale trade (198), and        ...
Five Clusters – 1,300 jobs• Goods distribution, warehousing, and trucking  (232 direct jobs);• Professional services (247)...
Findings           STRENGTHS                                                  WEAKNESSES•   Location                      ...
Findings           STRENGTHS                                                  WEAKNESSES•   Location                      ...
Findings            OPPORTUNITIES                                                  THREATS• Regional growth               ...
Findings            OPPORTUNITIES                                                  THREATS• Regional growth               ...
Conclusion and Action Steps3/23/2013    Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside O...
3/23/2013   Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference   56
3/23/2013   Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference   57
Alcohol beverage sale[City-County]            4th Class cities with permits1.    Corbin – Whitley/ Knox      11.   Springf...
3/23/2013   Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference   59
3/23/2013   Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference   60
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ASA 2013 Conference Localizing the Rural Economy from the Inside Out

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The purpose of this workshop is to describe one Appalachian communities approach to developing a rural economic development strategy for creating jobs through new and expanded businesses in the context of the current recessionary times.

The workshop demonstrates methods for executing a community “strategic plan” and visioning process that lead to the identification of thirteen strategies for strengthening local rural businesses and three final community actions (alternative energy initiatives, community food system assessment, and crowdfunding) that can be particularly relevant for replication of Appalachian grassroots actions.

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ASA 2013 Conference Localizing the Rural Economy from the Inside Out

  1. 1. Localizing the Rural Economy from the Inside Out36th Appalachian Studies Conference Appalachian State University Boone North Carolina March 22, 2013 Peter Hackbert and Jalissa Hunter Berea College
  2. 2. Introduction3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 2
  3. 3. Resilience3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 3
  4. 4. “at the heart of resilience is a verysimple notion – things change – and to ignore or resist this change is to increase our vulnerability and forego emerging opportunities, in so doing, we limit our options.”3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. “Localizing the Rural Economy from the Inside Out.” ASBE Conference, October 5, 2012 4
  5. 5. The Appalachian Region3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 5
  6. 6. EPG searches for “real-world” solutions • Mission statement - educating and inspiring students from Appalachia to become service-oriented leaders • 1,600 liberal arts students • 150 yearsWhat better way to encourage young Appalachians to start their own businesses than to reach out to them while they’re still trying to figure out what they should be doing with their lives?
  7. 7. The EPG Program defines “Entrepreneurial Leadership” as:"A process when one person or a group ofpeople in a community originate an idea orinnovation for a needed change and influenceothers in that community to commit torealizing that change, despite the presence ofrisk, ambiguity, or uncertainty".
  8. 8. 3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. “Localizing the Rural Economy from the Inside Out.” ASBE Conference, October 5, 2012 8
  9. 9. 3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 9
  10. 10. Small Rural Appalachian Community Economic Development (CED)Traditional ED Strategy / Tool Direct, Short-term • Industrial development Economic • Business retention / expansion Outcomes • Workforce development • jobs • Tourism • firms Economic Development • prosperity • wealth ApproachesAlternative ED Strategy / Tool • Entrepreneurship 1. Recruit firms from the outside • Downtown development 2. Strengthen/expand existing firms • Arts / Creative economy 3. Promote development of new firms • • Cluster-based development Residential development Other Outcomes • social • civic • environmentalCD Capacity Building Strategy /Tool Indirect, Long-term • Transportation • Broadband / Internet / Social Media • ED finance • Philanthropy • Strategic planning • Leadership development • Organizational development
  11. 11. “Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here.” asked Alice.3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 11
  12. 12. 3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 12
  13. 13. “That depends a great deal on whereyou want to go,” said the Cheshire Cat. Lewis Carroll, Alice in Wonderland3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 13
  14. 14. Begin with a vision statement3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 14
  15. 15. Possible Community Goals• Economic Goals • Environment Goals• Social Goals • Political Goals3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 15
  16. 16. Problem StatementHow do rural communities hit hard by the 2008 economic recession approach economic development?3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. “Localizing the Rural Economy from the Inside Out.” ASBE Conference, October 5, 2012 16
