Artificial Intelligence(OUR ATTEMPT TO BUILD MODELS OF OURSELF)“... artificial intelligence [AI] is the science of making machines do things that would requireintelligence if done by [humans]” (Minsky, 1963)
BRIEF HISTORY OF ARTIFICIALINTELLIGENCE5th century BC Aristotle invents syllogistic logic, the first formal deductive reasoning system.16th century AD Rabbi Loew supposedly invents the Golem, an artificial man made out of clay 17th century Descartes proposes animals are machines and founds a scientific paradigm that will dominate for 250 years. Pascal creates the first mechanical calculator in 1642 18th century Wolfgang von Kempelen “invents” fake chess-playing machine, The Turk
19th century George Boole creates a binary algebra to represent “laws of thought” Charles Babbage and Lady Lovelace develop sophisticated programmable mechanical computers, precursor to modern electronic computers. 20th century Karel Kapek writes “Rossum’s Universal Robots”, coining the English word “robot” Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts lay partial groundwork for neural networks Turing writes “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” – proposal of Turing test
HISTORIC ATTEMPTSThe original story, published by Mary Shelley, in 1818, describes the attempt of a true scientist, Victor Frankenstein, to create life.
PURPOSE OF AIOne is to use the power of computers to augment human thinking, just as we use motors to augment human or horse power. Robotics and expert systems are major branches of that.The other is to use a computers artificial intelligence to understand how humans think. In a humanoid way. If you test your programs not merely by what they can accomplish, but how they accomplish it, they youre really doing cognitive science; youre using AI to understand the human mind. - Herb Simon
ROBOTICS 1970 Shakey (SRI) was driven by a remote-controlled computer, which formulated plans for moving and acting. It took about half an hour to move Shakey one meter The Ant, has 17 sensors. They are designed to work in colonies.
Most scientists would be happy to view thebrain as a vast but complex machine. As suchit should then be possible to purely replicatethe brain using artificial neurons. This has already been done for very simplelife forms such as insects which only have afew thousand neurons in their brains.In principle, it would not be necessary to havea full scientific understanding of how the brainworks. One would just build a copy of oneusing artificial materials and see how it
LIMITATIONS OF HUMAN MIND Object recognition. People cannot properly explain how they recognise objects.Face recognition. Cannot be passed on to another person by explanation. Naming of colours. Based on learning, not on absolute standards.
HOW DO WE BUILD A MACHINETHAT CAN IDENTIFY COLOURSAnswer: By building a machine that can learn from human beings.
Today: Computer as Artist Two paintings done by Harold Cohen’s Aaron program:
DIFFICULTIES COMPUTERSCANNOT YET MODEL The machines used in the National Lottery. The performance of horses in the Grand National The behaviour of a colony of ants. Even a simple natural evolutionary milieau. Bacterial growth in a human organ. Human behaviour. Criminal tendencies Stock market movements. Popularity ratings of politicians, pop stars, etc.
THE FUTURE? Idea of Artificial Intelligence is being replaced by Artificial life, or anything with a form or body. The consensus among scientists is that a requirement for life is that it has an embodiment in some physical form, but this will change. Programs may not fit this requirement for life yet.