Cause effectparagraphpractice

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  • Corresponds to pages 20-22 in SAS3
  • For each header topic, ask your students if the ideas below are causes or effects. They should be able to differentiate causes from effects before starting to write their paragraphs.
  • Corresponds to pages 20-22 in SAS3
  • Get the students ideas and write them on the board.
  • Cause effectparagraphpractice

    1. 1. Cause & Effect prepared by Rebecca Soble, Spring 2011 Updated Fall 2012
    2. 2. 1. Differentiating Causes and Effects
    3. 3. Bad traffic in Istanbul Becoming a millionaire  Rainy weather  Hard work  Overpopulation  Don’t have to work  Narrow roads  Win the lottery  People are late to work  Marry someone rich  Ambulances can’t get to the  Friends always ask you for hospitals quickly  Increased use of public transport money  Pay high taxes
    4. 4. Bad traffic in Istanbul Becoming a millionaire  Rainy weather CAUSE  Work hard CAUSE  Overpopulation CAUSE  Don’t have to work EFFECT  Narrow roads CAUSE  Win the lottery CAUSE  People are late to work  Marry someone rich CAUSE EFFECT  Ambulances can’t get to the hospitals quickly EFFECT  Increased use of public  Friends always ask you for money EFFECT  Pay high taxes EFFECT transport EFFECT BE CAREFUL! Your writing must be about causes OR effects. For this preparatory program, you mustn’t write about both in the same paragraph or essay.
    5. 5. 2. Cause/Effect Vocabulary
    6. 6. CAUSE before EFFECT Smoking LEADS TO cancer. Burning of fossil fuels CONTRIBUTES TO global warming. Good nutrition GIVES RISE TO a strong immune system. The power has gone out. AS A RESULT, we can’t do our work. I’m hungry. THEREFORE, I really want to eat!
    7. 7. EFFECT before CAUSE Lung cancer IS ONE EFFECT OF smoking. Children can get lung cancer AS A RESULT OF secondhand cigarette smoke. Global warming IS DUE TO burning fossil fuels. She is a millionaire BECAUSE she won the lottery. I am tired ON ACCOUNT OF having insomnia. The popularity of private courses ARISES FROM the importance of standardized exams.
    8. 8. 3. Writing Cause or Effect Sentences
    9. 9. Write a cause or effect sentence. Add more information with “because” or “therefore” or another phrase.
    10. 10. Eating too much candy gives rise to gaining weight; therefore you should eat only small amounts. Obesity is one result of eating a lot of chocolate because chocolate has high calories. Because chocolate is high in fat, if you eat too much candy, you will probably gain weight.
    11. 11. Write a cause or effect sentence. Add more information with “because” or “therefore” or another phrase.
    12. 12. Forgetting your girlfriend’s birthday can lead to getting slapped. Many arguments arise from boyfriends not remembering their girlfriends’ birthdays. Sarah was very angry on account of Fred forgetting her birthday AGAIN! If you want your girlfriend to be happy, don’t ever forget her birthday.
    13. 13. Write a sentence showing cause or effect, but try to use different verbs (benefit, help, prevent, etc.)
    14. 14. Planting trees can benefit the environment because trees add fresh oxygen to the air. One thing that can slow the progress of global warming is planting trees. If you want to help the environment, one easy way is to plant trees.
    15. 15. 4. Cause Paragraph Examples
    16. 16. A causes paragraph will mention several causes of one effect. The topic sentence must be very clearly about CAUSES. Examples:  Students may cheat on exams for a variety of reasons.  There are several reasons why Facebook is a useful tool for school.
    17. 17. Before you write, brainstorm ideas on your topic.
    18. 18. Then, write an outline.  TOPIC: Why do people still go to the cinema even though there are DVDs and movies on television?  TOPIC SENTENCE: There are three reasons why people still like to go to the movies despite the existence of DVDs and TV movies.  SUPPORTING SENTENCE 1: First of all, the sound quality is better in the cinema than at home.  SUPPORTING SENTENCE 2: Secondly, going to the cinema is a fun social event.  SUPPORTING SENTENCE 3: Lastly, you can see the movie as soon as it is released. Now, brainstorm what details you could add to each supporting section. Remember that you can use examples and explanations.
    19. 19. 5. Effect Paragraph Examples
