IP Multicasting - An Overview

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  • bevor wir uns auf die präsentation stürzen zunächst noch zu meinen vorstellungen\n
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  • IPv6 aka IP next Generation\n
  • Fragen und Ergänzungen immer dann wenns passt!\n
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  • erhöhte produktivität geringere kapital und operationale aufwände\nneue umsatz möglichkeiten erhöhter wettbewerbsvorteil\nschutz bezüglich investitionen ins netzwerk\n
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  • Multicasting lässt sich sehr gut vergleichen mit einem newsletter system\n
  • - reservierter Adress-Bereich für Multicast-Gruppen-Adressen\n- ipv4 verwendet noch ein spezielles Protokoll IGMP für das Handling der Gruppenorganisiation\n
  • evolution 16 und 17 die bereits bekannten..\n0x11: generelle anfrage oder spezielle anfrage\ngenerell: welche gruppen haben mitglieder?\nspeziell: hat diese gruppe mitglieden?\n0x16: Join 0x17: Leave\n
  • PRT: i.d.R. vom ISP; Site T. i.d.R. vom Admin (Subnets);\n\nFlags: vier mögliche Kombinationen sind definiert 0000, 0001, 0011, 0111\n- erstes bit immer 0, zweites = R, drittes = P, viertes = T\n- R-Bit erzwingt P-Bit erzwingt T-Bit\n- 0 IANA vergeben, 1 vorübergehende Adressen, 3 dynamisch zugewiesene Präfix Informationen, enthält informationen zu Rendezvous-Point\n\nScope: 1 interface- oder node-local (Loopback)\n- 2 werden von Routern nicht weiter geleitet\n- 5 werden geroutet, nicht jedoch von Border-/Edge-Routern weitergeleitet (Peers; Vortrag von Freitag)\n- 8 werden geroutet, auch von Border-Routern, bleiben aber Organisationsintern (erfordert administrativen Aufwand)\n- E darf überallhin geroutet werden\n- 0 und F sind reserviert und dürfen nicht verwendet werden\n- 6 und 7 sind nicht definiert und können verwendet werden um eigene Scopes zu definieren\n\nAuf Broadcast-Adresse eingehen!\n
  • interessant: interface-local -> loopback -> nodes und routers\nkleiner auszug aus vielen adressen\n
  • DVMRP -> Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol (ähnlich RIP Routing Information Protocol verwendet um Routing Tabelle in zB LAN zu generieren)\nMOSPF -> Multicast Open Shortest Path First\n\nmbone seit 1992 durch Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)\nVerfahren PIM das ein routing von multicast paketen zwischen routern ermöglicht\n\ndense mode: broadcast an alle multicast gruppen; router ohne interessierten teilnehmen melden sich ab; erzeugt viel last und ist deshalb nicht zu gebrauchen in netzen mit hoher teilnehmerdichte\n\nsparse-mode: Pub/Sub! rendezvous-router bei dem daten eingehen. router die interessenten für bestimmte gruppen haben, fragen nach ob es für diese gruppe daten gibt;\nhohe last an rendezvous-router -> nach bekanntmachung kann shortes path genutzt werden für übertragung\n
  • Persönliches Resume, technisches Resume kann jeder selbst ziehen und vielleicht auch nicht all zu interessant.\n
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Transcript

  • 1. Multicasting .. an Overview!for Next Generation Internetpresented by Marvin Hoffmannat Hochschule der Medien Stuttgart 16.01.2012
  • 2. Who am I?• Marvin Hoffmann (B.Sc.)• Bachelor „Medieninformatik“ at Hochschule der Medien• 2nd semester „Computer Science and Media“
  • 3. Why this course and topic?• IBM Day some semesters ago - Mr. Demharter spoke about IPv6:• Bachelor courses „With IPv6 there are more adresses • „Nachrichtentechnik“ then grains of sand on earth!“ • „Rechnernetze“ • „Rechnernetze 2“• always curious about new technology• how to adress multiple adresses?• who uses multicasts?
  • 4. Agenda Questions? When ever they come up!• Introduction • What is it? • Why would I use it?• Multicast • General Information • IPv4 • IPv6 • Problems• Resume
  • 5. Introduction hat“ an d „why“ The „w of Mult icasting
  • 6. What is Multicast?• Different approaches of sending information • Unicast • one to one • Anycast • one to one • Broadcast • one to many • Multicast • one to many
  • 7. Why would I use Multicast?• Multicasting allows you to send the same information to different hosts• .. without having to send it again and again for each of the hosts • Multicast • is not Unicast x n +
  • 8. Technical Benefits• Enhances Efficiency• Increased Scalability• Elimination of Network Redundancy• Reduced Server and CPU Loads‣ Optimized Performance
  • 9. Business Benefits• Increased Productivity• Reduced Capital and Operational Expense• New Revenue Streams• Increased Competitive Advantage• Network Investment Protection
  • 10. Multicast and Protocols H ow does it work? What do we nee d?