  17. 17. Review of the Literature• Scholars Lambe, 2008; Drabenstott & Moore, 2009; Morgan, Lambe, & Freyer, 2011• Rural local economic development writers (Shuman, 2012; Cortese, 2011; Moltz & McCray, 2012)• Both advance strategies for homegrown prosperity3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 17
  18. 18. Localization3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 18
  19. 19. Local Ownership Matters1. Higher multipliers2. Great community wealth: Fleming and Goetz (2011)3. More dynamic4. Healthier residents: Blanchard, (2012)5. Better community planning6. Greater creativity7. Greater political participation3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 19
  20. 20. Producing better, truer, ways of measuring economic, environmentalan social performance, is a critical stepin making progress towards building a better world. - Joseph Stiglitz, Nobel Laureate in Economics3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 20
  21. 21. How can this be accomplished?3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 21
  22. 22. Develop Census Indicators Go to: quickfacts.census.gov3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 22
  23. 23. 3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 23
  24. 24. Develop Small Business Indicators Go to:www.census.gov/eos/www/naics3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 24
  25. 25. To learn about NAICS explore this site3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 25
  26. 26. Develop Small Business Indicators Go to:www.census.gov/eos/www/naicswww.census/gov/econ/cbp/index.html Self-Employed www.censtats.census.gov/cgi- bin/nonemployer/nonsect.pl3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 26
  27. 27. Develop County Business Patterns Go to:www.census/gov/econ/cbp/index.html3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 27
  28. 28. 3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 28
  29. 29. 3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 29
  30. 30. 3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 30
  31. 31. Develop Small Business IndicatorsPick two or three NAICS categories• How many small businesses?• Does the data appear accurate?• Is the number growing or contracting?• How to you compare against similar communities?3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 31
  32. 32. Develop Self-Employed Indicators Go to: Self-Employed www.censtats.census.gov/cgi- bin/nonemployer/nonsect.pl3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 32
  33. 33. 3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 33
  34. 34. Develop Small Business IndicatorsPick two or three NAICS categories• How many categories have small business growth?• If the number of categories are growing this is an indicators of diversification.• What categories are shrinking?3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 34
  35. 35. Environmental indicators Go To: www.epa.gov/ncea/roe www.epa.gov/myenvironment3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 35
  36. 36. Other Building Block Indicators• Local Foods• Renewable Energy• Green Building• Community Capital• Local Arts• Independent Retail• Green Manufacturing• Human Capacity3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 36
  37. 37. City of Berea Case Study Methods• County Business patterns from the Census Bureau• Nonemployer Statistics from the US Census Bureau• Zip code analysis indicated that all but two of the 392 establishments in Berea have fewer than 500 employees and therefore qualify as small businesses.• The Census Bureau’s Nonemployer Statistics, revealed an estimated 1,548 individuals have their own businesses in Berea, with sales of $47 million per year.3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 37
  38. 38. City of Berea Case Study Methods (continued)• The IMPLAN Input-Output model unifies various federal databases and fill in the gaps• Compare Berea’s economy to composition sister cities, State of Kentucky, and the United States as a whole.3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. “Localizing the Rural Economy from the Inside Out.” ASBE Conference, October 5, 2012 38
  39. 39. Berea’s Profile• 329 Establishments• 1,534 Self employed• 294 Farmers• 2,500 Public employees• $413M in wages• $25M in state and local taxes• $1.9B GDP3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 39
  40. 40. Compared to the USA• 23% of the workforce is in manufacturing—more than 2 X the national average.• Berea also has much greater numbers of people in education, health, and social services.• 1/3 less than the national average of its workforce in the arts, entertainment, and tourism.• Finance sector is about 1/2 the national average, which suggests how little capital is available for business growth.3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. “Localizing the Rural Economy from the Inside Out.” ASBE Conference, October 5, 2012 40
  41. 41. Shuman argues in Going Local (1998); The Small-Mart Revolution (2006)“ economic development performs best when itis focused, laser-like, on businesses “ that arelocally owned and import substituting. Localownership means that working control of acompany is held within a small geographic area.Import-substituting means that the company isfocused first and foremost (though notexclusively) on cost effective production for localmarkets.3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 41
