Immigrants and Immigration in Social Studies Learning

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This Powerpoint presents "big picture" questions and related lesson ideas and primary and secondary sources for various grade levels about immigration and its impact on American History.

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  • http://image.iarchives.nysed.gov/images/bulk_images/NYSA_A3045-78_Dn_NjB-full.jpg
    (NYSA image of US customs at Niagara Falls, 1933)
  • Compare tone and words used in each poem
  • A Colony of Aliens – Benj. Franklin on the Germans
    Crisis! Pamphlet – quotes against foreign influence by past national leaders – 1840s – Nativism – Go to Harvard site and search: new york and immigration
    Aliens or Americans – 1906 missionary work depicting foreign influences (search “Italians” for page comparing Italian to other ethnic groups in pauperism, insanity, etc. Lots of maps and data figures – hand out (p. 113_ and discussion questions (p. 46). Also, describes passage from foreign shores to getting out of Ellis island – p. 47
    Crime… - 1911 – looks at possible causes of crime, including climate, temperature, geography and race – refers to immigrant as most crimminal element (p. 63)
  • Media used to reinforce stereotypes – develop strong emotional reaction (prejudice) and result is social distance – discrimination – either authoritarian or benevolent.
    Result – policy changes – immigration restriction laws, national security, institutionalization, labor laws, and so on.
  • Role of media and print; contrast public policy and public opinion
  • Reinstein Collection – Bringing political ideology as well as traditional foods, dress, customs, etc.
  • Compare to today’s policies regarding homeland security and suspected terrorists
    Note: Milton Rogovin is interviewed
  • Benevolent and authoritarian approaches: Both separate out and institutionalize “the weak and infirmed”; “educate” the ignorant peasant, etc. Tells of “strange” or “intemperate” mannerisms of immigrants and need for them to change.
  • NYS Archives Digital Collections – New Little Citizen play, ca 1941
    LOC Prints and Photos – immigrants living in Buffalo and working in rural areas
    Migrant Center – keeps ethnic histories of various groups and their traditions – Estamos Aqui book is part of summer sessions.
  • Poor House History site – search by state and then on county for description of poorhouse, inmates, etc. Also has state law, general background
  • Handbook for Immigrants – and NYPL images – what was it like to come here (now and then) and who came here (now and then)
  • Tenement Museum has images and lesson plans – relate to national Archives doc of letter to Pres. Taft from residents of Orchard Street in 1912
    Click on Ntl Archives and under featured galleries, primary sources for students and teachers – click on Unit 6 – refine search “new york” for letter
  • Use of stats to graphically show students changes in populations across time and place.
  • Map from Social Explorer – can compare maps from several decades
    US Census Browser – create own charts of a single year (different ethnic groups in Orleans County in 1870) or across years (foreign born in 3 counties in different years)
    Immigration Explorer – color coded maps of ethnic densities
  • LOC site has Italian Heritage of Genesee-Orleans and Lake Ontario – Elba too?
    Folklife Center – click on right side – Resources for Educators – click on “subject” and “agriculture”, etc. for Barn Again, etc.
    Click on “more..” at right for heritage poster info (click on box at left)
    Polish American Heritage is online version of printed sheets
  • Show sample heritage sheets and click on “words” at left
  • The processes, tools, materials, designs, motifs, as well as functions, are closely followed. As time passes, some changes may occur, but the pursuit of tradition as a symbol remains important.
    The look of durability and the object’s ability to stand up to its intended use are important goals of the artist. They use forms, designs, colors, and motifs which clearly associate them and their work to others with a shared heritage.
    Great emphasis is placed on precise detail and the object's ability to capture a complete scene or event.In creating these objects, the artists choose forms and images that are clearly associated with particular religious traditions. An artist may experiment with forms, materials, and designs in response either to personal choices or to changing cultural influences in his or her life.
  • WNY Heritage Press – click on “photographs” and search for subject (“albion, ny”) – Austin Fox from McCracken family in Albion!
