DR. K.B PRAVEENA
ASST. PROFESSOR IN EDUCATION
HAMID M. AZIMI
RESEARCH SCHOLAR 1
Sep, 12-13, 2013
“To awaken the people,
it is women who must be awaken;
once she is on the move,
the family moves,
the village moves
the nation moves”
Societies often impose physical
restrictions on women’s mobility. .
Studies from Bangladesh, India, Nepal and
Pakistan have clearly shown that parents refrain
from sending their daughters to school not so much
because they fear for their daughter’s safety, but
because they are wary of upsetting traditional
gender roles which give girls little choice in matters
(Kanwar and Taplin, 2001)
Education is the most potent
instrument for the emancipation of
any group of people.
It is on this believe that argued that Women
all over the world have been categorized under
the disadvantaged groups of people and society
itself has systematically and consistently
pursued the socialization of women into
accepting the notion of disadvantaged group.
the opportunity and choice for
When women are given the requisite education,
relevant to their needs and environment, they
will gradually become more visible and
recognised in the mainstream of activities both
at home and in
society at large.
Empowerment is the process and the result of the process
whereby the powerless or less powerful members of the
society gain greater access and control over material and
knowledge, resources, challenges and ideologies of
discrimination and subordination and transform the
institutions and structures through which unequal access
and control over resources is sustained and perpetuated. 10
teaching at a distance
involves the use of either print, audio, video or interactive
While much of distance education remains print-based only
Interaction may be via television, teleconferencing, mail,
fax, E-mail or one-on-one telephone interaction between
learner and teacher
The advantage of distance education as an
alternative option to women is that they can
enroll for the course of their interest and
need, based on the social or professional
Therefore, distance education becomes an
inevitable tool for providing skills-based
education and training. Research evidence also
shows that “women with more education or
higher qualifications earn more, on an average,
than women with minimum level of education”
(McIntosh, 1973, p.28).
• Indiresan,Jaya(1996) `Emerging Technologies in Open and Distance Education, Implications for Women
in Women and Emerging Technologies' editors Regina Papa and Yasodha Shanmuga Sundaram, British
Council Division. Emerald Publishers, Chennai, 1996.
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http://pcf4.dec.uwi.edu/viewabstract.php?id=329 Learning, 16 (2), 155-168.
• Kanwar, A. and M. Taplin (eds) Brave New Women of Asia. Commonwealth of Learning, 2001.
• Keegan, D. (1986). Foundations of distance education (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.
• Mclntosh, N.E. (1973). Women in higher education. Proceedings of the staff development conference, 29
June. London: Staff Development in University Programme.
• Moore, M. G. (1990). Recent contributions to the theory of distance education. Open Learning, 10-15.
• Okeke E.A.C. (1995) “Women Empowerment and Rural Developmen”. In E .C. Eboh, C. U. Okoye & D
Ayichi (Eds) Rural Development in Nigeria: Concepts, Processes and Prospects. Enugu. Auto-Century
• Olakulein, F.K (2006). Distance Education as a Women Empowerment Strategy in Africa. Turkish Online
Journal of Distance Education-TOJDE January 2006 ISSN 1302-6488 Volume: 7 Number: 1
• Pillai, J.K. (1995). Women and employment, New Delhi: Gyan Publishing.
• Smith, E. & Norlen, V. S. (1994). Tele-distance education in women’s studies: Issues for feminist
pedagogy. Canadian Journal for the Study of Adult Education, 8(2), 29-44.
• UNESCO (2002) Open and Distance Learning: Trends, Policy and Strategy Considerations. Paris.
• World Bank (2001a). Engendering Development through gender equity in rights, resources, and voice.,
Washington : World Bank, and New York : Oxford University Press 20