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From Enslavement to Freedom: Resources for Teaching the African American Experience in Social Studies

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This Powerpoint contains many active links and images that can be used to present a general or specific perspective on the African American experience, focusing particularly on New York. While local …

This Powerpoint contains many active links and images that can be used to present a general or specific perspective on the African American experience, focusing particularly on New York. While local history resources are identified, there are many national and regional resources included to make this adaptable for any classroom.

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  • For Database link, change dates to 1690-1808 and select Flag from Vessel variables – choose USA then “OK” and “Search” around page 7 is the ship William with info on where it came from, where it went in Africa – how long the middle passage voyage and how many slaves were taken on and then disembarked.
  • Hold of a Ship
    Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua left this description of his and his companions' ordeal aboard the ship that took them from Benin to Brazil:
    "We were thrust into the hold of the vessel in a state of nudity, the males being crammed on one side and the females on the other; the hold was so low that we could not stand up, but were obliged to crouch upon the floor or sit down; day and night were the same to us, sleep being denied us from the confined position of our bodies, and we became desperate through suffering and fatigue."
    Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua, Biography of Mahommah G. Baquaqua (Detroit: Geo. E. Pomeroy & Co., 1854)
  • An ACT concerning Slaves. (br)Passed 22d February, 1788WHEREAS in Confequence of the Act, directing a Revilsion of the Laws of this State, it is expidient that the Several existing Laws, relative to Slaves, fhould be reviled, and comprised in one ; Therefore, I. Be it Enacted by the People of the State of New-York, represented in Senate and Assembly, and it is hereby Enacted by the Authority of the same, That every Negro, Mulatto, or Mestee, within this State, who at the Time of the of the passing of this Act, is a Slave for his or her Life, shall continue such for and during his or her Life, unless he or she shall be manumitted or set free in the Manner prescribed in and by this Act, or in and by some future Law of this State. II. And be it further Enacted by the Authority aforesaid, That the Children of every Negro, Mulatto, or Mestee Woman, being a Slave, shall follow the State and Condition of the Mother, and being esteemed, reputed, taken and adjudged Slaves, to all Intents and Purposes whatsoever.
  • A Greater Sin 
    Ex-slave J.W. Loguen writes to his former master Mrs. Sarah Logue.
    You say you have offers to buy me, and that you shall sell me if I do not send your $1000, and in the same breath and almost in the same sentence, you say "You know we raised you as we did our own children." Woman, did you raise your own children for the market? Did you raise them for the whipping post? Did you raise them to be driven off, bound to a coffle in chains?...Shame on you! But you say I am a thief, because I took the old mare along with me. Have you got to learn that I had a better right to the old mare, as you call her, than Manasseth Logue has to me? Is it a greater sin for me to steal his horse, than it was for him to rob my mother's cradle, and steal me?...Have you got to learn than human rights are mutual and reciprocal, and if you take my liberty and life, you forfeit your own liberty and life? Before God and high heaven, is there a law for one man which is not a law for every other man?
    Loguen, J. W. from The Liberator, 1850's, reprinted in American Odyssey: The United States in the 20th Century. New York: Glencoe McGraw Hill, 1997.
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Struggle fromThe Struggle from Enslavement to FreedomEnslavement to Freedom Resources for Teaching theResources for Teaching the African American Experience inAfrican American Experience in Social StudiesSocial Studies
    • 2. Instructional TopicsInstructional Topics  African Enslavement in HistoricalAfrican Enslavement in Historical PerspectivePerspective – African CultureAfrican Culture – Migration: Atlantic Slave Trade & MiddleMigration: Atlantic Slave Trade & Middle PassagePassage – Africans in New York (colonial/post colonial)Africans in New York (colonial/post colonial) – Life in EnslavementLife in Enslavement – ResistanceResistance – AbolitionAbolition
    • 3. African CultureAfrican Culture  Discuss colonial trade routes and their impact on societies (African, European, North American)  Examples: – Origins of Enslaved Africans Shipped to North America – History of Slavery in Africa – Triangular Trade – New York's role in slave trade/importation – Data on slave trade (Slave exports)  Sources:  In-Motion: The African American Migration Experience (Schomburg)  The African Slave Trade (Metropolitan Museum of Art)  NY Digital Gallery (NYPL)  Cross Roads and Cross Rivers: Early People of NY (Hudson Valley)
    • 4. The fabrication of iron tools and weapons allowed for the kind of extensive systematized agriculture, efficient hunting, and successful warfare necessary to sustain large urban centers. Source: The Age of Iron in West Africa | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Mus