    NY Folklore Society – also a search by subject (“albion, ny” or “italian”) – Contact Lisa Overholser for mentoring info
  • Immigrants and Immigration in Social Studies Learning

    1. 1. Immigrants and ImmigrationImmigrants and Immigration in Social Studiesin Social Studies
    2. 2. Essential QuestionsEssential Questions  What is “The American Dream”?What is “The American Dream”?  Why is it difficult for immigrants toWhy is it difficult for immigrants to become accepted in society?become accepted in society?  How can “diversity” and “unity” bothHow can “diversity” and “unity” both be valued in American culture?be valued in American culture?  Has the “immigrant experience” beenHas the “immigrant experience” been common across time and nations?common across time and nations?  Why does the introduction of newWhy does the introduction of new technologies often seem to create bothtechnologies often seem to create both prosperity and poverty?prosperity and poverty?
    3. 3. Lesson IdeasLesson Ideas  Use “The American Dream” lesson to identifyUse “The American Dream” lesson to identify different perceptions of what it means to bedifferent perceptions of what it means to be “American,” as well as examine successive“American,” as well as examine successive periods of significant immigration inperiods of significant immigration in America.America.  Compare contrasting attitudes towardsCompare contrasting attitudes towards immigration, past and present: benevolentimmigration, past and present: benevolent versus authoritarian.versus authoritarian.  Have students create “Community HeritageHave students create “Community Heritage Sheets” based on their own culturalSheets” based on their own cultural traditions, foods, music, dress, etc.traditions, foods, music, dress, etc.  Use immigrant stories from past and presentUse immigrant stories from past and present times to describe “push” and “pull” elementstimes to describe “push” and “pull” elements of immigration.of immigration.
    4. 4. The New Colossus. Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame, With conquering limbs astride from land to land; Here at our sea-washed sunset gates shall stand A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame Is the imprisoned lightening, and her name Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame. "Keep ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door."
    5. 5. Whose Dream?Whose Dream? A Colony of Aliens Crime: Its Causes & Remedies Aliens or Americans? Teacher's Domain (WNED)Teacher's Domain (WNED) Harvard Collection on Imm
    6. 6. NYPL Digital Gallery (immigration AND new york)
    7. 7. NYS Archives Digital Collections
    8. 8. What is Assimilation? Reinstein Collection at Cheektowaga Public Library European Immigrant Women in
    9. 9. Hearings on Un-American Activities, Buf
    10. 10. Foreign Immigration - Charitable Institutions of NYC (LOC and MOA) Harvard Collection on Immigration Domestic educator in home of steelworker family, Lackawanna Iron and Stee Hagley Digital Archive - General Collection
    11. 11. Mothers care for their babies at Albion State training School circa 1940. History of Albion Correctional Fac Geneseo Migrant Center Prejudice, Social Distance and Familiarity with Mental Illness
    12. 12. PoorHouse History Polish Study, Buffalo, NY 1926-28 Harvard Collection on Immigration
    13. 13. In Their Own Words…In Their Own Words…  Digital History’s “EthnicDigital History’s “Ethnic America: ImmigrantAmerica: Immigrant Voices”Voices” http://www.digitalhistory.uhttp://www.digitalhistory.uh  Immigration: TheirImmigration: Their Stories (ThinkQuest)Stories (ThinkQuest)  Immigrant Letters (U ofImmigrant Letters (U of Minnesota)Minnesota)  Interviews with Today's ImmInterviews with Today's Imm  The New Americans (PBS IndThe New Americans (PBS Ind  Family Histories at Ellis IslanFamily Histories at Ellis Islan
    14. 14.  Immigrant Life in NewImmigrant Life in New YorkYork The Lower East SideThe Lower East Side Tenement Museum in NewTenement Museum in New York City preserves andYork City preserves and interprets America's urban,interprets America's urban, immigrant, and working classimmigrant, and working class experiences between 1863experiences between 1863 and 1935, when the Lowerand 1935, when the Lower East Side was home to 7,000East Side was home to 7,000 people from more than 20people from more than 20 nations. The museum isnations. The museum is located in a former tenementlocated in a former tenement house at 97 Orchard Street.house at 97 Orchard Street. In 1900, nearly two-thirds ofIn 1900, nearly two-thirds of the city's population lived inthe city's population lived in the Lower East Side area.the Lower East Side area.  Letter with ReportLetter with Report Submitted by theSubmitted by the Citizens CommitteeCitizens Committee of Orchard,of Orchard, Rivington, and EastRivington, and East Houston Streets,Houston Streets, New York City toNew York City to President WilliamPresident William Howard Taft:Howard Taft: 04/09/191204/09/1912 National Archives Digital Galleries