    20. 20. An effects paragraph will include several effects of one cause. The topic sentence must be very clearly about EFFECTS. Examples:  There are several benefits of knowing a foreign language. (benefits = good effects)  Living away from your family can have both good and bad effects.
    21. 21. What IS good CONTENT? Read this paragraph about the effects of traffic accidents and identify the main subtopics. There are several bad effects of traffic accidents. First of all, you could be injured. Your legs could break, your back could break, you might bleed or even have brain damage. There are lots of possible injuries from a car accident. Another effect of traffic accidents is that you could die. What else can I say, this is the ultimate end. Nobody wants this to happen. Finally, another effect of traffic accidents is that you could injure or kill someone else. If another person has a broken leg or brain damage or dies, this is almost worse than having it yourself. To conclude, traffic accidents can have really bad results, so be careful. (113 words)
    22. 22. What IS good CONTENT? Main Subtopics: There are several bad effects of traffic accidents. First of all, you could be injured. Your legs could break, your back could break, you might bleed or even have brain damage. There are lots of possible injuries from a car accident. Another effect of traffic accidents is that you could die. What else can I say, this is the ultimate end. Nobody wants this to happen. Finally, another effect of traffic accidents is that you could injure or kill someone else. If another person has a broken leg or brain damage or dies, this is almost worse than having it yourself. To conclude, traffic accidents can have really bad results, so be careful. (113 words)
    23. 23. What IS good CONTENT? Main Subtopics: Topic: Effects of traffic accidents Subtopics: 1: you could be injured. 2: you could die. 3: you could injure or kill someone else. Do you think these are good subtopics for this topic? Why or why not?
    24. 24. What IS good CONTENT? Read this paragraph on the same subject and identify the subtopics. There are several bad effects of traffic accidents. First, accidents often have bad physical effects, both for the person who caused the accident and for the victims. People can be injured very badly and also die. Secondly, accidents usually have bad financial effects. Paying to fix the cars can be very expensive. In addition, after an accident usually your insurance costs will increase. Finally, there could be some psychological effects after a car accident. It could make a person phobic about being in a car. Even when the accident is over, this trauma can last a long time. In conclusion, traffic accidents can have some really bad effects so be careful on the roads! (114 words)
    25. 25. What IS good CONTENT? Main Subtopics: There are several bad effects of traffic accidents. First, accidents often have bad physical effects, both for the person who caused the accident and for the victims. People can be injured very badly and also die. Secondly, accidents usually have bad financial effects. Paying to fix the cars can be very expensive. In addition, after an accident usually your insurance costs will increase. Finally, there could be some psychological effects after a car accident. It could make a person phobic about being in a car. Even when the accident is over, this trauma can last a long time. In conclusion, traffic accidents can have some really bad effects so be careful on the roads! (114 words)
    26. 26. What IS good CONTENT? Main Subtopics: Topic: Effects of traffic accidents Subtopics: 1: bad physical effects. 2: bad financial effects. 3: some psychological effects. How do these subtopics compare to the first ones? Do these subtopics make the paragraph easier to write? Do they make it more interesting to read?
    27. 27. Do you remember the writing process ? 1. Choose a topic 2. BRAINSTORM for ideas 3. Create an outline to organize your ideas 4. Write! Following this process will help you have good STRUCTURE and CONTENT in your writing. Now, on your own, or with a partner. 1. Choose a cause or effects topic. 2. Brainstorm ideas. 3. Write a topic sentence and 2-3 supporting sentences, using good cause/effect sentence style. 4. Complete the paragraph with details. Give examples to make your writing “alive”!

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