Essay organization fpe
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Essay organization fpe Essay organization fpe Presentation Transcript

  • ESSAY ORGANIZATION B-13
  • B-13 2 THREE PARTS of an ESSAY 1. Introductory Paragraph 2. Body Paragraphs 3. Concluding Paragraph
  • B-13 3 THREE PARTS of an ESSAY 1. Introductory Paragraph Generel Statements Thesis Statement 2. Body Paragraphs Topic Sentence Supporting Sentences Concluding Sentence 3. Concluding Paragraph Concluding Sentence Final Thoughts Topic Sentence Supporting Sentences Concluding Sentence 1. 2. View slide
  • B-13 4 Topic Sentence Topic Sentence Supporting Sentences Concluding Sentence Supporting Sentences Concluding Sentence View slide
  • FROM PARAGRAPH TO ESSAY Topic Sentence Supporting Sentence 1 Concluding Sentence Thesis Statement General Statements Topic Sentence 1 INTRODUCTION SupportingSentences Supporting details Supporting Sentence 2 Supporting details Topic Sentence 2 SupportingSentences Supporting details Supporting details BODY Concluding Sentence Final Comment CONCUSION 5B-13
  • B-13 6 1. General Statements 2. THESIS STATEMENT INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH An introductory paragraph has 2 parts Gives the reader background information about the topic of the essay. • It states the main topic of the essay • It lists the subtopics of the main topic • It is the last sentence of the introductory paragraph
  • B-13 7 SAMPLE INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH Driving a car is a neccessity in today’s busy society, and it is also a special privilege. Therefore, anyone who wants to drive must carry a driving license. Getting a driving license is a complicated process. It is divided into two steps: studying the traffic laws and taking the written exam.
  • B-13 8 General Statements 1. TOO GENERAL Driving a car is a neccessity in today’s busy society, and it is also a special privilege. 2.LESS GENERAL Therefore, anyone who wants to drive must carry a driving license. 3.EVEN LESS GENERAL Getting a driving license is a complicated process.
  • B-13 9 A SAMPLE INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH Over the past forty years, television sets have become standard pieces of equipment in most homes, and watching television has become a standard activity for most families. Children in our culture grow up watching television in the morning, in the afternoon, and often in the evening as well. Although there are many excellent programs for children, many people feel that television may not be good for children. In fact, television may have an adverse effect on children because some programs are not suitable for their ages and television causes the children to ignore their school works.
  • B-13 10 General Statements 1. TOO GENERAL Over the past forty years, television sets have become standard pieces of equipment in most homes, and watching television has become a standard activity for most families. 2.LESS GENERAL Children in our culture grow up watching television in the morning, in the afternoon, and often in the evening as well. 3.EVEN LESS GENERAL Although there are many excellent programs for children, many people feel that television may not be good for children.
  • • The first sentence should be a very general comment about the subject. • The second sentence should be less general. • The third one should be even less general. B-13 11 General Statements You should write at least 2 or 3 general statements in an introduction.
  • B-13 12 A SAMPLE INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH Being a student at university is the dream of every high school student. Every student who wants to have a bright future with a good career plans to study at university. However, the road to success at university is full of obstacles that might interfere with students reaching their goals. Therefore, students should be aware of those difficulties which they face during their university years. Despite these obstacles, students can achieve their dreams of getting their degree. In order to be succcessful at university, students need motivation, and the abillity to focus on their goals.
  • B-13 13 General Statements 1. TOO GENERAL Being a student at university is the dream of every high school student.. 2.LESS GENERAL Every student who wants to have a bright future with a good career plans to study at university. 3.EVEN LESS GENERAL However, the road to success at university is full of obstacles that might interfere with students reaching their goals. Therefore, students should be aware of those difficulties which they face during their university years. Despite these obstacles, students can achieve their dreams of getting their degree.
  • B-13 14 Main topic of the essay Subtopics of the main topic THESIS STATEMENT The last sentence of the introduction Ex: How to be successful at university? Ex: A- Motivation B- The ability to focus on their goals
  • B-13 15 Body Paragraph Topic Sentence Supporting Sentences Concluding Sentence Body Paragraph Topic Sentence Supporting Sentences Concluding Sentence The BODY PARAGRAPHS There should be at least 2 paragraphs in the BODY Each of the body paragraps SHOULD support the THESIS STATEMENT
  • Smoking in restaurants should be banned because….. a. b. B-13 16 Young people who live at home have several advantages because they dont have to do the housework and their expenses are covered by their parents. Pollution in big cities causes problems such as……. a. b. Two main effects of entering a university can be listed as a. b. Practice 1 p.20 (Complete the thesis statements by adding the topics of the body paragraphs)
  • B-13 17 Concluding Sentence The first sentence of the concluding paragraph. Repeats the thesis statament in DIFFERENT words. Concluding Comment Writer’s opinion judgement advice CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH It signals the end of the essay. It summarizes the main points. It gives the writer’s final thoughts. DO NOT add any new ideas. DO NOT FORGET to start with transition signals such as • In brief, in short, to sum up or in conclusion, etc. 