    15. 15.  The 1850 decennial census was the first census in which data wereThe 1850 decennial census was the first census in which data were collected on the nativity of the population.collected on the nativity of the population.  From 1850 to 1930, the foreign-born population of the United StatesFrom 1850 to 1930, the foreign-born population of the United States increased from 2.2 million to 14.2 million, reflecting large-scaleincreased from 2.2 million to 14.2 million, reflecting large-scale immigration from Europe during most of this period.1 As aimmigration from Europe during most of this period.1 As a percentage of total population, the foreign-born population rose frompercentage of total population, the foreign-born population rose from 9.7 percent in 1850 and fluctuated in the 13 percent to 15 percent9.7 percent in 1850 and fluctuated in the 13 percent to 15 percent range from 1860 to 1920 before dropping to 11.6 percent in 1930.range from 1860 to 1920 before dropping to 11.6 percent in 1930. The highest percentages foreign born were 14.4 percent in 1870,The highest percentages foreign born were 14.4 percent in 1870, 14.8 percent in 1890 and 14.7 percent in 1910.14.8 percent in 1890 and 14.7 percent in 1910.  From 1930 to 1950, the foreign-born population of the United StatesFrom 1930 to 1950, the foreign-born population of the United States declined from 14.2 million to 10.3 million, or from 11.6 percent todeclined from 14.2 million to 10.3 million, or from 11.6 percent to 6.9 percent of the total population. These declines reflected the6.9 percent of the total population. These declines reflected the extremely low level of immigration during the 1930s and 1940s. Theextremely low level of immigration during the 1930s and 1940s. The foreign-born population then dropped slowly to 9.6 million in 1970,foreign-born population then dropped slowly to 9.6 million in 1970, when it represented a record low 4.7 percent of the total population.when it represented a record low 4.7 percent of the total population. Immigration had risen during the 1950s and 1960s, but was still lowImmigration had risen during the 1950s and 1960s, but was still low by historical standards, and mortality was high during this periodby historical standards, and mortality was high during this period among the foreign-born population because of its old age structureamong the foreign-born population because of its old age structure (reflecting four decades of low immigration).(reflecting four decades of low immigration).
    16. 16.  Since 1970, the foreign-Since 1970, the foreign- born population of theborn population of the United States has increasedUnited States has increased rapidly due to large-scalerapidly due to large-scale immigration, primarily fromimmigration, primarily from Latin America and Asia. TheLatin America and Asia. The foreign-born populationforeign-born population rose from 9.6 million inrose from 9.6 million in 1970 to 14.1 million in1970 to 14.1 million in 1980 and to 19.8 million in1980 and to 19.8 million in 1990. The estimated1990. The estimated foreign-born population inforeign-born population in 1997 was 25.8 million. As a1997 was 25.8 million. As a percentage of the totalpercentage of the total population, the foreign-population, the foreign- born population increasedborn population increased from 4.7 percent in 1970 tofrom 4.7 percent in 1970 to 6.2 percent in 1980, to 7.96.2 percent in 1980, to 7.9 percent in 1990, and to anpercent in 1990, and to an estimated 9.7 percent inestimated 9.7 percent in 1997.1997.  US Census Bureau, HistoryUS Census Bureau, History (click(click on “US Census Bureau” for 2000)on “US Census Bureau” for 2000)  The Foreign Born Population:The Foreign Born Population: Census 2000Census 2000  US Census Browser (U of VA)US Census Browser (U of VA)  Immigration Explorer Interactive MapImmigration Explorer Interactive Map  Genesee County Department of HistorGenesee County Department of Histor  Orleans County Census InformationOrleans County Census Information  Social Explorer MapsSocial Explorer Maps (subscribe)(subscribe)
    17. 17. New York State Archives, Legacies Project Polish-American Heritage in WNY Local Legacies Project (LOC) American Folklife Center (SI)