    • 5. Period Number of Enslaved Africans Identified Per Cent 1450-1600 409,000 3.6 1601-1700 1,348,000 11.9 1701-1800 6,090,000 53.8 1801-1867 3,466,000 30.6 Total Known Population 11,313,000 Source: Paul E. Lovejoy, Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.) http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/database/search.faces
    • 6. RIGHTS OF MANRIGHTS OF MAN  VISIT TO A SLAVE SHIP. Onn^outheni voyage of trading and discovery, Capt Beioj, Morrell, Jr. visited a slave ship off the coast of Africa. We extract the account as a fair specimen of his valuabln narrative, lately published by the enterprising Messrs. Harpers. * * * # » * If the reader has ever been on board of a Hudson River market sloop, , loaded with calves and sheep for the city slaughter houses, he may form some faint idea oi'tliis Brazilian shiv- brigi A '"•i!;« <•( pens, or bins, occupied each side of the main deck, from the cat-head to the main chains, in which were confined such a number of the slaves as were permited to come upon deck at one time. In a line with the mam hatchway, on each side, wa9 erected a bulkhead, or partition, separating the men from the women ; while a narrow passage remained open lo the gangway, abaft the sternmost pen, or befiveen that and the quarter deck. The slaves, pi rfectly naked, were stowed in rows, fore and aft, ia a siting or crouching posture; and most of the men and their faces between their knees, either indulging in a……
    • 7. Describe the culture and lives of the African slaves in Colonial America especially in New York  Examples:  From Ancient Africa and the Atlantic to life in colonies/states  Food, clothing, shelter, roles as workers, recreation, education  Newspaper ads, wills, bills of sale, laws  Memoirs, Poems, Narratives: Phillis Wheatly, Jupiter Hammon;  excerpts of narratives from Austin Steward, Jermaine Loguen, Harriet Jacobs, Frederick Douglass, others  Sources: – Documenting the American South: N. American Slave Narratives – New York Heritage (search “slavery New York” and “runaway slaves”) – Cross Roads and Cross Rivers: Early NY Inhabitants (various cultures) – Slavery in New York (NYHS) (compares Dutch, British, American) – Slavery in the North (NY) (Northern and NY slavery distinct from South) – US Historical Census Browser – SI: Slave Life and the Underground Railroad lessonSI: Slave Life and the Underground Railroad lesson with song “Gone, Sold &with song “Gone, Sold & Gone” fromGone” from Many Roads to FreedomMany Roads to Freedom – Slavery in Genesee County, New York (Genesee Co. Dept. of History)Slavery in Genesee County, New York (Genesee Co. Dept. of History)
    • 8. Alphabetical List of North American Slave Narratives The Liberty Minstrel. Gone, Dead and Gone (1844) Gone, gone—sold and gone, To the rice-swamp dank and lone, Where the slave-whip ceaseless swings, Where the noisome insect stings, Where the fever demon strews Poison with the falling dews, Where the sickly sunbeams glare Through the hot and misty air, Gone, gone—sold and gone, To the rice-swamp dank and lone, From Virginia's hills and waters, Woe is me my stolen daughters!
    • 9. Its enslaved Africans built whatever New Amsterdam needed. •A wall and a fort to protect against native peoples and rival English colonies. •A dock to receive cargoes from the Hudson Valley and from overseas. •Roads into the interior of bountiful Manhattan Island. Eventually the Africans won "half- freedom." They still had to pay an annual tax and could be called back to work for the Dutch West India Company. But they had their own homes and the chance to create one of the first free black communities in North America. Individual Classroom Materials for Teachers: Teacher Guide - Download PDF Buried Stories: Lessons from the African Burial Ground - Download PDF White New Yorkers in Slave Times - Download PDF Laws Affecting Blacks in Manhattan - Download PDF Fact Sheet - Download PDF Glossary - Download PDF Photo Cards - Download PDF Life Stories: Profiles of Black New Yorkers During Slavery and Emancipation - Download PDF
    • 10. Analyze/discuss sectionalism in the America during the nineteenth century. Examples:  Slavery and State’s rights  Examples: Personalities: John C. Calhoun, John Brown, William Lloyd Garrison, others  Examples: King Cotton versus factories; New York rural farms v. urban ports; seasons Sources: – SI: Slave Life and the Underground Railroad lesson – song “Gone, Sold & Gone” from Many Roads to Freedom – Trees of Liberty and Slavery Map, LOC – SI NPG: A Brush with History: Abolition & the Civil War – Reuben Fenton (Mr. Lincoln's War) – Republican Party Platform of 1860 – Territorial Kansas Online lesson (G. Smith, R. Fenton, F.L. Olmsted, etc) – WNY and the 1854 Emigrant Aid Company (Kansas) (Daniel R. Anthony) – PBS American Experience: The Time of the Lincolns (Loguen letter) – 1835 NY Anti Slavery Convention – Slavery A Positive Good (John C. Calhoun, 1837)
    • 11. Frederick Douglass on John Brown The friendship of Frederick Douglass and John Brown began in 1848, when Douglass visited Brown's home in Springfield, Massachusett s. Brown confided to Douglass his ambitious scheme to free the slaves. Over the next eleven years, Brown sought Douglass's counsel and support. Frederick Douglass. "A Lecture on John Brown." Autograph corrections and drafts, 1860. Frederick Douglass Papers, Manuscript Division. (3-8b)
    • 12. Examine major struggles within the nation and the resulting compromises  Examples:  • Texas statehood (Alamo)  • Compromise of 1850  • Fugitive Slave Act and abolitionists  • “Bleeding Kansas” and Nebraska Act  • Anti-Slavery Societies  • Dred Scott  Sources: (including from previous section)  Accounts of Fugitive Slave Cases in Buffalo, Niagara  Edsitement lesson on Kansas-Nebraska Act .