  • 2. Summarize the main point or points of the paragraph. 1. Restate the idea in the topic sentence in different words. Do not copy the topic sentence. D_07 18 2. Remind your reader of the main idea by one of the following methods 3. NEVER end a paragraph by introducing a new idea. CONCLUDING SENTENCE 3 tips for a good concluding sentence 18B-13
  • D_01 19 Conclusion Signals Conclusion Signals Followed by a Comma No Comma 1. All in all, In brief In conclusion Indeed, In short, In summary, To conclude, To summarize, To sum up, 2. It is clear that………….. These examples show that …… You can see that………… 1. To summarize, Japanese food is both beautiful and delicious to look at and eat. Indeed, many U.S. Cities and regions have a special food to enjoy. 2. It is clear that diets don’t work and many even damage a dieter’s health. TIP 1. Begin with a conclusion signal. 19B-13
  • B-13 20 Synonyms Condensation Circumlocution Phrase Reversal Active-Passive Voice Alternate Word Form HOW TO WRITE CONCLUDING SENTENCE(S) PARAPHRASING: Rewriting ideas from a source in different words without changing its original meaning. Strategies for Paraphrasing
  • Synonyms Original: 65 is the traditional age for workers to retire in the U.S. Paraphrase:65 is the traditional age for employees to retire in the U.S. B-13 21
  • Condensation Original: 65 is the traditional age for workers to retire in the U.S. Paraphrase: 65 is the traditional retirement age in the U.S. B-13 22
  • Circumlocation Original: 65 is the traditional age for workers to retire in the U.S. Paraphrase: 65 is the traditional age for workers to end their professional career in the U.S. B-13 23
  • Phrase Reversal Original: 65 is the traditional age for workers to retire in the U.S. Paraphrase: In the U.S. The traditional age for workers to retire is 65. B-13 24
  • Active-Passive Voice Original: The company fired 15 workers. Paraphrase: 15 workers were fired by the company. B-13 25
  • Alternate Word Form Original: A manager’s success is often due to perseverance. Paraphrase: A manager often succeeds because of perseverance. B-13 26
  • B-13 27 !! BE CAREFUL !! You need to use more than one of these strategies when rewriting your THESIS STATEMENTS
  • B-13 28 Original Sentence: Language is the main means of communication among people. Unacceptable Paraphrase: Language is the principal means of communication among people. Acceptable Sentence: Humans communicate through language. Acceptable and Unacceptable Paraphrasing
  • B-13 29 Original Sentence: For many years, people have dreamed of setting up an international, universal language which all people could speak and understand. Unacceptable Paraphrase: For many years, people have visioned a common universal language that everyone in the world could understand. Acceptable Sentence: For a long time, people have wished for an international language that speakers all over the world could communicate in. Acceptable and Unacceptable Paraphrasing
  • B-13 30 Practice 2 p.23 My greatest problem in learning English is oral communication. Smoking is unhealthy because it can cause heart and lung disease; moreover, it is expensive. My major goals are getting a part-time job and mastering the use of English language.
  • B-13 31 Discrimination, lack of economic opportunity, and inferior education are the three main causes of poverty today. Practice 2 p.23 (write a concluding sentence based on the information in each thesis statement) Students who work while they are studying meet a lot of people, practice what they have learned and gain responsibility.
  • B-13 32 Try It Out ! Write an introduction for the following topic.  1) Explain the causes of traffic accidents. Traffic accidents are so common in Turkey. Explain why. • Poor road conditions • Exceeding speed limits • Lack of tolerance • Overtaking mistakes • Violating traffic signs • Lack of preventive penalties
  • D_07 33 Try It Out ! Write an introduction for the following topic.  2) Explain the causes of water scarcity. Why has water become that scarce? Explain. • Climate changes • Unplanned and excessive consumption by the industry • Inadequate water policies • People wasting water 33B-13