  • 11. How it works | General Information• Groupaddress with Subscription-Handling Newsletter Multicast Publisher Sender Subscriber Reciever Mail-Server (Rendezvous-) Router Newsletter-Topic Multicast-Group subscribe to Newsletter Join Multicast-Group unsubscribe from Newsletter Leave Multicast-Group
  • 12. How it works | IPv4• reserved Address-Space is 224.0.0.0/4 (224.0.0.0 - 239.255.255.255) binary: 1110xxxx.xxxxxxxx.xxxxxxxx.xxxxxxxx• some difficulties: • 224.0.0.0/8 is used by Routing-Protocols • 239.0.0.0/8 is used for scoping• uses special Internet Group Management Protocol to handle Join and Leave Requests for Groups
  • 13. How it works | IPv4Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP)• used for Group Management• multiple Version (v1 - v3) v1 Host can join MC group; Host can not leave MC group, he times out v2 Hosts can now leave MC group by sending a leave Message v3 a Source for the MC Stream can be specified on joining a Group• 64 bit Package 0 ... 7 8 ... 15 16 ... 31 Type max. Reply Time Checksum Multicast Group Address• Types: 0x11 Group Membership Query (general or specific); 0x16 v2 Membership Report; 0x17 Leave Group; 0x22 v3 Membership ReportComplete List of Types can be found here: http://www.networksorcery.com/enp/protocol/igmp.htm
  • 14. How it works | IPv6• IPv6 Address Format 48 16 64 Public Routing Topology Site T. Interface Identifier network prefix host address part• IPv6 Multicast Address Format 8 4 4 112 11111111 Flags Scope FF 0 2 ::1• Flags (0RPT): 0 permanent; 1 (T-Bit) transient; 3 (P-Bit) Unicast-Prefix-based; 7 (R-Bit) includes Rendezvous Point address• Scope: 1 interface-local; 2 link-local; 5 site-local; 8 organization-local; E global
  • 15. How it works | IPv6• IPv6 Multicast Addresses: Address Description Interface-Local Scope FF01::1 all Nodes FF01::2 all Routers Link-Local Scope FF02::1 all Nodes FF02::2 all Routers FF02::D all PIM-Routers FF02::1:2 all DHCP-Servers• IPv6 does not use IGMP anymore, but ICMPv6Complete List of IPv6 Multicast Addresses can be found here: http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv6-multicast-addresses/ipv6-multicast-addresses.xml
  • 16. Problems• most Routers in the Internet are not capable of Multicast Routing • special Protocols needed (DVMRP / MOSPF / PIM)• special, world-wide Network called M(ulticast Back)Bone • Tunneling using unicasts from network to network• Routing between Routers with Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) • best scalability (compared to DVMRP and MOSPF) • Dense-Mode: Broadcast to all Multicast-Routers • Sparse-Mode: Rendezvous-Router who handles Requests (Pub/Sub)
  • 17. Resume at is left to say.. Wh Questions?
  • 18. Resume• a very interesting Topic• thought that multicasting would be possible over the internet (without MBone)• one more reason to look forward to IPv6• Any Questions?
  • 19. Thank you for your attention!If there are further questions, just send me an eMail.. contact@marvin-hoffmann.de..or contact me on the web: /profile/Marvin_Hoffmann3 | @h_marvin | /marvin.hoffmann
  • 20. Sources• Literature • http://www.6net.org/ (visited 16.01.12) • http://www.tcpipguide.com/free/t_IPv6MulticastandAnycastAddressing.htm# (visited 16.01.12) • http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6552/products_ios_technology_home.html (visited 16.01.12) • http://www.cisco.com/en/US/prod/collateral/iosswrel/ps6537/ps6552/ prod_white_paper0900aecd804d5fe6.html (visited 16.01.12) • http://www.iana.org/assignments/multicast-addresses/multicast-addresses.xml (visited 16.01.12) • http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipv6-multicast-addresses/ipv6-multicast-addresses.xml (visited 16.01.12) • http://www.networksorcery.com/enp/protocol/igmp.htm (visited 16.01.12) • http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc781068(WS.10).aspx (visited 16.01.12) • Silvia Hagen: IPv6. Grundlagen - Funktionalität - Integration (ISBN-13: 978-3952294222) • Cisco: Developing IP Multicast Networks: The Definitive Guide to Designing and Deploying Cisco IP Multi- Cast Networks: 1 (ISBN-13: 978-1578700776) • http://www.chemie.fu-berlin.de/~sunny/iNetMM/MultimediaImNetz.6.html (visited 16.01.12) • http://de.wikipedia.org/ (visited 16.01.12)
  • 21. more Sources• Images • „Connected World“: http://gigaom2.files.wordpress.com/2010/12/facebook-connection-map-3x2.png (visited 16.01.12) • Envelope: http://gadgetsteria.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/sparrow-logo-300x300.png (visited 16.01.12) • „Questions?“: http://www.coachwithjeremy.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/11/questions-to-ask-a-sales- coach.jpg (visited 16.01.12)