    18. 18.  When immigrants and refugees leave their homelands,When immigrants and refugees leave their homelands, they take with them a way of life—rich customs andthey take with them a way of life—rich customs and traditions that sometimes become part of to the culturaltraditions that sometimes become part of to the cultural fabric of their new countries. Over time, America hasfabric of their new countries. Over time, America has soaked up the cultures of its immigrant populations andsoaked up the cultures of its immigrant populations and has spun them into a uniquely American tapestry.has spun them into a uniquely American tapestry. Sample some of theSample some of the artart,, foodfood,, musicmusic andand wordswords brought to the United States from the homelands ofbrought to the United States from the homelands of the people featured in The New Americans.the people featured in The New Americans. Value of Heritage Projects: Makes new learning interesting Educates people about other cultures Shows relationship of people to each other in society Inspires community involvement Provides orientation for visitors to local area Traces and documents growth of a community Generates communications around topic of “heritage” Simple to assemble and disseminate Highly visible and easily accessible Rely on local resources and talents Inspire creativity!!
    19. 19. Folk Art ValuesFolk Art Values  Keeping Traditions Alive: Some artists and their communities place high value onSome artists and their communities place high value on adhering to family or group traditions, preserving them—and the way of life theyadhering to family or group traditions, preserving them—and the way of life they represent—for the next generation.represent—for the next generation.  Making it Useful: Some artists and their communities place high value on theSome artists and their communities place high value on the usefulness of the objects they create. The design, materials, and execution all contributeusefulness of the objects they create. The design, materials, and execution all contribute to its function, an important aspect of the "aesthetic" in such things as folk furniture,to its function, an important aspect of the "aesthetic" in such things as folk furniture, utensils, and crafts.utensils, and crafts.  Keeping Connected: Reinforcing a close identification with a group to which theyReinforcing a close identification with a group to which they currently belong is the ambition of many folk artists. They may create objects for use bycurrently belong is the ambition of many folk artists. They may create objects for use by members of the group or to sustain outsiders' views of the group and its traditions.members of the group or to sustain outsiders' views of the group and its traditions.  Re-creating Memories: An artist’s ability to recreate memories of shared groupAn artist’s ability to recreate memories of shared group experiences is often personal but highly desired and encouraged by his or her group.experiences is often personal but highly desired and encouraged by his or her group.  Sustaining the Spirit: Some artists place great value on objects that are used asSome artists place great value on objects that are used as integral parts of religious ritual or that hold special religious meaning for the audience.integral parts of religious ritual or that hold special religious meaning for the audience.  Being Creative: The ability to innovate within tradition is an attribute strongly admiredThe ability to innovate within tradition is an attribute strongly admired in the shared group expressions of some folk communities. Resourceful use of found orin the shared group expressions of some folk communities. Resourceful use of found or recycled materials is a challenge many contemporary folk artists relish.recycled materials is a challenge many contemporary folk artists relish. – ——Varick Chittenden, Exhibit Curator. From the brochure of the folk arts exhibition,Varick Chittenden, Exhibit Curator. From the brochure of the folk arts exhibition, Out of the OrdinaryOut of the Ordinaryproduced by Galleryproduced by Gallery Association of New York State (1995).Association of New York State (1995).
    20. 20. New York Folklore Society WNY Heritage Press
    21. 21. You, Whoever You Are You, whoever you are!... All you continentals of Asia, Africa, Europe, Australia, indifferent of place! All you on the numberless islands of the archipelagoes of the sea! All you of centuries hence when you listen to me! All you each and everywhere whom I specify not, but include just the same! Health to you! good will to you all, from me and America sent! Each of us is inevitable, Each of us is limitless—each of us with his or her right upon the earth, Each of us allow'd the eternal purports of the earth, Each of us here as divinely as any is here. Walt Whitman Immigration (LOC)

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