  42. 42. Leakage analysisIdentifies all those sectors in the economy where acommunity is unnecessarily importing outside goods andservices. Every unnecessary import represents a loss ofdollars and a loss of the "multiplier" impacts those dollarslocally.Represents a loss of other documented benefits that localbusinesses bring: knowledge, skills, tax payments,charitable giving, revitalized downtowns, tourists,stronger civil society, and more political participation.3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. “Localizing the Rural Economy from the Inside Out.” ASBE Conference, October 5, 2012 42
  43. 43. 3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 43
  44. 44. BALLE Job Leakage Calculator 5,739 additional jobs3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 44
  45. 45. 40 Export Industries• Manufacturing parts for automobile supplying the assembly plant in Georgetown, KY.• Role of Berea College, and many nonprofits promoting human rights and environmental protection;• Presence of a largely retirement population, nursing homes, funeral parlors, and cemeteries• Major services sector providing residents throughout the region (some of whom may be coming to work in Berea) with child care, taxis, limited restaurants3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. “Localizing the Rural Economy from the Inside Out.” ASBE Conference, October 5, 2012 45
  46. 46. 40 Local businesses that could meet demand1. Global companies (no headquarters)2. Professional services (outsourcing pros)3. Intermediaries (outsourcing warehousing)4. Tourism (lacks critical mass)5. Food and retail (not capturing shopper fair share)6. Finance (no local insurance, securities brokers)7. Health Care (need for full-service mental-health- care facilities)3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 46
  47. 47. What If 25% of Berea businesses could meet 25% of local demand? IMPLAN MODEL – forecasts 1,398 new jobs BALLE Calculator – forecasts new 1,435 jobs3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. “Localizing the Rural Economy from the Inside Out.” ASBE Conference, October 5, 2012 47
  48. 48. Some New Jobs Not Possible3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 48
  49. 49. 3 Largest Sectors Professional services (317) Wholesale trade (198), and Tourism (168)•3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. “Localizing the Rural Economy from the Inside Out.” ASBE Conference, October 5, 2012 49
  50. 50. Five Clusters – 1,300 jobs• Goods distribution, warehousing, and trucking (232 direct jobs);• Professional services (247)• Finance, insurance, and real estate (167)• Local food (103)• Tourism (60) 3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 50
  51. 51. Findings STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES• Location • Limits to manufacturing• Manufacturing • Finance gaps• Education • Empty storefronts• Public Sector • No fun• Infrastructure • Youth out migration• Civic Culture • Tourism deficits• Tourism• Local businesses • Workforce shortcomings• Quality of life3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. “Localizing the Rural Economy from the Inside Out.” ASBE Conference, October 5, 2012 51
  52. 52. Findings STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES• Location • Limits to manufacturing• Manufacturing • Finance gaps• Education • Empty storefronts• Public Sector • No fun• Infrastructure • Youth out migration• Civic Culture • Tourism deficits• Tourism• Local businesses • Workforce shortcomings• Quality of life3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. “Localizing the Rural Economy from the Inside Out.” ASBE Conference, October 5, 2012 52
  53. 53. Findings OPPORTUNITIES THREATS• Regional growth • Aging population• Industrial park • Over-focus on corporate• Entrepreneurship innovation attractions• Arts and Crafts • Unplanned growth• Broader approach to tourism • Divisions• Integrate the college more thoroughly into the city’s economic growth• Partners3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 53
  54. 54. Findings OPPORTUNITIES THREATS• Regional growth • Aging population• Industrial park • Over-focus on corporate• Entrepreneurship innovation attractions• Arts and Crafts • Unplanned growth• Broader approach to tourism • Divisions• Integrate the college more thoroughly into the city’s economic growth• Partners3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 54
  55. 55. Conclusion and Action Steps3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 55
  56. 56. 3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 56
  57. 57. 3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 57
  58. 58. Alcohol beverage sale[City-County] 4th Class cities with permits1. Corbin – Whitley/ Knox 11. Springfield – Washington2. Central City – Muhlenberg 12. Vanceburg – Lewis3. Cumberland – Harlan 13. Elizabethtown – Hardin4. Eminence – Henry 14. Lancaster – Garrard5. Falmouth - Pendleton 15. Vine Grove – Hardin6. Madisonville-Hopkins 16. London – Laurel7. Mt. Sterling – Montgomery 17. Jenkins - Letcher8. Morehead – Rowan 18. Whitesburg- Letcher9. Russellville – Logan 19. Vanceburg- Lewis10. Shelbyville - Washington 20. Somerset- Pulaski 21. Manchester- Clay
  59. 59. 3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 59
  60. 60. 3/23/2013 Hackbert, P.H. and J. Hunter. Localizing the Appalachian Economy from the Inside Out, ASA Conference 60
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