    • 13. Identify and discuss some AmericanIdentify and discuss some American activists before the Civil War.activists before the Civil War.  Examples:  Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, Sojourner Truth, Horace Mann, Dorthea Dix,Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, Sojourner Truth, Horace Mann, Dorthea Dix, The LiberatorThe Liberator by William Lloyd Garrison, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Harriet Tubman, Harriet B. Stowe,by William Lloyd Garrison, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Harriet Tubman, Harriet B. Stowe, Narrative of the Life of Frederick DouglassNarrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass andand The North StarThe North Star by Frederick Douglass,by Frederick Douglass, Reuben Fenton, Austin Steward, the Anthony family, William W. Brown, Jermaine W.Reuben Fenton, Austin Steward, the Anthony family, William W. Brown, Jermaine W. Louguen, Henry Highland Garnet, Mary Ann Shadd Cary, the Bloss familyLouguen, Henry Highland Garnet, Mary Ann Shadd Cary, the Bloss family,, Gerrit Smith,Gerrit Smith, Amy Post, othersAmy Post, others  Sources:Sources: – Many Roads to FreedomMany Roads to Freedom (Rochester area abolitionists)(Rochester area abolitionists) – Reform, Religion & the Underground Railroad in WNYReform, Religion & the Underground Railroad in WNY (WNY agents by(WNY agents by county)county) – Flight to Freedom: RMSC Teacher GuideFlight to Freedom: RMSC Teacher Guide – Frederick Douglass quoteFrederick Douglass quote (from “Freedom: A History of US”)(from “Freedom: A History of US”) – 19th century African American Activists in WNY (MFRHC)19th century African American Activists in WNY (MFRHC) – Garnet's Call to Rebellion (Buffalo, NY 1843)Garnet's Call to Rebellion (Buffalo, NY 1843) – U. of Detroit Mercy: Black Abolitionist ArchivesU. of Detroit Mercy: Black Abolitionist Archives (newspapers and abolition articles)(newspapers and abolition articles) Henry Bibb's 1850 speech in Buffalo, NYHenry Bibb's 1850 speech in Buffalo, NY (audio)(audio) Account of Henry Box Brown, 1849Account of Henry Box Brown, 1849 Maria Pointer's 1861 Thanksgiving appealMaria Pointer's 1861 Thanksgiving appeal
    • 14. MANY ROADS TO FREEDOM: WORKERS FOR THE ABOLITIONIST CAUSE Click on names for biographical information and on images for larger views
    • 15. Underground Railroad in Western NewUnderground Railroad in Western New YorkYork  Fugitive Slave Case, Lockport, NY, 1823Fugitive Slave Case, Lockport, NY, 1823  Fugitive Slave Case, Buffalo, NY, 1835Fugitive Slave Case, Buffalo, NY, 1835  American Anti-Slavery Society, WNY Branches, 1837-1838American Anti-Slavery Society, WNY Branches, 1837-1838  Attempt to Release a Slave, Niagara Falls, NY 1847Attempt to Release a Slave, Niagara Falls, NY 1847  Fugitive Slave Case, Buffalo, NY 1847Fugitive Slave Case, Buffalo, NY 1847  Mass Meeting of Colored Citizens, Buffalo, 1850Mass Meeting of Colored Citizens, Buffalo, 1850  Meeting to Protest the Fugitive Slave Bill, North Collins,Meeting to Protest the Fugitive Slave Bill, North Collins,  Fugitive Slave Case of "Daniel", Buffalo, NY, 1851Fugitive Slave Case of "Daniel", Buffalo, NY, 1851  Betrayal of a Fugitive Slave, Buffalo, NY, 1857Betrayal of a Fugitive Slave, Buffalo, NY, 1857  Catherine Harris and the Underground Railroad in JamesCatherine Harris and the Underground Railroad in James  Underground Railroad Agents in Western New YorkUnderground Railroad Agents in Western New York
    • 16. Title: Henry Bibb Speaker or author: Bibb, Henry, b. 1815 Newspaper or publication: Liberator Speech denouncing Daniel Webster's position on slavery and his recent speech regarding fugitive slaves. (from the collection audio files) Description of original document: PDF 3 page, 669 word document Date published: 1850-04-12 Black AbolitionistBlack Abolitionist ArchiveArchive
    • 17. Canada or Colonization?Canada or Colonization?
    • 18. Connections with Ongoing Struggles forConnections with Ongoing Struggles for Civil Rights and Human RightsCivil Rights and Human Rights Anti-Slavery International

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